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  • Published on: 7th September 2019
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A proposal for a simple designed system for the problems being faced was cost, the components are also quite cheap in this system. The system comprises of 2 Arduino boards, one for the Garduino and other one for lighting of the RGB led strip. Garduino being the main component and RGB LED being the main system. The RGB LED can play two roles here one for simply decorative purpose, other being a light source for plants at night, emitting specific frequency for plants to grow fast.


A simple Garduino consists of main component the Arduino, some sensors (for moisture, humidity, temperature), the most important part is the designing algorithms for its efficient working other than this some hardware like a relay, motor for pumping water, jumper cables.

 The basic schematics for connection of all the components are simple all the sensors should be connected to Arduino's digital pins for calculation of heat and moisture. A relay to regulate and control the pump because the pump requires 12V for working and Arduino will fry at such high voltage as it works in 5V.

This is the setup for Arduino connected to pc for uploading of code.

Those calculation utilized for this undertaking might have been truly straightforward. Just a made schedule execution of straightforward steps like running an articulation to getting the information from those sensors furthermore ascertaining Normal to dampness sensors. Also bolstering the information should Arduino for choosing if it ought to water those plants or not. The turn here might have been should see if on it rains tomtate alternately not. On check the climate there were A large number wellsprings introduce yahoo climate conjecture might have been opted Concerning illustration it will be All the more popular, in the event that it rains tomtate those water won't a chance to be supplied on soil all such fundamental choice making is conveyed out in the Arduino, yet the machine is expected should remain associated with those Arduino to all such choice Furthermore getting those information from yahoo climate conjecture. The result will such issue will be utilizing An Wi-Fi shield similar to ESP8266-01 which fetches scarcely INR 300, What's more configuring it is also simple what's more might a chance to be utilized freely with those setup or utilizing an UART association for USB will serial connector. This Wi-Fi shield fetches those information from yahoo climate figure.

                         Fig (10): -image of UART serial[3] Fig (11): -image of ESP8266 -01[10]

Connection Details

Pins are initialized as per requirements mostly digital pins are used. Pin number 0 to13 are used for making digital connections. In this design these pins for sensors like moisture and temperature. For connection of ESP8266 and UART, this schematics were followed:

 UART    '     ESP8266

    Rx     '    Tx

    Tx     '    Rx

    GND '   GND

     5V    '   VCC

Fig (12): - Connection of UART and ESP8266 [11]

RGB LED (Arduino RGB)

The Arduino RGB consists of a few components like Arduino, LED strip, external battery source (because Arduino cannot give output of 12V). There is also a requirement of transistor TIP 122 or just TIP 31, for regulating the voltage and current over certain color terminals.

Implementation & Connection

The components are necessary for this setup and most of all is the way the system is created.

            Fig (13):- connection schematics of connection [12]

Using a RGB strip also gives up the advantage as the strip could be cut down as per our requirement.

        Fig (14):- image of RGB strip [9]

     The setup is easy, connect each of `the color to breadboard and the base of each transistor to each of the mentioned pin number of the board here mentioned as 9, 10


& 11. With help of a 1 KOhm resistor so that the base of the transistor is not fried, after this connect collector of each                   transistor with RGB light colors  Fig (15):- image of TIP connection with Arduino [22]

, different collector of Different transistor for different color, like one collector of one transistor for red and like this for others as well.  

 Provide the 12V power supply for powering the Led strip. After the connection is set, here comes the part of Coding the Arduino for making doing the important part of limiting the voltage on the strip, for doing that Arduino need IDE for programming it. The simplest algorithm like limiting the power as it is initialize as (0,0,0) for power source. You also need an android app for providing the input to Arduino. Now for final step all you need is OTG (on the go cable). The OTG cable serves two purposes for this system. 1) For directly giving inputs to the Arduino board from your smart phone. 2) Providing power to Arduino board. If you're good with programming and IOT you can add a Bluetooth module you can also add it to the Arduino so that the range of system increases .The OTG system is also not supported in every phone and the phone


Might get damaged. It might even explode, so beware check before implementing OTG system, so using HC-05 or transceiver module for embedded system with TTL outputs.

     Fig (16):- OTG connection with Arduino [22]


Fig (17): - Image of Android app. Fig (18):- HC-05 Bluetooth module[22]

Information about the Components used.

HC-05 Bluetooth Module

Fig (19): - Image of Hc-05 module [12]


HC'05 module will be a simple to utilize Bluetooth SPP (Serial Port Protocol) module, planned for transparent remote serial association setup.

Serial port Bluetooth module is completely qualified Bluetooth V2. 0+EDR (Enhanced information Rate) 3Mbps regulation for complete 2. 4GHz radio transceiver and baseband. It employments CSR Blue core 04'External absolute chip Bluetooth framework for CMOS engineering Furthermore with AFH (Adaptive recurrence Hopping Feature). It need the foot shaped impression concerning illustration little concerning illustration 12. 7mmx27mm. Trust it will rearrange your generally design/development cycle.


Equipment Characteristics.

' Ordinary '80dBm affectability.

' up to +4dBm rf transmit force.

' Low energy 1. 8V Operation, 3. 3 will 5 v I/O.

' PIO control.

' UART interface for programmable baud rate.

' For coordinated radio wire.

' With edge connector.

Programming Characteristics.

' Slave default baud rate: 9600, information bits:8, prevent bit:1,Parity:No equality.

' PIO9 and PIO8 might a chance to be associated with red Furthermore blue headed independently. At expert Also slave are paired, red Also blue headed squints 1time/2s to interval, same time disengaged just blue headed squints 2times/s.

' Auto'connect of the keep going gadget on force concerning illustration default.

' Tolerance matching gadget with interface likewise default.

' Auto'pairing PINCODE:'1234' Likewise default.

' Auto'reconnect over 30 min when disengaged Likewise an aftereffect from claiming past the go for association.  

Pin out configuration

Typical Application Circuit

    Fig (20): - connection between microcontroller and BT module[12]

After connect the Bluetooth module, scan for new devices from the PC and you will find the module with the device name 'HC'05', after that, click to connect, if some message appears asking about 'Pairing code' just put '1234' as default code.

