Project Report On
'Modeling and Fabrication of Automatic air inflation in tyre'
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of engineering in
TEAM ID: 65204
Name Enrolment Number
DARP PATEL 130260119079
DHRUMIL PATEL 130260119082
KEVIN PATEL 130260119101
NEEL PATEL 130260119110
Under the guidance of
Department of Mechanical Engineering
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
KALOL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH CENTER
KALOL, GANDHINAGAR, GUJARAT
(Affiliated to Gujarat technological University)
Department of Bachelor in Mechanical
This is to certify that the following students of Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering, 8th SEM have satisfactorily carried out their project work in the subject of entitled 'Modeling and Fabrication of Automatic air inflation in tyre' under our guidance and supervision for the term 2017-2018.
Name of Student: - Enrollment No. :-
Patel Darp 130260119079
Patel Dhrumil 130260119082
Patel Kevin 130260119101
Patel Neel 130260119110
Guide By: Head of Department
Assistant Professor Mechanical Branch
Lech .JWALANT TRIVEDI KITRC
Sr.No Content Page No.
3. LITERATURE ''''''''''''''''..14
5. PROJECT MOTIVATION ''''''''''..'19
7. ADVANTAGES '''''''''''''.''....34
8. APPLICATION ''''''''''''''''.36
9. COST ANALYSIS.'''''''''''''''.38
10. CONCLUSION ''''''''''''''''..40
11. FUTURE SCOPE ''''''''''''...'...'42
We would like to express a gratitude to everyone who gave us the every possible guidance and help to learn more about Mechanical fork lift which imparted more knowledge about the topic.
In the first instance we would like to thanks mechanical department of our Institute for giving us permission to commence this project.
We would furthermore like to specially thank shree k.c.joshi for their constant guidance and encouragement. Who spent long hours on this Report in addition to their regular work.
Role and Responsibilities
My roles and responsibilities includes:
' Prepare a requirement document to reach expectations of project and to come up with functionalities which are needed to be implemented.
' Documentation of expected output for various aspects with accepted margin error was also documented.
' To design overall system based on workflow requirements.
' Discussion with the project guide and Head of Department on ways to improve the design and to optimize performance.
' Choosing suitable components and methods based on the configurations availability and requirements.
' Testing and remedies.
As a trainee mechanical engineer, I wanted to work on a project work that would showcase my engineering knowledge. I got the opportunity to work on AIR INFLATION IN TYRE. This project was very important as it evaluated my skills and talents in my company.
PERSONAL ENGINEERING ACTIVITY
As a mechanical engineer, before undertaking any task I checked the feasibility of the project. In this project, my role is as team members. This report provides an insight into the design and fabrication of an AIR INFLATION IN TYRE
I wanted to know more details of the project before commencing; hence, I researched the topic thoroughly by referring to journals and articles online. Additionally, I obtained more information by taking references about the topic.
AIM OF PROJECT
Our final year engineering project subject for easily understand
'AIR INFLATION IN TYRE' working, theory, and industrial use so, our aim of this project through our project team and our college junior student easily understand same technology.
' Driven by studies that show that a drop in tyre pressure by just a few PSI can result in the reduction of gas mileage, tire life, safety, and vehicle performance, we have developed an automatic, self-inflating tire system that ensures that tyres are properly inflated at all times.
' Our design proposes and successfully implements the use of a portable compressor that will supply air to all four tyres via hoses and a rotary joint fixed between the wheel spindle and wheel hub at each wheel. The rotary joints effectively allow air to be channeled to the tyres without the tangling of hoses. With the recent oil price hikes and growing concern of environmental issues, this system addresses a potential improvement in gas mileage; tyre wear reduction; and an increase in handling and tyre performance in diverse conditions.
' It consists of compressor, which supplies air and air tank is used to stored air at constant pressure. This pressurize air can be filled into tyres through flexible ducting with the help of rotary bearing. The pressure conditions are achieved by pressure gauges.
' A tire inflation system (TIS) is a system to provide control over the air pressure in each tire of a vehicle as a way to improve performance on different surfaces. For example, lowering the air pressure in a tire creates a larger area of contact between the tire and the ground and makes driving on softer ground much easier. It also does less damage to the surface. This is important on work sites and in agricultural fields. By giving the driver direct control over the air pressure in each tire, maneuverability is greatly improved.
' Another function of the CTIS is to maintain pressure in the tires if there is a slow leak or puncture. In this case, the system controls inflation automatically based on the selected pressure the driver has set.
