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'WIRELESS INDUSTRIAL MONITERING AND CONTROL BY USING SMART SENSOR PLATFORM'

A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by

Varma Amit-130810109098

Patel Yash-130810109071

Patel Parth-130810109063

Rajput Rajan-130810109075

In fulfillment for the award of the degree

of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

In

Electrical Engineering

 

Aadishwar College College of Technology, Bhoyan Rathod - Gandhinagar

Department of Electrical Engineering

December 2013

CERTIFICATE

                                                                                             Date:

This is to certify that the project entitled 'WIRELESS INDUSTRIAL MONITERING AND CONTROL BY USING SMART SENSOR PLATFORM' has been carried out by Amit Varma, Yash Patel, Parth Patel, Rajput Rajan within four walls of Venus International College of Technology under my guidance in fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electrical Engineering (7th Semester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2013-14.

Internal Guide:        Head of the Department:

Prof. Ramji Kanani                     Prof. A. J. Pujara

Table of contents

Serial number Title Page number

1 Acknowlegment

6

2 Abstract

7

3 Chapter-1

Introduction 8

4 Chapter-2

Types of Sensors used 10

5 Chapter-3

GSM Based Industry Control System 16

6 Chapter-4

Introduction of Project 23

7 Chapter-5

Securities  and Circuits of Project 30

8 Chapter-6

Conclusions 54

9 Chapter-7

Future work 55

10 Chapter-8

References 56

                                                   List of Figures

Figure No. Description Page No.

1 Temp sensor 9

2 Pir sensor & Photo Diode 11

3 Occupancy sensor 12

4 IR transmitter and reciever 13

5 Smoke Detector 14

6 GSM module 16

7 Block diagram of sensor and GSM working in system 19

8 Flow diagram of our project with microcontroller 20

9 Microcontroller 24

10 Fire alarm 30

11 IR sensor 31

12 Gas sensor 32

13 Pir sensor 33

14 Model

LIST OF ABBRIVIATIONS USED :

' Industrial control system (ICS)

' Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA)

' Distributed control systems (DCS),

' Programmable logic controllers (PLC)

' Remote terminal units(RTU)

' Programmable automation controller(PAC)

' Human Machine Interface (HMI)

' Ladder Diagram (LD)

' Function Block Diagram (FBD)

' Instruction List (IL)

' Sequential Flow Chart (SFC).

' central processing unit (CPU)

' GSM(group special mobile)

' High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA)

' Time-Division Multiple-Access (TDMA)

' Passive infrared sensor (PIR sensor)

' Infrared (IR)

' Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)

' Light emitting diode(LED)

' Modulation and demodulation(MODEM)

ACKNOLEDGEMENT

    We want to express our regard to principal of  Venus Internatinal College Of Technology. Our special thanks to Mr.A.J. Pujara (HOD of  Electrical engineering department) for giving us the opportunity to research on wireless technology.

    We would like to thank our internal guide Prof. Mr.Niraj Pandey for giving us the precious knowledge and his invaluable support and encouragement which made this dissertation possible.

   We are also grateful to other co-guides and faculty members for supporting us for a great work in our project. And a special thanx to Prof. Jay Patel for helpimg us in various aspects of research

   We would like to thanks OUR PARENTS for providing all required support to carry out our work.

ABSTRACT

In our Project based on industry which all machines are worked in particular time. Every Process has its own time but it cannot be controlled manually and although there are many of automation is used but for a flexibility we used a wireless techniques by using GSM system and sensors. Perhaps wireless sensor giving best platform in which mobile computing and wireless communication elements converge with sensing transducer and greatest attribute of wireless sensor is its collection of computational recourses with sensor. With the help of wireless sensor which offers impressive computational resources for processing data, software embedded in the wireless sensor with network only represent the half of the complete wireless sensing unit design and hardware wireless sensor represents second half with computational power coupled with sensor

Chapter:-1

WIRELESS INDUSTRY SYSTEM

1.1 Introduction:-

During the last decade, the use of sensors and sensor networks has been in rapid

development and grown considerably in a variety of applications, specifically in industrial

field, enabling the remote control and automation to improve the safety for plants and

production facilities in food, chemistry, automotive, railway domains. Many researchers

and engineers have discovered that wireless sensors play an important role in processing

of the data and should not be viewed as simply a substitute for traditional tethered

monitoring systems. Wireless sensors are the standard measurement tools equipped with

transmitters to convert signals from process control instruments into a radio transmission.

These radio signals are converted into specific, desired outputs such as an analog current

or digital signal with the help of receiver. Perhaps wireless sensors are best viewed as a

platform in which mobile computing and wireless communication elements converge with

the sensing transducer and the greatest attribute of the wireless sensor is its collocation of

computational resources with the sensor.

With the wireless sensors offering impressive computational resources for processing thedata, software embedded in the wireless sensor with network only represents one half ofthe complete wireless sensing unit design; hardware wireless sensor represents the second

half. With computational power coupled with the sensor, wireless sensors are capable of

autonomous operation. Being able to sense strain, heating, and other factors in industrial

instrumentation is useful and desirable. The traditional method for such instrumentation

requires running wire to each and every sensor, a difficult, expensive, and failure-prone

process, particularly when literally millions of sensors may require instrumentation. It has

been estimated that typical wiring cost in industrial installations is US$ 130'650 per meterand adopting wireless technology would eliminate 20'80% less than of this cost. Without

a physical link existing between individual wireless sensors and the remainder of the

wireless sensor network, wireless sensors must know when to act autonomously or

collaboratively.Integrating the wireless sensors with industrial processes and control

systems have significant advantages and require guaranties for real timeliness, functional

safety, security, energy efficiency, etc.