BLUE LED = ACTIVE (Blinking 500ms period inactive connection, change 1seg with active connection)


Fig (21): - image of computer system while pairing with HC-05 [22]

Open a serial terminal and select the serial COM x port number that assigned Windows to Bluetooth Module.

Configure the serial terminal with these parameters:

' Baud rate: 9600.

' Data bits:8.

' Stop bit:1.

' Parity: No parity.

Open connection and you will be ready to send and receive data from module Bluetooth like Serial Port COM


Fig (22): - image of utility being installed for using HC-05[22]


How to get to AT COMMAND mode

1. Connect KEY pin to VCC.

2. Supply power to module. Then the module will enter into AT MODE. In this mode you have to use baud rate at 38400. In this way, user should change the baud rate for SLAVE AND MASTER mode.

How to set this module as 'Master'Host' role

1. Input high level to KEY.

2. Supply power to the module. And the module will enter to AT COMMAND.

3. Set the parameters of the hyper terminal or the other serial tools (baud rate: 38400, data bit:8, stop bit:1, no parity bit, no Flow Control).

4. Sent the characters 'AT+ROLE=1\r\n' through serial, then receive the characters 'OK\r\n'. Here, '\r\n' is the CRLF.

5. Sent the characters 'AT+CMODE=1\r\n' through serial, then receive the characters 'OK\r\n'. Here, '\r\n' is the CRLF.

6. Default factory password passkey is: 1243, this must be the same in the Bluetooth slave module if you want to pair it.

To read passkey use this command: 'AT+PSWD?'.

To Reset the password command sent the characters 'AT+PSWD=XXXX'.

The password must be 4'bits.

' Leave free KEY, and supply power to the module again. Then this module will become master role and search the other module (slave role) automatically to build the connection (baud rate:9600, data bit:8, stop bit:1, no parity bit, no Flow Control).

How to set this module be the 'Slave'Device' role

1. Input high level to KEY.

2. Supply power to the module. And the module will enter to AT COMMAND.

3. Set the parameters of the super terminal or the other serial tools (baud rate:

4. 38400, data bit:8, stop bit:1, no parity bit, no Flow Control).

5. Sent the characters 'AT+ROLE=0\r\n' through serial, then receive the characters 'OK\r\n'. Here, '\r\n' is the CRLF.

6. Sent the characters 'AT+CMODE=0\r\n' through serial, then receive the characters 'OK\r\n'. Here, '\r\n' is the CRLF.

7. Default factory password passkey is: 1243, this must be the same in the Bluetooth master module if you want to pair it.

To read passkey sent the characters 'AT+PSWD?'.

To Reset the password command sent the characters 'AT+PSWD=XXXX'.

The password must be 4'bits.

' Leave free KEY, and supply power to the module again. Then this module will become slave role and wait to be discover it by the other module (master role) automatically to build the connection (baud rate:38400, data bit:8, stop bit:1, no parity bit, no Flow Control).

How to get to the standard communication mode

1. Leave free KEY, don't connect it to VDD neither GND.

2. Supply power to the module. Then the module will enter to communication mode. It can be used for pairing.


(1) HC'05's command should end up with '\r\n'. It means when you finish programming, you should add terminator ('ENTER' or '0x0d 0x0a') to the program.

(2) The most common commands for HC'05 are: AT+ROLE (set master'slave), AT+CMODE( set address pairing) , AT+PSWD (set password). If you want the master module has the function of remembering slave module, the most simply way is: First, set AT+CMODE=1. Make the master module pair with the slave module. Second, set AT+CMODE=0. Then the master module just can make pair with that specified slave module.

ESP8266 -01 Wi- Fi Module


Fig (23): - Image of ESP8266 -01 module [11]

Presenting ESP8266 in detail: -

Yue Xin shrewdly secondary execution remote connectivity stage --ESCP SOC, designers bring the Gospel of the portable platform, it during the least expense will give acceptable greatest usability to Wi-Fi competencies installed done other frameworks the table boundless possibilities, alone ESP8266 need 12 variants around its own, we would particularly discussing ESP8266-01 as a result we utilized this done crazy project.

Specialized foul diagram. ESP8266 may be a finish and independent Wi-Fi system results that camwood convey programming applications, alternately through in turn requisition processor uninstall every last bit Wi-Fi systems administration abilities. ESP8266 the point when the gadget will be mounted and similarly as the main requisition of the provision processor, those streak memory might be began specifically from an outer move. Inherent reserve memory will help enhance framework execution Furthermore decrease memory necessities. Another circumstances will be At remote web get Accept those errand for Wi-Fi adapter, you camwood include it will any microcontroller-based design, and the association is simple, recently by SPI / SDIO interface alternately focal processor AHB span interface. Transforming Also capacity limit once ESP8266 capable piece, it might be coordinated circuit through GPIO ports sensors Also other provisions particular supplies to accomplish the least initial in the improvement Also operation of no less than possess framework assets. The ESP8266 Exceedingly coordinated circuit chip, including radio wire switch balun, control administration converter, something like that for negligible outer circuitry, Also incorporates front-end module, including those whole result outlined to minimize the space involved by PCB. Those framework will be provided for ESP8266 showed heading adrift offers are: vitality sparing VoIP rapidly switch between the rest / get patterns, with low-power operation versatile radio bias, front-end indicator preparing functions, troubleshooting Also radio frameworks exist together qualities dispose of cell division / Bluetooth / DDR / LVDS / lcd impedance.

Aspects. 802. 11 b / g / n. Wi-Fi regulate (P2P), soft-AP. Inherent tcp/ip / ip protocol stack. Inherent TR switch, balun[10], LNA, energy enhancer What's more matching system. Inherent PLL, voltage controller and control oversaw economy segments. 802. 11b mode + 19. 5dBm yield force. Inherent temperature sensor backing radio wire differences off spillage current will be less 10uA. Inherent low-power 32-bit CPU: could twofold Likewise a requisition processor. SDIO 2. 0, SPI, UART. STBC, 1x1 MIMO, 2x1 MIMO. A-MPDU, A-MSDU aggregation and the 0.4 within wake

2ms, connect and transfer data packets

Standby power consumption of less than 1.0mW (DTIM3)


Ultra-low power technology

ESP8266 specifically for mobile devices, wearable electronics and networking applications design and make the machine to achieve the lowest energy consumption, together with several other patented technology. This energy-efficient construction in three modes: active mode, sleep mode and deep sleep mode type. When ESP8266 using high-end power management technology and logic systems to reduce non-essential functions of the power conversion regulate sleep patterns and work modes, in sleep mode, it consumes less than the current 12uA, is connected, it consumes less power to 1.0mW (DTIM = 3) or 0.5mW (DTIM = 10). Sleep mode, only calibrated real-time clock and watchdog in working condition. Real-time clock can be programmed to wake ESP8266 within a specific period of time. Through programming, ESP8266 will automatically wake up when detected certain to happen. ESP8266 automatic wake-up in the shortest time, this feature can be applied to the SOC for mobile devices, so before you turn Wi- Fi SOC are in a low-power standby mode. To meet the power requirements of mobile devices and wearable electronics products, ESP8266 at close range when the PA output power can be reduced through software programming to reduce overall power consumption in order to adapt to different applications.