' According to AAA, about 80 percent of the cars on the road are driving with one or more tires under inflated. Tyres lose air through normal driving (especially after hitting pot holes or curbs), permeation and seasonal changes in temperature. They can lose one or two psi (pounds per square inch) each month in the winter and even more in the summer. And, you can't tell if they're properly inflated just by looking at them. You have to use a tire pressure gauge. Not only is under inflation bad for your tyres but its also bad for your gas mileage, affects the way your car handles and is generally unsafe. When tires are under inflated, the tread wears more quickly. According to Goodyear, this equates to 15 percent fewer miles you can drive on them for every 20 percent that they're under inflated. Under inflated tires also overheat more quickly than properly inflated tyres, which cause more tire damage. The faded areas below indicate areas of excessive tread wear.
The most important factors in tyre care are:
' Proper Inflation
' Pressure Proper
' Vehicle Loading
' Proper Tyre Wear
' Regular Inspection
' Good Driving Habits
' Vehicle Condition
The dynamically-self-inflating tyre system would be capable of succeeding as a new product in the automotive supplier industry. It specifically addresses the needs of the consumers by maintaining appropriate tire pressure conditions for:
' Reduced tyre wear
' Increased fuel economy
' Increased overall vehicle safety
Because such a product does not currently exist for the majority of passenger vehicles, the market conditions would be favorable for the introduction of a self-inflating tire system.
Through extensive engineering analysis, it has also been determined that the self-inflating tire system would actually function as desired. In particular, the product would be capable of:
Providing sufficient airflow to the tire with minimal leakage
' Withstanding the static and dynamic loading exerted on the rotary joints Note that likewise, this system would not produce any negative dynamic effects (such as CV joint failure due to resonance) on surrounding systems.
' Improperly inflated tyres are fairly common problems on passenger vehicles. In fact, 80% of passenger vehicles on the road have at least one under-inflated tire and 36% of passenger cars have at least one tyre that is 20% or more under-inflated. Often pressure loss in tires is a result of natural permeation of the gas through the elastic rubber, road conditions (such as potholes), and seasonal changes in temperature (According to Wissler of Popular Mechanics, for every drop of 10 ''F, tyre pressure drops by1 psi). Most vehicle owners are unaware of the fact that their tyres are not at the correct pressures because it is difficult to determine the tyre pressure visually; a tyre that is properly inflated to the correct pressure looks very similar to one that is either over-inflated or under-inflated (Fig).
According to the Rubber Manufacturing Association (RMA) survey, 80% of people are unsure of how to check their tyre pressures. Thus, from the viewpoint of passenger vehicle owners, they are losing money due to increased tyre wear and decreased fuel efficiency, and a solution needs to be found to correct this issue. From the viewpoint of the designers, however, the root cause of improperly-inflated tyres is due to vehicle owners not knowing proper tire pressures for certain conditions, difficulty finding an air pump, lack of pressure measuring device, and a general lack of concern. Thus, the combination of the user and expert viewpoints will be used to make decisions in our design process of this product.
DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT
The Pneumatic punching machine is developed using various components. The components are pneumatic cylinder, Solenoid/directions control valve, flow control valve, compressor, mounting table. The cylinder is used for up and down motion of the punch tool which performs the punching operation on the sheet of aluminium/plastic material. The compressor provides compressed air to the cylinder, which causes movement of the piston rod.
Solenoid/Directions control valve is used to control the direction of the air.
PRODUCTION OF COMPRESSED AIR:
Pneumatic systems operate on a supply of compressed air, which must be made available in sufficient quantity and at a pressure to suit the capacity of the system.
The key part of any pneumatic system for supply of compressed air is by means using reciprocating compressor. A compressor is a machine that takes in air, gas at a certain pressure and delivers it at a higher pressure. Compressor capacity is the actual quantity of air compressed and delivered. And the volume expressed is that of the air at intake conditions namely at atmosphere pressure and normal ambient temperature.
Clean condition of the suction air is one of the factors, which decides the life of a compressor. Warm and moist suction air will result in increased precipitation of condense from the compressed air.
Positive displacement compressors are most frequently employed for compressed air plant and have proved highly successful for pneumatic control application.
The different types of positive compressors are:
1. Reciprocating type compressor
2. Rotary type compressor
Turbo compressors are employed where large capacity of air required at low discharge pressures. They cannot attain pressure necessary for pneumatic control application unless built in multistage designs and are seldom encountered in pneumatic service.