Wireless sensor network technology has demonstrated a great potential for industrial,commercial, and consumer applications. Specifically, in process monitoring and control,process data such as pressure, humidity, temperature, flow, level, viscosity, density and

vibration intensity measurements can be collected through sensing units and transferred

wirelessly to a control system for operation and management. Adopting WSNs for process

monitoring and control provides great advantages over traditional wired system. As a

ubiquitous technology, general issues regarding WSNs have been extensively researched

in the academic arena. However, WSN technology is not considered mature enough to be

widely implemented in process control applications. Even though wireless transmission of

data has been utilized for over ten years in process control applications such as supervisory

control and data acquisition (SCADA), industrial WSN products for process monitoring

and control are not commercially available until recently due to its specific requirements

and challenges.

Chapter:-2

Types of Sensors are used in Industry

2.1 Temperature Sensor:-

A device which gives temperature measurement as an electrical signal is called

as Temperature sensor. This electrical signal will be in the form of electrical voltage and is

proportional to the temperature measurement.

Figure 2.1 Temperature Sensors

There are different types of sensors used for measuring temperature, such as Contact typetemperature sensors, Non-contact type temperature sensors. These are again subdivided asMechanical temperature sensors like Thermometer and Bimetal. Electrical temperaturesensors like Thermistor, Thermocouple, Resistance thermometer and Silicon band gaptemperature sensor.

Temperature is the most-measured process variable in industrial automation. Most

commonly, a temperature sensor is used to convert temperature value to an electrical value.

Temperature Sensors are the key to read temperatures correctly and to control temperature

in industrials applications.A large distinction can be made between temperature sensor types. Sensors differ a lot inproperties such as contact-way, temperature range, calibrating method and sensingelement. The temperature sensors contain a sensing element enclosed in housings of plasticor metal. With the help of conditioning circuits, the sensor will reflect the change of

environmental temperature.

2.2 PIR SENSORS:-

A passive infrared sensor (PIR sensor) is an electronic sensor that measures infrared (IR)light radiating from objects in its field of view. They are most often used in PIR-basedmotion detectors. An electronic sensor used for measuring the infrared light radiation

emitted from objects in its field of view is called as a PIR sensor or Pyro electric sensor.

Every object that has a temperature above absolute zero emit heat energy in the form of

radiation radiating at infrared wavelengths which is invisible to the human eye, but can be

detected by special purpose electronic devices such as PIR motion detectors.

 

Fig 2.2 Photo Diode Fig2.3 PIR Sensor

PIR sensor itself is split into two halves, which are sensitive to IR and whenever objectcomes in the field of view of the sensor, then positive differential change will be produced

between two halves with the interception of the first half of the PIR sensor. Similarly, if

the object leaves the field of view, then negative differential change will be produced. PIR

or Passive Infrared sensor is named as passive because it doesn't emit any energy or

radiation for detecting the radiation. There are different types of sensors used for detecting

the motion and these PIR sensors are classified based on angle (wide area) over which they

can detect motion of the objects like 110degrees, 180degrees and 360degress angles.

2.3 Occupancy Sensor:-

Leviton offers a wide selection of occupancy and vacancy sensors, commonly referred to as "motion sensors" or "motion light sensors" for commercial and residential applications. These state-of-the-art devices use passive infrared, ultrasonic or a combined multi-sensing technology. From wall and ceiling mount to wall switch and wireless, Leviton motion sensors enhance convenience, security and provide smart energy saving solutions for both indoor and outdoor use. Leviton Occupancy Sensors.

Fig 2.4 Occupancy Sensor

The sensors are distributed into home in order to provide accurate information about the

occupant's location and activities. Occupancy sensors are used instead of motion sensors

because last ones are preferred for security rather than for building and lighting control.

They respond only to moving objects, so if an individual in a room working at a desk,

motion sensors will often cease to seen him. There are two types of occupancy sensors. But

we will use only one occupancy sensor. It is passive infrared (PIR) sensor that

automatically control lights by detecting the heat from occupants moving within an area

(900 square feet) to determine when the space is occupied with a low cost. The other, is

used to adjust the temperature and lighting level accordingly for better energy management

with high cost. PIR technology detects a change in temperature when someone enters a

room, which is how the sensor knows to turn on the lights. Sensors with this technology

work best in small, enclosed spaces with high levels of occupant movement because they're

engineered to detect major motion. PIR technology easily detects people walking in and

out of a space.

2.4IR Sensor:-

This infrared burglar alarm can be used to protect door, gate, corridor etc. Range of thisalarm is 4-5 meters without lenses. Range can be extended further by using lenses and

reflector with IR sensors. Transmitter emits modulated infrared light beam. It is invisible

to naked eye. Receiver unit senses infrared signals from the transmitter and controls a

buzzer or relay. A relay can be used in place of buzzer to control mains operated alarms

or loads.

2.5 IR Transmitter & Receiver

When receiver senses IR signals from the transmitter, buzzer will not activated. But when

IR beam between transmitter circuit and receiver circuit is interrupted by an intruder or

unexpected visitor or any non-transparent object buzzer is activated. For maximum range

IR LED of transmitter must be directed towards, IR photo diode of receiver. To improve

range in darkness an extra IR LED may be used with receiver as shown here. It should be

kept near to photodiode to increase its leakage current.

2.6 Block Diagram of IR Sensor

Transmitter supply is volt and receiver supply is 9 to 12 volts. For demonstration, 9 voltbatteries cab be used with transmitter circuit and receiver circuit. Use separate powersupplies for transmitter and receiver. If receiver supply is 9 volt relay. Load to be activatedcan be connected through normally opened contacts of the relay.