Maximum integration

ESP8266 integrates the most critical components on the board, including power management components, TR switch, RF balun[10], a peak power of + 25dBm of PA, therefore, ESP8266 only guarantee the lowest BOM cost, and easy to be embedded in any system. ESP8266 BOM is the only external resistors, capacitors, and crystal.

ESP8266 application subject :-

Smart Power Plug Home Automation-mesh[11] network

Industrial wireless control

Baby Monitor Network Camera sensor networks wearable electronics wireless location-aware devices Security ID tag

Wireless positioning system signals



The following data are based on a 3.3V power supply, ambient temperature 25C and use the internal regulator measured. [1] All measurements are made in the absence of the SAW filter, the antenna interface is completed. [2] All transmit data based on 90% duty cycle, continuous transmission mode in the measured.

Table 2:- explanation about modes and typical per units for ESP8266

Mode Min Typical Max Units

802.11b, CCK 1Mbps, POUT=+19.5dBm 215 mA

802.11b, CCK 11Mbps, POUT=+18.5dBm 197 mA

802.11g, OFDM 54Mbps, POUT=+16dBm 145 mA

802.11n, MCS7, POUT =+14dBm 135 mA

802.11b, packet size of 1024 bytes, -80dBm 60 mA

802.11b, packet size of 1024 bytes, -70dBm 60 mA

802.11b, packet size of 1024 bytes, -65dBm 62 mA

Standby 0.9 uA

Deep sleep 10 mA

Saving mode DTIM 1 1.2 mA

Saving mode DTIM 3 0.86 mA

Shutdown 0.5 uA

RF specifications

The following data is at room temperature, the voltage of 3.3V and 1.1V, respectively, when measured

Table 3:- decription and working of ESP8266 at room temperature

Description Min Typical Max Units

Input Frequency 2412 2484 MHz

Input resistance 50 ''

Input reflection -10 dB

At 72.2Mbps, PA output power 14 15 16 dBm

11b mode, PA output power 17.5 18.5 19.5 dBm


CCK, 1Mbps ' -98 dBm

CCK, 11Mbps ' -91 dBm

6Mbps (1/2 BPSK) '' -93 dBm

54Mbps (3/4 64-QAM) '' -75 dBm

HT20, MCS7 (65Mbps, 72.2Mbps) ' '' -71 dBm

Adjacent suppression

OFDM, 6Mbps 37 dB

OFDM, 54Mbps 21 dB

HT20, MCS0 37 dB

HT20, MCS7 20 dB

CPU and memory

CPU Interface

The chip embedded in an ultra-low-power 32-bit micro-CPU, with 16 compact mode. Can be connected to the CPU via the following interfaces:

Connecting storage controllers can also be used to access external code memory RAM / ROM interface (iBus)

Also attached storage controller data RAM interface (dBus)

Access Register of AHB interface

JTAG debug interface

Storage Controller

Storage controller contains ROM and SRAM. CPU can iBus, dBus and AHB interface to access the storage controller. Any one of these interfaces can apply for access to ROM or RAM cells, memory arbiter to determine the running order in the order of arrival.

AHB and AHB module

AHB module acts as arbiter, through the MAC, and SDIO host CPU control AHB interface. Since sending Address different, AHB data requests may arrive the following two slaves in one: APB module, or flash memory controller (usually in the case of off-line applications) to the received request is a high speed memory controllers often request, APB module receives register access is often Request. APB module acts as a decoder, but only you can access the ESP8266 main module programmable registers. Since the sending address different, APB request may reach the radio receiver, SI / SPI, hosts SDIO, GPIO, UART, real-time clock (RTC), MAC or digital baseband.

Interface of ESP 8266 contains multiple analog and digital interfaces, as follows:

Main SI / SPI control (optional)

Main Serial Interface (SI) can run at two, three, four-wire bus configuration, is used to control the EEPROM or other I2C / SPI devices. Multiple devices share the two-wire I2C bus. Multiple SPI devices to share the clock and data signals, and according to the chip select, each controlled by software alone GPIO pins. SPI can be used to control external devices, such as serial flash, audio CODEC or other slave devices, installation, effectively giving it three different pins, making it the standard master SPI device.




SPI slave is used as the primary interface, giving SPI master and slave SPI support. In the built-in applications, SPI_EN0 is used as an enable signal, the role of external serial flash, download firmware and / or MIB data to baseband. In host-based applications, the firmware and you can choose one MIB data downloaded via the host interface both. This pin is active low when not should be left unconnected. SPI_EN1 often used for user applications, such as controlling the built-in applications or external audio codec sensor ADC. This pin is active low when not should be left unconnected. SPI_EN2 often used to control the EEPROM, storing individual data (individual data), such as MIB information, MAC address, and calibration data, or for general purposes. This pin is active low when not should be left unconnected.


General Purpose IO

A total of up to 16 GPIO pins. The firmware can assign them different functions. Each GPIO can be configured internal pullup / pulldown resistors available software registers sampled input, triggering edge or level CPU interrupt input, trigger level wake-up interrupt input, open-drain or complementary push-pull output drivers, software register output source or sigma-delta PWM DAC. These pins are multiplexed with other functions, such as the main interface, UART, SI, Bluetooth co-existence and so on.