Built for either stationary (or) portable service the reciprocating compressor is by far the most common type. Reciprocating compressors deliver more than 500 m''/min. In single stage compressor, even if the air pressure is of 6 bar, the machines can discharge pressure of 15 bars. Discharge pressure in the range of 250 bars can be obtained with high pressure reciprocating compressors that of three & four stages. Single stage and 1200 stage models are particularly suitable for pneumatic applications , with preferences going to the two stage design as soon as the discharge pressure exceeds 6 bar, because it in capable of matching the performance of single stage machine at lower costs per driving powers in the range.
According to the design and principle of operation:-
1. Rotary screw compressor
2. Turbo compressor
Positive-displacement compressors work by forcing air into a chamber whose volume is decreased to compress the air. Common types of positive displacement compressors are:-
' Piston-type air compressors use this principle by pumping air into an air chamber through the use of the constant motion of pistons. They use one-way valves to guide air into a cylinder chamber, where the air is compressed. Rotary screw compressors use positive-displacement compression by matching two helical screws that, when turned, guide air into a chamber, whose volume is decreased as the screws turn.
' Vane compressors use a slotted rotor with varied blade placement to guide air into a chamber and compress the volume. A type of compressor that delivers a fixed volume of air at high pressures.
Negative-displacement air compressors include centrifugal compressors. These use centrifugal force generated by a spinning impeller to accelerate and then decelerate captured air, which pressurizes it.
Due to adiabatic heating, air compressors require some method of disposing of waste heat. Generally this is some form of air- or water-cooling, although some (particularly rotary type) compressors may be cooled by oil (that is then in turn air- or water-cooled) and the atmospheric changes also considered during cooling of compressors.
' To supply high-pressure clean air to fill gas cylinders
' To supply moderate-pressure clean air to a submerged surface supplied diver
' To supply moderate-pressure clean air for driving some office and school building pneumatic HVAC control system valves.
' To supply a large amount of moderate-pressure air to power pneumatic tools, such as jackhammers
' For filling tires
' To produce large volumes of moderate-pressure air for large-scale industrial processes (such as oxidation for petroleum coking or cement plant bag house purge systems).
Compressors - Saving Energy
Most air compressors either are reciprocating piston type, rotary vane or rotary screw. Centrifugal compressors are common in very large applications. There are two main types of air compressor's pumps: oil-lubed and oil-less. The oil-less system has more technical development, but is more expensive, louder and lasts for less time than oil-lubed pumps. The oil-less system also delivers air of better quality.
Compressor saving energy:-
Reduce run time ' turn off when not needed
Lower system pressure to lowest possible level
Recover waste heat
Additional system volume (load/unload only)
Hoses used in this pneumatic system are made up of polyurethane. These hose can with stand at a maximum pressure level of 10 N/m''. Polyurethane combines the best properties of both plastic and rubber. It offers abrasion and tear resistance, high tensile and elongation values, and low compression set.
Polyurethane is naturally flexible and exhibits virtually unlimited flexural abilities. Combining good chemical resistance with excellent weathering characteristics sets polyurethane apart from most other thermoplastics. It has exceptional resistance to most gasolines, oils, kerosene, and other petroleum based chemicals, making it an ideal choice for fuel lines (although additives in today's gasoline and petroleum products warrant field testing).
Poly Urethane Tubes
APPLICATIONS OF PU TUBE:
' Any time condensation can occur with small actuators, air grippers and air operated valves. Condensation in a pneumatic system will cause operating failure and affect the life of pneumatic equipment.
' Manufacturers of electrical components.
' When you need to eliminate water condensation but you cannot use a membrane or desiccant dryer (as you cannot use a fast exhaust).
BENEFITS OF PU TUBE:
' Longer life of other pneumatic equipment.
' Prevents operational failure of small actuators, air grippers and pilot operated valves due to condensation.
' Avoids corrosion in other pneumatic equipment.
' Diffuses water vapour in the piping to the outside before it liquefies, so we avoid problems such as dried grease or ozone when using other types of dryers.
' Easy mounting.
In our system hose connectors are used . Hose connectors normally comprise an adoptee hose nipple. These types of connectors are made up of brass (or) Aluminum (or) hardened pneumatic steel. For these type hose connectors no need of hose clamp these are self-locking hose connectors. a Multi way four way hose connector.
The universal combination at an attractive price. Can be widely used thanks to resistant materials. Easy to install thanks to optimised bending radii. Limited reset effect. Attractively priced: the universal solution for metal fittings. Perfect for standard pneumatic applications ' in many different fields. Wide range of variants Over 1000 types for maximum flexibility in standard applications. Hydrolysis resistant For applications in damp environments or in contact with water at up to 60 ''C. Resistant to pressure Secure connection when used with pressure ranges of up to 14 bar. Economical for pneumatic installations in the high pressure ranges.