2.5 Smoke Detector :-

A smoke detector is a device that senses smoke, typically as an indicator of fire. Commercial security devices issue a signal to a fire alarm control panel as part of a fire alarm system, while household smoke detectors, also known as smoke alarms, generally issue a local audible or visual alarm from the detector itself. Smoke detectors are housed in plastic enclosures, typically shaped like a disk about 150 milli metres (6 in) in diameter and 25 millimetres (1 in) thick, but shape and size vary. Smoke can be detected either optically (photoelectric) or by physical process (ionization), detectors may use either, or both, methods. Sensitive alarms can be used to detect, and thus deter, smoking in areas where it is banned. Smoke detectors in large commercial, industrial, and residential buildings are usually powered by a central fire alarm system, which is powered by the building power with a battery backup. Domestic smoke detectors range from individual battery-powered units, to several interlinked mains-powered units with battery backup; if any unit detects smoke, all trigger even in the absence of electricity.

2.7 Smoke Detector

This reduction in the ionized particles results in a decrease in the chamber current that issensed by electronic circuitry monitoring the chamber. When the current is reduced by apredetermined amount, a threshold is crossed and an 'alarm' condition is established.Changes in humidity and atmospheric pressure affect the chamber current and create an27effect similar to the effect of particles of combustion entering the sensing chamber. Tocompensate for the possible effects of humidity and pressure changes, the dual ionization

chamber was developed and has become commonplace in the smoke detector market. A

dual-chamber detector utilizes two ionization chambers; one is a sensing chamber, which

is open to the outside air. The sensing chamber is affected by particulate matter, humidity,

and atmospheric pressure. The other is a reference chamber, which is partially closed to

outside air and is affected only by humidity and atmospheric pressure, because its tiny

openings block the entry of larger particulate matter including particles of combustion.

Electronic circuitry monitors both chambers and compares their outputs. If the humidity or

the atmospheric pressure changes, the outputs of both chambers are affected equally and

cancel each other. When combustion particles enter the sensing chamber, its current

decreases while the current of the reference chamber remains unchanged. The resulting

current imbalance is detected by the electronic circuitry. There are a number of conditions

that can affect dual-chamber ionization sensors such as dust, excessive humidity

(condensation), significant air currents, and tiny insects. All of these can be misread as

particles of combustion by the electronic circuitry monitoring the sensors.

Chapter:-3

GSM Based Industry Control System

3.1 Introduction:-

GSM based Control System implements the emerging applications of the GSM

technology. Using GSM networks, a control system has been proposed that will act

as an embedded system which can monitor and control appliances and other devices

locally using built-in input and output peripherals Remotely the system allows the user to effectively monitor and control thehouse/office appliances and equipment via the mobile phone set by sending commands in the form of SMS messages and receiving the appliances status.

Fig 3.1  GSM MODEM

The main concept behind the project is receiving the sent SMS and processing it

further as required to perform several operations. The type of the operation to be

performed depends on the nature of the SMS sent.The principle in which the project is based is fairly simple. First, the sent SMS is stored and polled from the receiver mobile station and then the required control signal is generated and sent to the intermediate hardware that we have designed according to the command received in form of the sent message.

''We have selected a particular Nokia mobile set (Nokia 3310) for our project. The

messages are sent from the mobile set that contain commands in written form which

are then processed accordingly to perform the required task. A microcontroller

based system has been proposed for our project.

''There are several terminologies that are used extensively throughout this project

report. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications): It is a cellular

communication standard. SMS (Short Message Service): It is a service available on

most digital mobile phones that permit the sending of short messages (also known

as text messaging service).

3.2 Background:-

The new age of technology has redefined communication. Most people nowadays

have access to mobile phones and thus the world indeed has become a global

village. At any given moment, any particular individual can be contacted with the

mobile phone. But the application of mobile phone cannot just be restricted to

sending SMS or starting conversations.

''New innovations and ideas can be generated from it that can further enhance its

capabilities. Technologies such as Infra-red, Bluetooth, etc. which has developed

in recent years goes to show the very fact that improvements are in fact possible

and these improvements have eased our life and the way we live.

''Remote management of several home and office appliances is a subject of growing

interest and in recent years we have seen many systems providing such controls.

''These days, apart from supporting voice calls a mobile phone can be used to send

text messages as well as multimedia messages (that may contain pictures, graphics,

animations, etc.). Sending written text messages is very popular among mobile

phone users. Instant messaging, as it is also known, allows quick transmission of

short messages that allow an individual to share ideas, opinions and other relevant

information.

We have used the very concept to design a system that acts a platform to receive

messages which in fact are commands sent to control different appliances and

devicesconnectetotheplatform.

''We have designed a control system which is based on the GSM technology that

effectively allows control from a remote area to the desired location. The

application of our suggested system is immense in the ever changing technological

world.

''It allows a greater degree of freedom to an individual whether it is controlling the

household appliances or office equipment. The need to be physically present in

order to control appliances of a certain location is eliminated with the use of our

system.

3.3Problem Statement:-

''Technology has advanced so much in the last decade or two that it has made life

more efficient and comfortable. The comfort of being able to take control of devices

from one particular location has become imperative as it saves a lot of time and

effort. Therefore there arises a need to do so in a systematic manner which we have

tried to implement with our system. The system we have proposed is an extended

approach to automating a control system.

''With the advancement and breakthroughs in technology over the years, the lives of

people have become more complicated and thus they have become busier than

before. With the adoption of our system, we can gain control over certain things

that required constant attention.

''The application of our system comes in handy when people who forget to do simple

things such as turn ON or OFF devices at their home or in their office, they can

now do so without their presence by the transmission of a simple text message from

their mobile phone.

''This development, we believe, will ultimately save a lot of time especially when

people don't have to come back for simple things such as to turn ON/OFF switches

at their home or at their office once they set out for their respective work. The

objective of this project is to develop a device that allows for a user to remotely

control and monitor multiple home/office appliances using a cellular phone.