Digital IO pins

Digital IO pad is two-way, three states. It includes a three-state control input and output buffers. In addition, for low-power operation, IO can be set to hold state. For example, when they reduced the chip's power consumption, all the output enable signal can be set to maintain a low-power state. Hold function can be selectively implanted IO in need. When the IO help internal and external circuit driving, hold function can be used to hold last state. Hold function to pin introduce some positive feedback. Therefore, the external drive pin must be stronger than the positive feedback. However, the required driving force size is still small, in the 5uA of.

Table 4:- description for ESP8266's variables and symbols

Variables Symbol Min Max Units

Input Low Voltage Vil -0.3 0.25xV10 V

Input High Voltage Vih 0.75xV10 3.6 V

Input leakage current IIL - 50 nA

Output Low Voltage VOL - 0.1xV10 V

Output High Voltage VOH 0.8xV10 - V

Input pin capacitance Cpad - 2 pF

VDDIO V10 1.7 3.6 V

Current Imax - 12 mA

Temperature Tamb -20 100 C

All digital IO pins must add an overvoltage protection circuit (snap back circuit) between the pin and ground. Usually bounce (snap back) voltage is about 6V, while maintaining the voltage is 5.8V. This prevents excessive voltage and generating ESD. Diodes also avoid reverse voltage output devices.

Firmware and software tools development kit

The firmware running on the ROM and SRAM chip, when the device is awake, firmware via SDIO sector Download the instructions from the host side. Firmware is fully compliant with 802.11 b / g / n / e / i WLAN MAC protocol and Wi-Fi Direct specification only supports basic services unit distributed control function (DCF) under (BSS) operation, but also follow the latest Wi-Fi P2P protocol to support P2P groups operating (P2P group operation). Low level protocol functions automatically run by ESP8266, such as

RTS / CTS Confirm fragmentation and reassembly polymerization frame package (802.11h / RFC 1042) automatic beacon monitoring / scanning

P2P Wi-Fi direct

With P2P discovery procedures, passive or active scanning once in the host command start, it will be done automatically. Perform power management, interaction with the host at least, this way, the task of effectively minimized.


Laboratory features of the software developer's kit is as follows:

802.11 b / g / n / d / e / i / k / r support

Wi-Fi Direct (P2P) support

P2P discovery, P2P group master mode (Group Owner mode), P2P Power Management Infrastructure Network (Infrastructure BSS) station (Station) mode / P2P mode / SoftAP mold hardware accelerator

CCMP (CBC-MAC, counting mode)




WPA / WPA2 and WPS support

Other 802.11i security features:



Open interfaces  prepared for a variety of upper EAP authentication methods, such as:


802.11n support (2.4GHz)

Support MIMO 1x1 and 2x1, STBC, A-MPDU and A-MSDU aggregation, 0.4s guard interval WMM saving U-APSD

Use with multi-queue QoS management, in line with 802.11e standard multimedia data traffic optimization methods

Follow the UMA, and certified by UMA 802.1h / RFC1042 frame encapsulation hash DMA data transfer operation, the CPU usage to a minimum antenna diversity and choice (by software management hardware) the clock / power gating and follow the 802.11 standard power management combined, according to the current connection, enter OK dynamically adjusted to achieve the lowest energy consumption ratio can be adjusted to set an optimum algorithm for the missing data and the Tx power transfer rate based on the actual SNR and packet rate MAC layer automatic retransmission and automatic response, to avoid packet loss occurs when the host is running slow seamless roaming support. Configurable packet traffic arbitration and tailored, based on the slave processor design combining a series of Bluetooth chip vendors to provide flexible and precise time-Bluetooth coexistence support dual / single antenna Bluetooth coexistence with syncing Wi-Fi / Bluetooth capability Power Management

Chip can tune into the following states:

Off (OFF): CHIP_PD pin is in a low power state. RTC failure. All registers are emptied.

Deep sleep (DEEP_SLEEP): RTC open, other parts of the chip are closed. RTC internal recovery memory to save the basic Wi-Fi connection information.

Sleep (SLEEP): Only RTC running. Crystal oscillator stops. Any part of the wake (MAC, host, RTC timer, and external interrupt) will make the wake of the chip.

Wake (WAKEUP): In this state, the system from a sleep state to start (PWR) status. Crystal oscillator and PLL are converted enabled state.

 on state (ON): High-speed clock can run, And sent to each clock control register is enabled Modules. Each module, including the CPU, including the implementation of relatively low-level clock gating. When the system works, you can WAITI instructions to turn off the CPU's internal clock.

Clock Management

ESP8266 on high frequency clock is used to drive two Tx and Rx mixer, which is generated by the internal oscillator and an external oscillator. Crystal frequency between 26MHz to 52MHz float. Although the internal crystal oscillator of the calibration range of the crystal so that the clock generator to meet the conditions, but in general, the crystal quality is still obtained a proper phase noise factors to be considered. When the crystal is used, or because of the frequency offset, rather than the best choice for quality, the maximum capacity of the data processing system and will reduce the sensitivity of the Wi-Fi. Please refer to the following instructions to measure the frequency offset.

 Table 5:- table of remaining points for variable and symbols

Variables Symbol Min Max Units

Frequency Fxo 52 MHz

Load capacitance Cl 32 pF

Dynamic capacitance Cm 2 5 pF

Serial resistance Rs 0 65 ''

Frequency tolerance Fxo -15 15 ppm

Frequency vs Temperature (-25C ~ 75C) Fxo,Temp -15 15 ppm

External Reference Requirements at 26MHz external clock frequency between 52MHz. In order to make a well-functioning radio receiver, the clock must have the following characteristics:

Table 4,5 continuation.

Variables Symbol Min Max Units

Clock amplitude Vxo 0.2 1 Vpp

External clock accuracy Fxo,EXT -15 15 ppm

Phase Noise @ 1kHz offset, 40MHz clock -120 dBc/Hz

Phase Noise @ 10kHz offset, 40MHz clock -130 dBc/Hz

Phase Noise @ 100kHz offset, 40MHz clock -138 dBc/Hz

Radio receivers

ESP8266 radio receiver mainly includes the following modules:

1. 2.4GHz receiver

2. 2.4GHz transmitter

3. High-speed clock generator and crystal oscillator Real-time clock bias and regulators Power Management

4. Channel Frequency

According IEEE802.11bgn standard, RF transceiver supports the following channels:

Table 6:- description for channels and frequencies for ESP8266

Channel Freq. Channel Freq.