The powerful combination for applications involving pressure ranges up to 16 bar For example, for applications with the pressure booster Robust, flexible and reliable connection for the automotive industry. Fulfils the requirements Heat resistant For reliable compressed air supply in high temperature ranges. Whether with 10 bar at 80 ''C or 6 bar at 150 ''C ' always delivers maximum process security. Anti-static Electrically conductive tubing combined with a solid-metal fitting Approved for the food Industry Food and Drug Administration certification for use in the food industry:
Four way hose connector
The hydrolysis-resistant combination with increased functions. Designed to meet the highest demands, This combination shines in applications which require the highest possible hygiene standards for food. The cost-effective alternative to stainless steel, perfect for e.g. critical environments such as the splash zone: resistant to practically all common cleaning agents, with maximum corrosion protection. Resistant to media Completely resistant to all cleaning agents and lubricants and even permits the transportation of acids and lyes without any problems.
Flame-retardant Safe in areas where there is a risk of fire thanks to flame-retardant properties to Resistant to welding Spatter The economical combination for applications not in close proximity to welding applications. Also reliable for applications in direct proximity to welding splatter Double-sheathed tube and special fitting.
A pneumatic multipurpose device is an air-operated device used for many small operations. It is a portable one. Compressed air is the source of energy for this device. The compressed air is allowed to pass through the nozzle in such a way that the rotation obtained is utilized for machining.
The nozzles welded to the fan can be rotated in either direction. The rpm and torque of the shaft depends upon the pressure of the air admitted so by varying the pressure, the RPM and torque can be varied. Thick tubes interconnect the parts. The Clamps are used at the connecting parts to prevent leakage. In thread parts seals are used to prevent leakage.
The compressed air from the compressor first enters the control unit. In the control unit the pressure of the air is controlled and sent to the barrel to rotate the fan in the required direction. The gate valve controls the pressure and volume of air. Then the pressure is read by a pressure gauge. Later the air is admitted to the barrel, a shaft is placed and it carries the fan.
The shaft is supported by bearing. The bearings are placed in the couplings, which covers the end of barrel.
' The dynamically-self-inflating tyre system would be capable of succeeding as a new product in the automotive supplier industry. It specifically addresses the needs of the consumers by maintaining appropriate tire pressure conditions for:
' Reduced tyre wear
' Increased fuel economy
' Increased overall vehicle safety
' Because such a product does not currently exist for the majority of passenger vehicles, the market conditions would be favorable for the introduction of a self-inflating tire system.
' Through extensive engineering analysis, it has also been determined that the self-inflating tire system would actually function as desired. In particular, the product would be capable of:
' Providing sufficient airflow to the tire with minimal leakage Withstanding the static and dynamic loading exerted on the rotary joints Note that likewise,
' It can be used in military vehicles.
' It can be used in emergency vehicles like ambulance, police vehicles and fire vehicles.
' It can be used in trucks and trailers.
' It can be used in very costly vehicles where maintenance of standard is important.
' It can be used in sports cars as there is need of regular checking of air pressure in tyres.
SR.NO. NAME OF PART SPECIFICATION PRICE
1 AIR COMPRESSOR 12V 1850.00
2 BATTERY 12V 7A 1150.00
3 ACTIVA WHEEL - 3500.00
4 PU PIPE 5MT. 250.00
5 WOODEN PLATE - 200.00
6 FRONT WHEEL 16MM 100.00
7 ANGLE 20 FT 950.00
8 CHAIN MECHANISM - 500.00
9 PIPE 2 FOOT 100.00
10 MISCLANIOUS WELDING ETC. 1500.00
We applied all these techniques to reduce the process time and human efforts of the conventional manual air filling system. The system helps to reduce cost and friction between surface of tyre and road so that will reduce the wastage of tyre material. As a result, it will increase the life of tyre.
' As previously mentioned, the main beneficiaries of this advancement in technology that will allow for tyre pressure to be adjusted for driving conditions will be the vehicle owners.
' Despite an initial investment in the technology, they will experience a reduction in tire wear and an increase in fuel economy; both of which will result in saving money in the long run.
' It is plausible to say that society as a whole will benefit from the resulting design.
' The reduction in tyre disposal in landfills and decrease the rate of consumption of natural resources will truly benefit society. Also, the improvement in vehicle safety will benefit all people who drive a vehicle on the roadways.
'  A Textbook of Machine Design by R. S. Khurmi & J. K. Gupta.
'  A Textbook of Automobile Engineering by Kripal Singh.
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