''This system will be a powerful and flexible tool that will offer this service at any

time, and from anywhere with the constraints of the technologies being applied.

Possible target appliances include (but are not limited to) climate control system,

security systems, lights; anything with an electrical interface.

''The proposed approach for designing this system is to implement a microcontrollerbased control module that receives its instructions and command from a cellular

phone over the GSM network. The microcontroller then will carry out the issued

commands and then communicate the status of a given appliance or device back to

the cellular phone.

3.4 Block Diagram:-

Fig 3.2 Block Diagram of GSM

The figure shown above is the simple block diagram of our project. It is a simple

illustration of how we have implemented our project and the various parts involvedin it. From the above representation, the first Mobile station is used as a transmittingsection from which the subscriber sends text messages that contain commands andinstructions to the second mobile station which is based on a specific area whereour control system is located.The mobile phone as indicated in the block diagram is a Nokia 3310 mobile set.

The received SMS message is stored in the SIM memory of the phone and then

extracted by the microcontroller and processed accordingly to carry out specific

operations. The relay driver (BUFFER ULN2003) is used to drive the relay circuits

which switches the different appliances connected to the interface.

The LCD is used to indicate the status of the operation performed by the

microcontroller and also its inclusion makes the overall system user-friendly. The

input from different sensors are feed to micro-controller and processed to operate

respective task semi autonomously and autonomously.

3.5 System Operation Flow Diagram:-

Fig 3.3 Flow Diagram

Assuming that the control unit is powered and operating properly, the process ofcontrolling a device connected to the interface will proceed through the following steps;

1. The remote user sends text messages including commands to the receiver.

2. GSM receiver receives messages sent from the user cell phone.

3. GSM receiver decodes the sent message and sends the commands to the

microcontroller.

4. Microcontroller issues commands to the appliances and the devices connected willswitch ON/OFF.

3.6 GSM Modem:-

Fig 3.4 GSM Model

A GSM modem is a specialized type of modem which accepts a SIM card, and operatesover a subscription to a mobile operator, just like a mobile phone. From the mobile operatorperspective, am GSM modem looks just like a mobile phone.GSM Modem comes in various interfaces, such as PCMCIA Type II, USB, andSerial. GSM Modem is However the main difference is that GSM Modem is wireless, whiledial-up modem is wired. Some GSM Modems also has GPRS feature that allows remissionof data over TCP/IP (internet).

To transmit data using GSM Modem, there are various methods that can be used, such as:

' SMS

' 'CSD or HSCSD

' GPRS / UMTS

Even though a normal mobile phone can be used as GSM Modem, it is highly

recommended that a special industrial grade terminal to be used as a GSM Modem due to

its stability, and reliability.A GSM Modem can be used to build the following applications:

''SMS Gateway i.e. to send and receive SMS

''Telemetric i.e. to collect data from remote terminals

''Call-back service for VOIP

''SMS application, SMS solution, or SMS programme

''Automatic reloading of pre-paid account with STK API

''Machine to machine communication

''Sending SMS from PC

''Automating business process

''Vehicle tracking with cell broadcast feature or with integrated GPS terminal

Chapter-4

Introduction of Project

4.1 Introduction:-

Today in industrial side automatic control system is used and also tries to reduced a men-power. Reason to adopted a system

' To Reduces a men-power

' Increase a reliability of system

' Secure a system

' Easy to analysis a data

' Future expansion

' Speed of output

Although a system is most expensive and also complicated to design a system but at long time it will cost effective and reliable.  

Our project is based on security purpose using a GSM system interfacing with sensors and micro-controller which will give a security indication in mobile.Our project based on to make a model or a circuit which will operate a loadby using GSM system. Above all description can be used to make a model ofour project. And tries to make our project satisfied our project work.

4.2 Project Components:-

4.2.1 Sensors & System:-

In chapter number 2 and 3 described a GSM system and different kinds of sensors. In our project we used any to sensors to operate a load like IR sensor and Temperature sensors etc. Also we used a GSM system and a modem which will give an operating signal to Relay. Here some components which will used in project.

4.2.1.1 Microcontroller:-

An embedded microcontroller is a chip, which has a computer processor with all its supportfunction (clocking and reset), memory (both program storage and RAM), and I/O

(including bus interfaces) built into the device. These built in function minimize the need

for external circuits and devices to the designed in the final applications.The improvements in micro-controller technology has meant that it is often more costeffective, faster and more efficient to develop an application using a micro-controller rather

than discreet logic. Creating applications for micro-controllers is completely different than

any other development job in computing and electronics. In most other applications,

number of subsystems and interfaces are available but this is not the case for the microcontroller where the following responsibilities have to be taken.

Fig 4.1 Microcontroller

' 'Power distribution

' System clocking

' Interface design and wiring

' System Programming

' Application programming

' Device programming

There are two types of micro-controller commonly in use. Embedded micro-controller isthe micro-controller, which has the entire hardware requirement to run the application,provided on the chip. External memory micro-controller is the micro-controller that allowsthe connection of external memory when the program memory is insufficient for anapplication or during the work a separate ROM (or even RAM) will make the work easier.The AT89C52 is a low-power; high performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 8Kbytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The device ismanufactured using Atmel's high-density non-volatile memory technology and iscompatible with the industry-standard 80C51 and 80C52 instruction set and pin out.The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by aconventional non-volatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU withFlash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C52 is a powerful microcomputer which

provides a highly-flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control

applications.