1 2412 8 2447

2 2417 9 2452

3 2422 10 2457

4 2427 11 2462

5 2432 12 2467

6 2437 13 2472

7 2442 14 2484

2.4GHz receiver

2.4GHz RF signal receiver down into quadrature baseband signal, with two high-resolution, high-speed ADC and the latter into a digital signal. In order to accommodate different signal channels, a radio receiver integrated RF filters, automatic gain control (AGC), DC offset compensation circuit and a baseband filter.

2.4GHz transmitter

2.4 GHz transmitter orthogonal frequency baseband signals up to 2.4GHz, using high-power CMOS power amplifier to drive the antenna. Further use of the digital calibration improves the linearity of the power amplifier to achieve the average power of + 19dBm in 802.11b transmission, the transmission reaches + 16dBm 802.11n average power, features super. To offset defects in the radio receiver is also calibrated by other measures such as:

Carrier leakage & I / Q phase matching, and baseband nonlinear

This will reduce the time and equipment required for testing.

Clock generator

The clock generator generates the receiver and transmitter 2.4GHz clock signal all of its components are integrated on the chip, Include:

Inductor, reactor closed-loop filter

Clock generator contains a built-in calibration circuit and self-test circuitry. Clock phase and quadrature phase noise through the optimal calibration algorithm processing patent on the chip, in order to ensure that the receiver and transmitter to achieve the best performance.

AT Commands

Tnx to Format Baud rate at 57600 x is the commands

Table 7:- basic set commands and inquiry for basic commands                                            

Set Inquiry Test Execute

AT+<x>=<'> AT+<x>? AT+<x>=? AT+<x>


Set the network mode Check current mode Return which modes supported -

Carefully there are must be no any spaces between the 'and IP address and port .

Table 7:-  All the data sending and receiving commands for ESP8266

Com mand

s Descri ption Ty pe Set/Execute Inquir y test Param

eters Examples

AT+RST restart the module basic - - - -


MODE wifi

mode wifi AT+CWMODE=

<mode> AT+CWM


ODE=? 1= Sta, 2= AP,



AP join the


=<ssid>,< pwd > AT+

CWJAP? - ssid =


pwd =


Com mand

s Descri ption Ty pe Set/Execute Inquir y test Param

eters Examples

assword d


AP list the



AP quit the




CWSAP set the paramet

ers of AP wifi AT+ CWSAP=


<chl>, <ecn> AT+

CWSAP? Ssid, pwd, chl

= channel, ecn =

encrypti on Connect to your

router: '

AT+CWJAP='YOURSSID', 'helloworld'; and check if connected:




US get the connecti on status TCP/I



TART set up TCP or UDP connecti on TCP/I

P 1)single connection (+CIPMUX=0)


<type>,<addr> ,<port>; 2) multiple connection (+CIPMUX=1)

AT+CIPSTART= <id><type>,<a ddr>, <port> - AT+CIPST ART=? Id = 0-4, type = TCP/UDP

, addr =

IP address, port= port Connect to another TCP server, set multiple connection first: AT+CIPMUX=1; connect:




END send data TCP/I

P 1)single connection(+CI PMUX=0) AT+CIPSEND=< length>; 2)

multiple connection (+CIPMUX=1)


AT+CIPSEND=4,15 and

then enter the data

TIP 31 Transistor

The TIP31 is a standard NPN bipolar intersection transistor that is regularly utilized to medium force provisions. A bipolar intersection transistor (BJT) will be a three terminal gadget that is considers intensification or exchanging provisions. It may be framed Eventually Tom's perusing joining three segments of semiconductors with on the other hand distinctive doping. The white collar area (base) will be limited and the different two outside locales (emitter what's more collector) need aid intensely doped. A percentage transistors camwood intensify a little current which will then a chance to be capable sufficient will work a light alternately other helter smelter present units. These units would likewise equipped will identify a changeover voltage Furthermore go about as a switch. The TIP31 will be a normal transistor that is modest Furthermore simple to utilize for numerous provisions.

Acquaintance. BJTs comprises about three distinctively doped semiconductor regions, the authority region, those build region, and the emitter district. To the TIP31 transistor, these areas are p type, n type, and p type, individually. Each about these locales may be associated with a terminal also suitably marked. Wiring a transistor necessities make finished deliberately On account an inaccurate association might result in prompt and permanency harm of the transistor. There are 4 states for operations to this kind for transistor: forward-active, reverse-active, cut-off, furthermore immersed. Each serves a certain end goal What's more capacity that camwood a chance to be exceptionally of service previously, huge numbers diverse circumstances. Over their hyena project, they utilized the TIP31 Similarly as a switch to turn on specific parts of a out relying upon those position of the hyena tail, head, or ears. This gadget Might Additionally make utilized for intensification of the sound signs sent of the speaker from claiming our model. A BJT will be Verwoerd versant Furthermore might make actualized undoubtedly under our project.

Determinations. This particular transistor might a chance to be utilized within A large number states and Typically behaves clinched alongside a comparable route regardless of this part may be bought starting with an alternate producer. Those immersion voltage to the collector-emitter hub is 1. 2V same time the base-emitter immersion voltage is 1. 8V. It doesn't require a enormous voltage to initiate this transistor yet the worth will be also not excessively awful little the place a false actuation might happen. Those addition for this BJT might change starting with 20 will 25, which camwood a chance to be greatly advantageous particularly when amplifying sound signs or initiating LEDs. To our particular project, it will be attempting with a 6V voltage which is directed with An LM7806 voltage controller. This esteem is incredible enough on result in a change of state in the transistor Furthermore move starting with the cut-off state with immersion.

Provision. The provisions about this BJT transistor descend with two fundamental thoughts. The TIP31 might a chance to be used to make a switch alternately an enhancer. Those primary schematic beneath indicates the best possible establishment of this gadget to go about as a switch that will turn on a headed. The point when the switch (S1) closes, current starts with stream of the build of the transistor creating it with initiate. The intersection VCE presently has the capacity should permit current stream which actuated those headed. Those second schematic demonstrates how two BJT transistors camwood a chance to be made to structure a truly capable enhancer. At the open circuit at S1 will be traded for short, present starts to stream of the initial transistor. This reasons intensification in the present What's more also turns on the second transistor. This happens a direct result those emitter of the principal BJT will be straightforwardly associated with those build of the second. Those second BJT will Right away soak and reason those prompted initiate. The coming about yield of the second emitter need been amplified twice.  

