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  • Subject area(s): Marketing
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  • Published on: 14th September 2019
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Topic one

President Lincoln started making plans for physical social and political rehabilitation of place rocked violence. He started many programs aimed at helping the south. Many southerners to be reconstructed and presented the suggestions that south needed to be reconstructed and fought against changes imposed on them by northerners and Republicans. The construction was aimed at reviving infrastructure southern government and economy.

Reconstruction succeeded in holding the nation together in the civil war. The federal government outlawed slavery in the 14th amendment and extended suffrage to all men in the 15th amendment. All the southern states drafted new constitutions, and African Americans were elected to political offices. The failures of the reconstruction were KKK, supreme courts sharecropping, and the democratic congress. The political forces in the reconstruction process were the President Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, and Ulysses S Grant.

Sharecropping: When people did not own land or lost their land after failing to pay loans they became share, croppers. The sharecroppers get half, and the landowner collected more than half of the harvest.

Presidential Reconstruction

In 1865, President Andrew Johnson executed a scheme of reconstruction that allowed the white south the privilege to regulate the transition from slavery to freedom and denied the blacks political right in the south. He later allowed the southerner to create new governments.

Freedmen Bureau

It consisted of US Bearer of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands was established in 1865 to help former black slaves after the aftermath if us civil war.

Impeachment of Andrew Johnson

It was the first impeachment in United States history of a sitting president by House of Representatives. He had failed to win the support of the Republicans. The radicals passed laws that aimed to give rights to the freed, and the president failed to implement them. This formed the basis for his impeachment

Fourteenth Amendment

This was an Amendment to the American Constitution on July 9 of 1868 as one of the Reconstruction amendments, the change of law addressed citizenship rights, equal treatment under the law and the welfare of the slaves.

Fifteenth Amendment

This amendment granted the African American the right to vote. The Amendment prohibited federal and state governments from prohibiting people to participate in democratic processes based on the color, race of the previous state of servitude.

"Black Codes."

These were laws passed by southern states in 1865 after the civil war that ad the intention of restricting the Blacks freedom and forcing them to work for low wages and debts.

Topic 2

In 1800, settlers moved westwards and gained control of Mexico, and this changed the politics of Americans.  The searched for more land for farming onto the West, and the United States became the world leading the agricultural nation. There was also the discovery of minerals in the west that boosted manufacturing industry. American settlers revolted against Mexican rule. The territorial disputes gave rise to war between the United States and Mexico that ended up giving America tracts of land. There were conflicts with after passing of Indian removal act by the Americans. This further escalated the unemployment rates.

Little big horn

The battle of the little bighorn was Calvary Regiment of the U.S Army. The battle was the famous action of the Great Sioux War of 1876 and happened near the Little Bighorn River.

The Wounded Knee Massacre

It happened on December 29, 1890, near Wounded Knee Creek (Lakota). On the previous day, detachment of the U.S 7th Cavalry Regiment commanded by Major Samuel M Whiteside, intercepted


Transcontinental Railroad is a railroad network crossing land and water mass that connects the Pacific Ocean to the Eastern U.S to the already built railway network at Iowa. The road was built to establish a network in the transportation of goods and people to Western America.

John Muir was a Scottish American naturalist who lived between 1838 and 1914. He was an environmental philosopher and early activist of preservation of wildlife in America. He wrote about his adventures in form of articles and books and devoted his last bit of life in the conservation of the Western forest.

Ghost dance is a spiritual movement that was formed in late 1880s and early 1890s to inspire hope to Native Americans and Indians when reservations were at their worst.

Exodusters was the term used to refer to the black Americans who moved from South States along river Mississippi to Kansas in the 18th century due to Civil War.

Topic 3

The number of industrial workers climbed from 0.89 M to 3.2 Million by 1900 that was characterized by the mechanized production and work. There were increased low-skilled laborers, women and children that performed simple jobs. Due to unskilled labor, there were many labor-related accidents. More immigrants filled the least skilled lowest skilled and more dangerous mines and factories. Due to poor working, the workers started forming unions, and the National Labor Union was founded in 1866 by William Sylvis.