' The main features of this micro-controller are as follows;

''Compatible with MCS-51TM \Products

''8K Bytes of In-system reprogrammable Flash Memory

''Endurance: 1,000 write/erase cycles

''Fully static operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz

''Three-level Program Memory Lock

''256 x 8-bit internal RAM

''32 Programmable I/O lines

''Three 16-bit Timer/Counters

''Eight Interrupt Sources

''Programmable Serial Channel

''Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes

4.2.1.2 Relay:-

The relay driver is used to isolate both the controlling and the controlled device. Therelay is an electromagnetic device, which consists of solenoid, moving contacts(switch) and restoring spring and consumes comparatively large amount of power.Hence it is possible for the interface IC to drive the relay satisfactorily.To enable this, a driver circuitry, which will act as a buffer circuit, is to beincorporated between them. The driver circuitry senses the presence of a 'high' levelat the input and drives the relay from another voltage source. Hence the relay is usedto switch the electrical supply to the appliances. From the figure when we connectthe rated voltage across the coil the back emf opposes the current flow but after theshort time the supplied voltage will overcome the back emf and the current flowthrough the coil increase. When the current is equal to the activating current of relaythe core is magnetized and it attracts the moving contacts. Now the movingcontactleaves from its initial position denoted '(N/C)' normally closed terminal which is afixed terminal

Fig 4.2 Relay

The common contact or moving contact establishes the connection with a newterminal which is indicated as a normally open terminal '(N/O)'. Whenever, thesupply coil is withdrawn the magnetizing force is vanished. Now, the spring pulls themoving contact back to initial position, where it makes a connection makes with N/C

terminal. However, it is also to be noted that at this time also a back emf is produced.

The withdrawal time may be in microsecond, the back emf may be in the range of

few kilovolts and in opposite polarity with the supplied terminals the voltage is

known as surge voltage. It must be neutralized or else it may damage the system.

4.2.1.3 ULN2003 IC:-

The ULN2003 is a monolithic IC consists of seven NPN Darlington transistor pairs withhigh voltage and current capability. It is commonly used for applications such as relaydrivers, motor, display drivers, led lamp drivers, logic buffers, line drivers, hammer driversand other high voltage current applications. It consists of common cathode clamp diodesfor each NPN Darlington pair which makes this driver IC useful for switching inductiveloads.

The output of the driver is open collector and the collector current rating of each Darlingtonpair is 500mA. Darlington pairs may be paralleled if higher current is required. The driverIC also consists of a 2.7K'' base resistor for each Darlington pair. Thus each Darlingtonpair can be operated directly with TTL or 5V CMOS devices. This driver IC can be usedfor high voltage applications up to 50V.Note that the driver provides open collector output, so it can only sink current, cannotsource. Thus when a 5V is given to 1B terminal, 1C terminal will be connected to groundvia Darlington pair and the maximum current that it can handle is 500A. From the abovelogic diagram we can see that cathode of protection diodes are shorted to 9th pin calledCOM. So for driving inductive loads, it must connected to the supply voltage.

Fig 4.3ULN2003

Fig 4.4pin diagram

Features:

' The ULN2003 is known for its high-current, high-voltage capacity. The drivers canbe paralleled for even higher current output. Even further, stacking one chip on topof another, both electrically and physically, has been done. Generally it can also beused for interfacing with a stepper motor, where the motor requireshigh ratingswhich cannot be provided by other interfacing devices.

' 500mA rated collector current ( Single output )

' High-voltage outputs: 50V

' Inputs compatible with various types of logic.

' Relay driver application

4.2.1.4 Liquid Crystal Display (LCD):-

Fig 4.5 Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)

A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin, flat display device made up of any number of

colour or monochrome pixels arrayed in front of a light source or reflector. It is often

utilized in battery-powered electronic devices because it uses very small amounts of

electric power. JHD 162A is LCD that has following features:

''Number of characters: 16 characters*2 lines.

''Module dimension: 80.0mm*36.0mm*9.7mm.

''Area: 66.0mm*16.0mm.

''Active area: 56.2mm*11.5mm.

''Dot size: 0.55mm*0.65mm.

''Dot pitch: 0.60mm*0.70mm.

''Character size: 2.95mm*5.55mm.

''Character pitch: 3.55mm*5.95mm.

4.2.1.5 Nokia 3310:-

Most Nokia phones have F-Bus and M-Bus connections that can be used to connect a phoneto a PC or in our case a microcontroller. The connection can be used for controlling justabout all functions of the phone. This bus will allow us to send and receive SMS messages.The very popular Nokia 3310/3315 has the F/M Bus connection under the battery holder.The picture below shows the 4 gold pads used for the F and M Bus.

4.2.2 Block Diagram of Project:-

A block diagram gives a simple idea about a project. A details of block diagram gives below:-

' First a sensors of a security system is interfacing with a microcontroller and GSM system

Here we used a different sensors like temperature, fire, gas etc.

' Now when sensor sensing a anyone of hazardous then it will produces a signal to control circuit

' A signal is weak so it will amplify a signal and gives to micro controller based circuit

' Microcontroller gives a signal which will interfacing to GSM system

' A GSM will send a message to particular number mobile/cell phone.

' Message will indicated which kind of hazardous produces in particular machine or unit.

' Also it will operate a relay to disconnect a load.

Full block diagram shows below:

Fig 4.6 Block Diagram of Project

Chapter-5

Securities  and Circuits of Project

5.1 Securities used in Project:

In our project we used a much numbers of Securities which will commonly use in industrial side and also its circuits are available in market. But here we tires to make that a protection can helpful at far distance through GSM based system. Here some securities are needed in industry which are as follows:

1. Fire alarm

2. Gas Leakage

3. Smoke Detector

4. IR Detector

Here we discus about its circuits and description with components used in detail

5.2 Fire Alarm:-

A fire is a most hazardous which will create at a time in:

1. Short circuits

2. Leakage of inflammable liquid and gas

3. Damage of cooling system

4. Increases of unwanted heating

5. Any kind of blast

In industries safety devices  are available which will reduces a damage if above hazardous occurred and also provides a securities against a fire through fire. In our project we used a fire alarm circuits which is interface with micro-controller and when it operated then also controller gives a signal to GSM system and it will send a massage.