PIR sensor

PIR sensors allow you to sense motion, almost always used to detect whether a human has moved in or out of the sensors range. They are small, inexpensive, low-power, easy to use and don't wear out. For that reason they are commonly found in appliances and gadgets used in homes or businesses. They are often referred to as PIR, 'Passive Infrared', 'Pyroelectric', or 'IR motion' sensors.

PIRs are basically made of a pyroelectric sensor (which you can see above as the round metal can with a rectangular crystal in the center), which can detect levels of infrared radiation. Everything emits some low level radiation, and the hotter something is, the more radiation is emitted. The sensor in a motion detector is actually split in two halves. The reason for that is that we are looking to detect motion (change) not average IR levels. The two halves are wired up so that they cancel each other out. If one half sees more or less IR radiation than the other, the output will swing high or low.

Along with the pyroelectric sensor is a bunch of supporting circuitry, resistors and capacitors. It seems that most small hobbyist sensors use the BISS0001 ("Micro Power PIR Motion Detector IC"), undoubtedly a very inexpensive chip. This chip takes the output of the sensor and does some minor processing on it to emit a digital output pulse from the analog sensor.

Fig (24):- components of PIR module. [8]

Some Basic Stats

These stats are for the PIR sensor in the Ad fruit shop which is very much like a parallel  . Nearly all PIRs will have slightly different specifications, although they all pretty much work the same.

Size: Rectangular

Price: INR 300

Output: Digital pulse high (3V) when triggered (motion detected) digital low when idle (no motion detected). Pulse lengths are determined by resistors and capacitors on the

PCB and differ from sensor to sensor.

Sensitivity range: up to 20 feet (6 meters) 110'' x 70'' detection range

Power supply: 5V-12V input voltage for most modules (they have a 3.3V regulator), but 5V is ideal in case the regulator has different specs

How PIRs Work

PIR sensors need aid that's only the tip of the iceberg muddled over large portions of the other sensors demonstrated On these tutorials (like photocells, FSRs and tilt switches) on account of there would various variables that influence those sensors enter Also yield. Will start demonstrating how an essential sensor works, we'll use this rather decent outline. The PIR sensor itself need two slots over it, every opening is constructed of a exceptional material that is delicate on ir. The lens utilized here may be not by any means completing substantially thus others view that the two slots might 'see' crazy secret word A percentage separation (basically those affectability of the sensor). The point when the sensor is idle, both slots recognize the same sum for IR, those encompassing amount radiated starting with the room or dividers or outside. When An warm particular figure in a mankind's alternately creature passes by, it to start with intercepts you quit offering on that one half of the PIR sensor, which reasons a certain differential transform the middle of the two halves. The point when the warm particular figure abandons those sensing area, the opposite happens, whereby the sensor generates a negative differential transform. These change pulses are what may be distinguished.

Fig (25):- Image describing output signal and detection area for a PIR sensor. [13]


The DS1307 serial real-time clock (RTC) is a low power, full binary-coded decimal (BCD) clock/calendar plus 56 bytes of NV SRAM. Address and data are transferred serially through an I2C, bidirectional bus. The clock/calendar provides seconds, minutes, hours, day, date, month, and year information. The end of the month date is automatically adjusted for months with fewer than 31 days, including corrections for leap year. The clock operates in either the 24-hour or 12hour format with AM/PM indicator. The DS1307 has a built-in power-sense circuit that detects power failures and automatically switches to the backup supply. Timekeeping operation continues while the part operates from the backup supply.


The DS1307 is a low-power clock/calendar with 56 bytes of battery-backed SRAM. The clock/calendar provides seconds, minutes, hours, day, date, month, and year information. The date at the end of the month is automatically adjusted for months with fewer than 31 days, including corrections for leap year. The DS1307 operates as a slave device on the I2C bus. Access is obtained by implementing a START condition and providing a device identification code followed by a register address. Subsequent registers can be accessed sequentially until a STOP condition is executed. When VCC falls below 1.25 x VBAT, the device terminates an access in progress and resets the device address counter. Inputs to the device will not be recognized at this time to prevent erroneous data from being written to the device from an out-of-tolerance system. When VCC falls below VBAT, the device switches into a low current battery-backup mode. Upon power-up, the device switches from battery to VCC when VCC is greater than VBAT +0.2V and recognizes inputs when VCC is greater than 1.25 x VBAT. The block diagram in Figure 1 shows the main elements of the serial RTC.


The DS1307 uses an external 32.768 kHz crystal. The oscillator circuit does not require any external resistors or capacitors to operate. Table 1 specifies several crystal parameters for the external crystal. Figure 1 shows a functional schematic of the oscillator circuit. If using a crystal with the specified characteristics, the startup time is usually less than one second.


The accuracy of the clock is dependent upon the accuracy of the crystal and the accuracy of the match between the capacitive load of the oscillator circuit and the capacitive load for which the crystal was trimmed. Additional error will be added by crystal frequency drift caused by temperature shifts. External circuit noise coupled into the oscillator circuit may result in the clock running fast. Refer to Application Note 58: Crystal Considerations with Dallas Real-Time Clocks for detailed information.


Arduino- RGB algorithm

1. The systems begins by checking the MAC addresses which are registered to HC-05 Bluetooth module. Generally a new device is recognised and then the pairing is done, but in this case the new MAC address has to be hardcoded on the Bluetooth module.

2. After the connection is established and pairing of the devices is done then the App runs (Android app). The app connects to the system, and the interface has a colour pallet.

3. The colour pallet has hex values in it and these hex values make up the colour in the RGB strip.

4. The Bluetooth module works at a serial connection with the board at 9600 baud rate.

5. Then there is PIR sensor which detects motion around it, and gives digital output of the response, when motion is detected the digital values are transmitted to board and a simple logic initiates other processes like lighting of bulb or sounding the buzzer.

6. If the serial value is greater than 2 then the scaling part is carried out in digital output form.

7. After the correct pallet has been selected through the designed colour settings the RGB strip lightens up and displays exactly the same colour.