5.1 Fire alarm

5.2.1. Circuits of fire alarm:

Here we used a fire sensor which will sense a fire and produce a signal and give to alarm circuit and also this circuits interface with microcontroller so that it will send a to microcontroller and microcontroller send a signal to GSM based system and send a message to cell phone.

5.2 circuit of fire alarm

Components:

1. LM 358

2. R1=1k'

3. Led 1

4. Variable resistance =10k'

5. R2 =1k'

6. Led 2

Working:-

We use a Led 1 as a fire sensor. It is a one kind of IR receiver which will detect a fire. When we take a fire near to sensor then it will trigger to pin 2 and a pin 3 which will set a value now a error signal produce and goes to LED 2 which will glow. Here also it will interface to microcontroller so that a signal of fire alarm goes to microcontroller and GSM system. A GSM system send a message to particular number which will register in program. Although a devices which will responsible for this hazardous it will also cut-off with supply through send a SMS though cell phone.

A code which is send through SMS which can cut-off a device to supply that codes for different securities circuits that gives to further topics which will helps to cutoff a devices to supply.

5.2.2 Object Sensing :-

A sensor used to senses an object which is in front of it. This circuit used for security which will give a secure against a unwanted object or a hurdles. A circuits is given below:

Fig 5.3  IR sensor circuit

Circuits Diagram:

Fig 5.4 Circuit Diagram

Component:

1. LM 358

2. R1=150'

3. IR Led & IR Receiver

4. Variable resistance =10k'

5. R2 =1k'

6. Led 2

7. Zener Diode

Working:

In the project a Circuit used to detected a object which will in-front of it. It will installed in cupboard or cabinet where a files or another secret things are there.

Here a IR LED continuously supply a IR rays and a IR receiver installed beside it. A  characteristics of IR rays that will reflected if any  object will come in-front of it. So if any person or a object will come in-front of it then a rays will reflected and received  it on receiver. When receiver received a signal then  LM 358 generate a error signal and turn-on a LED 2. Also a sign goes to micro-controller and send a SMS through GSM system to a cell phone number which will registered in program.

5.2.3 Gas leakage Circuit:

Leaking a gas in industries sometime creates a dangerous hazardous. So to detected a leakage we used a MQ-2 gas sensor which   has a 6-pin. Here a circuit diagram

Fig 5.5 Gas Leakage Circuit

Components:

1 MQ-2 Gas sensor

2 LM 358

3 IC HD 7414

4 LED 1

5R1=4.7 k,R2= 1k R3=1.5,R4=22 k R6=1k

6 LED 2

Fig 5.6 Gas Leakage Circuit

Working:

A gas sensor MQ-2 has a six lags we give a +Vcc to 1&5 and ground to 2&6 and 3&4 are output here we used a HD 7414 ic which is a buffer ic for taken a better output signal with minimum change of input signal.

When any kinds of Gas leakage is there then this sensor will sensed a leakage of gas and produce a signal and given to IC 358. This IC 358 drive a signal to buffer ic and a signal also goes to microcontroller to GSM system and sending a SMS to Cell phone. Although this sensor also used for smoke detector.

5.2.4Motion Detector:

In a motion detector we used a motion sensor circuit we used a PIR sensor (Passive Infrared Rays). This detector provides a security against unwanted motion. At a night time a securities against if any unidentified person will come to office or any prohibited area then it will sensed them motion and give a notification through GSM.

In motion sensor circuits we used a photodiode and another component, We used a PIR modules for a motion detector. Here a circuits and description is given below:

Fig 5.7 PIR Circuit

Circuits Diagram :

fig 5.8 Circuits diagram

Component of Circuit:

1 Photo Diode

2 PIR Controller IC BISS0001

3 Capacitor: C1 to Cy1

4 Resistor

5 Variable Resistor

Working :-

A photodiode is used as a motion sensor circuits and also BISS0001 is a PIR controller which is micro power motion IC.This motion sensor circuits very accurate and give a output when keen motion around it. When any kind of motion will around it then it will sensed and produced a signal then a LED light which will not glowing but off. Although a signal goes to microcontroller and GSM system. It will sending a message to cell phone.  

5.2.5Microcontroller based Circuit :

This is a main circuit of our project. Here a microcontroller is interfacing with a different protection circuits which are described above. Also a GSM system is interface with it which will transfer a signal of protective circuits to GSM system.

A program is feed in microcontroller also a cell phone number in program. Here a whole circuits are given below:

Fig 5.9 Microcontroller Based GSM system

Components:

1 Microcontroller 89E51(8051)

2 GSM Modules

3 Power Supply Circuits

4 Crystal Oscillator

5 LCD

6 Resistors

7 Relay Channel

Fig 5.10 Microcontroller Circuits

Working:

Here we used a AT86E51 which is a microcontroller 8051 family IC. We feed a program in microcontroller which given next topic. There different circuits are connected with a microcontroller by connectors but one things is noted that a sequence of connect a circuits should not be changed.

When any circuits will activated then its signal goes to microcontroller. This controller will sends a signal to GSM system and that signal will goes to particular cell phone.

Here a LCD display will display which circuits will activated and transmitted a signal to GSM system. Also cellphone which will sends a message to GSM system then a particular code will message to GSM system and relay will operated and a device connected with it will be disconnected with a supply.