Flow chart for mentioned algorithm

Garduino algorithm

1. The Garduino has a key component which is ESP8266 Wi-Fi module so according to the algorithm first step is checking whether the ESP8266 is connected to Wi-Fi or not.

2. If it is connected the system is supposed to upload the data saying 'hello this is Arduino' on twitter. In simpler words it tweets about the current status. With a help of a library as (twitter.h).

3. Then the system establishes a serial communication between Arduino and ESP8266, this can be either done by using UART module for bridging or individually.

4. The system after establishing the connection between internet and itself fetches the weather information from yahoo's weather forecast.

5. The sensors then take reading from their respective fields, like moisture sensors take reading from soil and take the average if two or more sensors are used.

6. Then this collected data is evaluated in board itself with help of present SOC (system on chip) for making decisions.

7. If the moisture is low and the chances of rain tomorrow are very less, or the forecast says no rain tomorrow the Arduino will execute a procedure by activating a pin which will run a relay and the pump will start the irrigation process.

8. If there is sufficient moisture in soil and forecast says it will rain tomorrow, the system will not water the plants.

9. But as the condition of weather is a subject to change in atmosphere, the values of plant's surrounding might also change and even weather forecast might change in  upcoming 4 or 6 hours, so it was programmed it take values from sensors after every 4-6 hours.

10. Then using print.serial to print the information on serial monitor, a window given by the Arduino IDE to see what commands are running in the background, and even to send commands at different baud rates to ESP8266 (AT commands).  

11. After every time the readings are taken from sensors    the system follows from step 5.

Flow Chart of the above mentioned Algorithm.



In this chapter, you will be presented with the live working screen shots of the project the Arduino RGB and the Garduino.

These are the few screenshots of the Arduino Rgb android application, in these Images you can how the colour can be picked by simple putting your finger on the box filled with colour and the hex values and the system will show the exact colour you want it to  display using RGB strip.

Screenshot 1: - Image of Arduino Rgb in action

Here you can see the user has chosen a green colour gradient and the LEDs are displaying green colour.

This is the screenshot of Garduino in action, in these images you can see how the system is set up for communication between sensors and the board in serial connection of ESP8266 which makes it completely wireless.                           Screenshot 2- connection between board and other sensors.

The other screen shot belongs the pot where the soil moisture sensor has been put to obtain soil moisture values for further operations. The red colour led is glowing continuous meaning the sensors are fetching values to board.                                         Screenshot 3: - Sensors fetching the values

These two images belong to Garduino which is the secondary device in this project, Primary one being the Arduino RGB.

Further ahead there is the screenshot of the serial monitor of Arduino which displays all the data and currently executing procedures as well.

Screenshot 4:- the Garduino serial monitor displaying soil moisture sensor values

This is the screenshot of PIR sensor in action, where the blue colour led glows as soon as the PIR sensor detects the motion of user's fingers for demo and does not glows when there is no movement at all. The PIR sensor is connected to board here just for testing the written code, and whether the PIR is working properly or not, in real project it is connected with the Arduino RGB.

Screenshot 5: - no movement detected, blue led not glowing

This system here shows how the pir sensors works the movement should always be in line of sight or the specific sensor radius otherwise the sensors will not detect motion. As this sensor is static and instead of sensor the body is moving thus they are given the name Passive Infrared Sensors

Screenshot 6: - Movement detected. Blue led glowing

In this image you can see the user's fingers which are in sensor's recognition area thus the Arduino board will order the pin and the blue light will glow.

Here we have the image of Garduino's feed to twitter which is an online account dedicated to Garduino. In this tweet you can see the Garduino is reading the data received from the sensors and tweeting them online. In this snapshot you can see that the temperature is being read by the temperature sensor and Garduino is tweeting about it.

Screenshot 7:- Adruino's tweet about temperature

Screenshot 8: - Arduino's tween about soil moisture sensor

In this snapshot you can see the SMC is reading two different values 674 and 611, the term SMC here refers to Soil Moisture Sensor. Here the board also drops the average of the two soil moisture sensors data as a tweet on twitter.



The designed system made out of all the research and efforts is a really helpful and easy to use in nature. The system was tested in real time environment and tested in the real garden in real conditions. The other part of the system that is Garduino which makes tweets every time it takes any decision like whether to water to plants or not. The tweets are made instantaneous like within the fractions of first tweet, suppose the Garduino captures the data about soil and temperature at 13:14:55 then the other post regarding soil moisture will be made exactly at 13:14:57 but that also depends on the speed of internet as well. But there is very much accuracy the steps like watering the plants and posting about them takes less than 30 milliseconds. The time taken by sensors to achieve readings from their respective fields is also very less they hardly take 1 to 4 seconds. Except using PIR sensor which take almost 30 second to initialise for the very first time. The PIR sensor detects motion with a change in infrared light around it. The response time for PIR sensor is around 0.03 seconds and exact in its area of working and line of sight having a range of approximately 20 ft.  It serves as burglar alarm to the garden and lightens the garden whenever the owner wish to visit the garden.

Other part being main component of the system is also quite important as serves many purposes, the Arduino RGB. Its response time is very much instantaneous and works with the time accuracy of 0.01 seconds to .3 seconds depending upon length of strip. As the user choses colours on grid the changes on strip can be seen instantly.


There are two main applications which carry out the work one for controlling the Garduino and the Arduino RGB (main component). The applications are android based because most of users have an Android device in usage so a preference was given to Android over any other platform from making application. Using Android Studio for the making the application, and Arduino IDE for programming the board with the logics which will do the most of the part.


In order to justify the system users have to follow some parameters by which the project will be judged like, Power consumption, ease to use, maintenance. This system has a requirement of 5V power supply to run the board which is equivalent to general phone charger and an external power supply to power the LED 12V in power. Using these two main power sources it can be run. Unlike large bulb like devices which are used for lighting the plants at night and consume more than 10 times the power consumed in LED. So in short using this device is simply like charging your phone and it's very reasonable as LEDs consume very less amount of energy.  The performance of the Arduino LED and Garduino depends on several parameters like energy usage, efficiency, user friendly, maintenance and resources required to make it. Considering all these points we can say that both the systems require very less amount of energy to run, very less maintenance is required and they are very efficient in nature as well and anyone can use these system meaning very much user friendly. It can be easily justify that's this system is a break-through in field of research for plants and the idea that plants can be grown easily and even at nights. With help of this system implementing growing lights is also a possibility.

Fig (xix):- image relation between rate of photo synthesis and wavelength and relation between absorption to wavelength (experiment performed by scientists). [27]

Every light color has some attributes as well like wavelength in nanometers and this picture shows the action or energy level of each light suitable for plant at with a relation of wavelength to rate of photosynthesis. There is also a graph representing absorption rate with respect to Wavelength.

Impacts for red and blue light for Plants.

What will be recognized similarly as white light from the sun may be really constructed dependent upon for every last one of shades of the rainbow. Those three major shades for light would red, blue, and green. It could effectively make comprehended that plants don't absorb a great deal green light in light of it reflects off about them and under our eyes, settling on them show up green. Those reality that abandons don't as a rule show up blue or red implies that they absorb the individuals parts of the light range furthermore use them with develop. Those impact about blue light around plants may be specifically identified with chlorophyll preparation. Plants that get a lot from claiming blue light will bring strong, solid stems What's more abandons. Red light will be answerable for settling on plants bloom also transform apples and oranges. It's likewise fundamental with an plant's promptly existence to seed germination, root growth, Also knob improvement.

Red light alternately blue light for Plants.

Same time open air plants in full sun will characteristically accept both red What's more blue light, indoor plants might make needing clinched alongside it. Considerably plants next should a window might not a chance to be accepting enough of a sure and only those color range. If your plant may be getting leggy alternately losing those green color in its leaves, chances would it's not getting sufficient blue light. Whether it's not blooming at once you realize it ought (this may be a specific issue to Christmas cacti that decline to blossom In Christmas), it's likely needing to red light. You could supplement blue light with fluorescent Lights. Same time utilizing red light for plants will be could reasonably be expected with radiant bulbs, these regularly process excessively high temperature should make kept close houseplants. Use an expansive range fluorescent knob Rather. Sometimes, contamination could square key light. If your bad plant is next will An especially filthy window, the result will your issue Might a chance to be Likewise basic Likewise providing for it a great cleaning to relinquish Likewise considerably light concerning illustration conceivable.

White light (a mix for common and 40-w fluorescent) might have been utilized likewise those control light. The blue Also red light comprised of a 40-watt radiant light with those glass knob shaded red or blue. Know of the plants were presented of the light(s) 24 hours a day with the sunshine part being the special case. Know plants needed those same compost Also water sourball (a wicking fabric splashing previously, ionized water) Also constantly on plants required those same compartment extent. The compartment might have been settled on from claiming Styrofoam and 16 compartments were dedicated of the control plants, 8 committed to blue Also 8 committed to red. Every one of the plants needed those same sum about supplements What's more every area required two seeds set in the dirt. Those arch of the mechanical assembly might have been constructed of overwhelming obligation cardboard Furthermore tinfoil in this way as should stay with the sum light out but to those fancied color. Blue Furthermore red plants were held 8 inches starting with the light source same time those control plants were twelve inches far from their light source. The temperatures of the surrounding environments were:

BLUE - 50.5 degrees Celsius

RED - 52.6 degrees Celsius

CONTROL - 21.8 degrees Celsius

 This was explained by having the blue and red plants completely enclosed while the control plants remained open to the ambient air/environment. All of the plants were measured once a week. Stem length, number of cotyledons, number of flower buds, number of true leaves and number of flowers were recorded on a chart. Also indicated was no growth or dead zones.

Chart 1

Number of Leaves

Chart 2  

Height of stalk in centimeters

Chart 1 Also 2 obviously demonstrate that those red light section of the plants and the blue light segment didn't hold up great of the absence of accurate white light. Those white light plants were analyzed to averaged 23 abandons with a stalk tallness Normal of 13 inches. Between those blue Furthermore red light plants the Normal length of the stalks were 6 inches, for abandons numbering in the region for 8. Those primary purpose behind this is that white light is a mixture for every last one of shades in the unmistakable spectra.

In the thylakoid membranes from claiming plants the light absorbing particles known as pigments absorb and or reflect wavelengths about light. Chlorophyll a Furthermore chlorophyll b are 2 from claiming these pigments. Same time chlorophyll a absorbs mostaccioli [27] blue-violet and red light, chlorophyll b will be occupied absorbing blue also yellow-green light, Also transforming those vitality on chlorophyll a to utilize for light responses. Therefore there need aid likewise carotenoids occupied at work absorbing blue-green light. A standout amongst carotenoids vital works is that from claiming absorbing over the top light vitality that Might make hurtful of the other chlorophylls.

Chlorophyll a What's more chlorophyll b required significantly do for those analysis. Same time those red light plants required chlorophyll a attempting through time, they lacked the required supplements starting with chlorophyll b, and the carotenoids [27]. Vice-versa for the blue-light plants, these plants were accepting a lot of supplements type chlorophyll b, Nonetheless those carotenoids also chlorophyll a were essentially non-existent. Those just plants that completed great in the analyze were the white-light plants which were getting know of the photons starting with those unmistakable range Also were reaped those profit of the full extent of required synthetic responses the middle of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and the carotenoids.

Summary and Conclusion

This system was built to resolve problems like proper lighting for plants to grow even at nights at economical costs so that anyone who wants these growing lights can use them. This system has a unique approach towards implementation most of the components are easy to find with cheap cost making it more reliable to opt for. The main component being open source (Intel's Arduino) in nature gives this system a whole new independency for implementation. The approach was also simple using some sensors for accessing data, and using logics like yes or no to identify the current requirement of plant.

This system is applicable at any kind of garden whether it be a regular house garden or a much sophisticated greenhouse garden. The result analysis on this system have proved that this system has very less energy requirement the Arduino board uses a 5V power supply to run and the RGB uses a 12V external power source to glow, so over all the system uses very less energy and works efficiently. Other systems like drip irrigation and sprinkler irrigation system or more illuminated growing lights use more than 40V due to their large size, their working is also no efficient as they mostly throw white light but every plant has different requirement thus this system is more efficient. People can use this system quite easily as compared to other systems which are entirely wired and take lots of time to set up. On basis of energy usage for running and efficiently working as well as easy to use for user, it can be easily said this designed system is very handy and good.

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