5.2.6 Programs of Microcontroller :

#include<REG51F.H>

#include<STDIO.H>

#include<string.h>

#include<LCd.h>

#include<EEPROM.h>

sbit EEPROM_CS=P2^3;

sbit EEPROM_CLK=P2^6;

sbit EEPROM_DI=P2^5;

sbit EEPROM_DO=P2^4;

sbit RIL1=P1^0;

sbit RIL2=P1^1;

sbit RIL3=P1^2;

sbit RIL4=P1^3;

sbit RIL5=P1^4;

sbit RIL6=P1^5;

sbit RIL7=P1^6;

sbit RIL8=P1^7;

void delay(int);

void relay();

//EEPROM routines

extern void eeprom_datawrite(unsigned int);

extern float eeprom_dataread(unsigned int);

//LCD Routines

extern void lcd_init();

extern void lcd_clear();

extern void lcdprint(int,int);

extern void ReadPB();

extern void SendString();

extern void SendInitialize();

extern void se_inbuff_read();

void config_device(int);

void read_config();

//GLOBLE VARIABLES

int sl_cnfg=0;

//serial variables

unsigned int sp_buff_in[80],dta_count=0;

unsigned int sp_buff_out[50];

int si_ptr_in=0,si_ptr_out=0,se_flag=0;

unsigned int string_buff[80];

char string_in[10],string_out[50];

float ee_data_float=0;

int ee_data_int=0;

bit PB1=0,PB2=0,PB3=0,PB4=0,PB5=0,PB6=0;

bit PO1=0,PO2=0;

 bit rl1=0;

 int PBPort=0,PBPortCount=0;

char phstr[12];

char er_msg1[16];

char er_msg2[16];

bit check_ok=0,ok_done=0;

int ptr=0,ptr_n=0;

bit sending_data=0,chk_new_msg=0,new_msg=0;

int confg=0;

int in_cmd_err=0,in_cmd_err_type=0;

char in_ph[12];

int ans=0,ans1=0;

int set_val=0;

int in_msg=0;

//MAIN

void main()

{

SCON=0X50;

T2CON=0X30;

T2MOD=0X00;

RCAP2L=0XDC;

RCAP2H=0XFF; //11.0592 MHz     DC=9600

TR2=1;

TI=1;

printf("\n\nSMS ALERT AND CONTROL SYSTEM\n");

//LCD INITIALIZATION

lcd_init(); //call routine to initialize lcd

lcd_clear(); //call routine to clear lcd display

lcdprint("   SMS ALERT &  ",1);

lcdprint(" CONTROL SYSTEM ",2);

ReadPB();

confg=0;

if(PB1==1 && PB2==1)

lcdprint(" INITIALIZING.. ",1);

read_config();

IP=0X10; //set pca interrupt priority maximum

IPH=0X10;

IE=0X90; //enable interrupt(global, serial)

SendInitialize();

if(ok_done==1)

{

check_ok=0;

ok_done=0;

lcdprint("    MODEM OK    ",1); //modem ok

}

else

{

check_ok=0;

lcdprint("  MODEM  ERROR  ",1);

}

delay(2000);

while(1)

{

ReadPB();

if(se_flag==1)

{

se_flag=0;

se_inbuff_read();

clear_arrays();

}

if(in_msg==1)

{

relay();

in_msg=0;

}

lcdprint("PB: %d",pb_read);

lcdprint("SV: %d% ",2,rl1);

if((PBPort != 0) || (in_cmd_err ==1))

{

PBPortCount = PBPortCount + 1;

if(PBPortCount > 10)

{

PBPortCount=0;

if((PBPort != 0) || (in_cmd_err ==1))

{

if(in_cmd_err == 1) lcdprint(" SENDING  ERROR ",2);

else if(in_msg == 1) lcdprint("  SENDING  SMS  ",2);

else lcdprint(" SENDING  ALERT ",2); // sending sms

sending_data=1;

SendString();

if(ok_done==1)

{

check_ok=0;

ok_done=0;

lcdprint("    SMS SENT    ",2); //sms sent }

else

{

check_ok=0;

lcdprint(" SMS SENT ERROR ",2);

}

sending_data=0;

}

}

}

else PBPortCount=0;

}

int l=0;

if(sel==0)

{

printf("\nEnter Phone No: ");

scanf("%c",&phstr);

eeprom_datawrite(2,phstr);

}

else if(sel==1)

{

//error 1

printf("\nEnter Error Msg 1: ");

scanf("%c",&er_msg1);

eeprom_datawrite(20,er_msg1);

}

else if(sel==2)

{

//error 2

printf("\nEnter Error Msg 2: ");

scanf("%c",&er_msg2);

eeprom_datawrite(40,er_msg2);

}

else if(sel==3)

{

//error 3

printf("\nEnter Error Msg 3: ");

scanf("%c",&er_msg3);

eeprom_datawrite(60,er_msg3);

}

else if(sel==4)

{

//error 4

printf("\nEnter Error Msg 4: ");

scanf("%c",&er_msg4);

eeprom_datawrite(80,er_msg4);

}

else if(sel==5)

{

//error 5

printf("\nEnter Error Msg 5: ");

scanf("%c",&er_msg5);

eeprom_datawrite(100,er_msg5);

}

else if(sel==6)

{

//error 6

printf("\nEnter Error Msg 6: ");

scanf("%c",&er_msg6);

eeprom_datawrite(120,er_msg6);

}

else

{

printf("\n\n Please Attach the GSM Modem and Reboot the Device... ");

while(1);

}

}

void read_config()

{

int l=0;

// printf("\n\n    CBM AUTOMATION");

printf("\n\n---- SMS INFORMER ----");

printf("\n    Configurations \n");

eeprom_dataread(1);

eeprom_dataread(2);

phstr = ee_data_int;

printf("\n 0) Pnone No  = %s",phstr);

// error 1 read

eeprom_dataread(20);

er_msg1=ee_data_int;

printf("\n 1) Err Msg 1 = %s",er_msg1);

// error 2 read

eeprom_dataread(39);

er_msg2=ee_data_int;

printf("\n 2) Err Msg 2 = %s",er_msg2);

// error 3 read

eeprom_dataread(59);

er_msg3=ee_data_int;

printf("\n 3) Err Msg 3 = %s",er_msg3);

// error 4 read

eeprom_dataread(79);

er_msg4=ee_data_int;

printf("\n 4) Err Msg 4 = %s",er_msg4);

// error 5 read

eeprom_dataread(99);

er_msg5=ee_data_int;

printf("\n 5) Err Msg 5 = %s",er_msg5);

// error 6 read

eeprom_dataread(119);

er_msg6=ee_data_int;

printf("\n 6) Err Msg 6 = %s",er_msg6);

if(confg==1) printf("\n 9) Exit Wizard...");

}

void delay(int delay_value)

{

int out_delay,in_delay;

for(out_delay=0 ; out_delay < delay_value ; out_delay++)

{

for(in_delay=0 ; in_delay <= 120 ; in_delay++);

}

}

void relay()

{

if(ans1==1)

{

if(set_val==1)

{

rl1=1;

RIL1=1;

}

}

else

{

if(set_val==1)

{

rl1=0;

RIL1=0;

}

}

}

void ReadPB()

{

PBT1=1;

PBT2=1;

PBT3=1;

PBT4=1;

PBT5=1;

PBT6=1;

delay(100);

PB1 = ~PBT1;

PB2 = ~PBT2;

PB3 = ~PBT3;

PB4 = ~PBT4;

PB5 = ~PBT5;

PB6 = ~PBT6;  

if(PB1==0) PO1=0;

if(PB2==0) PO2=0;

if(PO1==1) PB1=0;

if(PO2==1) PB2=0;

PBPort = (PB1) | (PB2) |);

}

void serl_int() interrupt 4

{

int cnt=0;

if(RI==1) //serial receive interrupt

{

RI=0; //clear serial receive interrupt flag

sp_buff_in[si_ptr_in]=SBUF; //store data in buffer at location indicated by pointer

if(check_ok==1)

{

if(sp_buff_in[0]==79 && sp_buff_in[1]==75) ok_done=1;

}

else new_msg=1;

else si_ptr_in++; //increment pointer

if(si_ptr_in>99) si_ptr_in=0;

}

}

void se_inbuff_read()

{

int lp1=0;

int len=0;

int msg[6];

int cn1=0;

int ph_ptr=0;

for(lp1=0;lp1<=80;lp1++)

{

if(lp1 < ptr-1) string_buff[lp1] =  (sp_buff_in[lp1]);

else string_buff[lp1] = 0;

sp_buff_in[lp1]=0;

}

in_ph = string_buff[ph_ptr];

in_cmd_err_type=0;

in_cmd_err=1;

if(strcmp(phstr,in_ph) == 0)

{

len = ptr-2-ptr_n;

if(len == 5)

{

for(lp1=0;lp1<len;lp1++)

{

msg[lp1] = string_buff[ptr_n+1+lp1];

string_in[lp1] = msg[lp1];

}

if((string_in[0]=='R' || string_in[0]=='r') && (string_in[1]=='L' || string_in[1]=='l') && (string_in[3] == ' ' ))

{

ans = msg[2];

ans1 = msg[4];

if(ans1 ==1 || ans1==0)

{

if((ans > 0) && (ans < 9))

{

set_val=ans;

in_msg=1;

in_cmd_err=0;

}

else in_cmd_err_type=3;

}

else in_cmd_err_type=3;

}

else in_cmd_err_type=2;

}

else in_cmd_err_type=2;

}

else in_cmd_err_type=1;

}

void SendString()

{

int lp2=0;

printf("AT\r");

printf("AT\r");

printf("AT+CMGF=1\r");

if(in_cmd_err==1 && in_cmd_err_type==11)

{

printf("AT+CMGS="%s"\r",in_ph);

}

else

{

printf("AT+CMGS="%s"\r",phstr);

}

if(in_cmd_err==1)

{

if(in_cmd_err_type==1) printf(,"Unauthorised Mobile Number ... %s ^z",in_ph);

else if(in_cmd_err_type==2) printf("Invalid Command... ^z");

else if(in_cmd_err_type==3) printf("Value Out Of Range... ^z");

else if(in_cmd_err_type==11)printf("Unauthorised Mobile Number ... ^z");

if(in_cmd_err_type==1)

{

in_cmd_err=1;

in_cmd_err_type=11;

}

else

{

in_cmd_err=0;

in_cmd_err_type=0;

for(lp2=0;lp2<=12;lp2++)

{

in_ph[lp2]=0;

}

}

}

else if(in_msg==1)

{

printf("RL: %d ^z",set_val);

in_msg=0;

}

else

{

if(PB1==1) printf("%s ^z",Lock1 Activated);

else if(PB2==1) printf("%s ^z",Electric.Theft);

if(PB1==1) PO1=1;

}

check_ok=1;

se_outbuff_write(strlen(string_out));

}

void SendInitialize()

{

printf("AT\r");

printf("AT\r");

printf("AT+CMGF=1\r");

printf("AT+CNMI=2,2,0,0,0\r");

check_ok=1;

}

Chapter-6

Conclusion

In this project we concluded that now a day's wireless system is most advantageous and user friendly system and also operation of load can be done in far away from an industries. And also this system use as a securities purpose and continuously monitoring of whatever system we want to monitor and gives a good securities .In future work we will tires to make a model and of one of unit or a one of operation of project by using sensors and microcontroller which will described above chapter.

Chapter-7

Future scope.

In future work we will tires to make a model and of one of unit or a one of operation of project by using sensors and microcontroller which will described in our above project

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