This presided. Terrance Powderly led the Knights of Labors in the 1870s that called for social and economic changes including equal pay for men and women. Knights of Labor called for immigration restrictions and the government responded in 1882 with Chinese Exclusion Act. Samuel Gompers fronted American Federation of Labor, but the membership was split on the basis of religion and social differences. Between 18821-1905, more than 37, 000 took place involving more than 7 million workers.

Bessemer process

This was an economical industrial process for mass production of steel from iron before the open hearth furnace. This provided the material for railroads that fastened industrial revolution.

Thomas Edison

He was the leading investor in the areas of phonograph light bulbs and motion picture cameras. National labor union and created the first industrial research laboratory known as the "Wizard of Menlo Park."

Socialist Party

The socialist party was formed by sociologists Eugene Debs after the crushing of 1894 America railway union strike to liberate the working class  The trade union was not enough to bring out the change and the union evolved to political outfit.

Standard oil trust

It was formed in 1863 by John Rockefeller that became the largest oil refinery in the world. In 1870, it was renamed to standard oil company after which the Rockefeller acquired all the competitors and formed one major company. The passage of Antitrust Act forced the company to break seven sister companies.

Federation of Labor

 The union was formed by capitalist Samuel Gompers, who introduced the Mantra of simplicity in these unions. This movement was formed in May in 1886 by a group of craft unions that defected from the national labor union known as Knights of Labor.

Haymarket Square: It is famous as the site where a bomb was thrown at the police during labor demonstrations in 1886.The violence killed people, and eight labor activists were convicted in connection with the bombing.

Pullman strikes

This was a wide national strike that rocked railway construction sector in 1894 involving the collision of the America Railway Union and Pullman Company, which was the main player in the industry and the federal government.

Topic 4

In the years post the civil war, there was rapid expansion of the United States economy. The country was able to enact imperialism policy that enabled the country to expand its influence to other nations. Through mechanization and mass production, it allowed the United States to flood the market and emergence of an American corporation. The pattern of over production and under consumption led to trouble and accessing foreign markets was the only way to alleviate the problem. By 1890, many business leaders had started to eye overseas in search of new markets and investment opportunities.

As European powers raced to control Africa and competed with Japan, many influential figures felt it was time to make up and make economic spheres as well to safeguard its interests. Westward expansion: President Jefferson, almost double the size of the nation by negotiating a price of $ 15 million from France. The idea of "manifest destiny" led to rapid expansion of United States.

Civil service act of 1883

The law was passed after the assassination of President James A Garfield by a disgruntled job seeker. The act established a merit-based system of appointing government officials and supervision of their work. The act separated political influence in jobs giving and appointments.

Crime of 1873

This was demonetization of the silver that was enacted monetary coinage act of 1873. In 1792, the country was in able to set up the bimetallic standard and after the civil war the nation had not shifted from this monetary system. The crime occurs there was no balance between the market prices of Gold and Silver and nobody was willing to trade the Gold leading to a de facto silver standard.

Farmer’s Alliance

These were white farmers and southerners that begun in Texas and attempted to solve mounting financial challenges by forming corporative purchasing and marketing. They advocated for the sub-treasury plan and played a part in the establishment of Populist Party.

Depression of 1893

This was caused by a high unemployment rate that exceeded 10% for half a decade. This was caused by harsh economic conditions and European influences.

Teller Amendment

This was created by Henry Teller regarding the United States control and jurisdiction covers cube after the Spanish-American war.

Coxey army

This was a protest march by the unemployed workers from the United States business person Jacob Coxey. They protested to Washington DC in the second year of economic depression that was the worst financial crises witnessed in United States history.

Mc Kinley Act

The act was passed in 1890 that increased the tariffs on manufactured goods. The act hurt American farmers by raising the agricultural inputs and failed to address the short falling agricultural prices. The act had a negative impact on the American market.

Topic 5:

Booker T Washington, Dubois and Marcus Garvey were three black visionaries who offered solution to the problem that African Americans went through as a result of discrimination in the American society. Booker argued that Africans needed to first improve themselves in which recognition would follow as they could help in nation building. Booker pointed three areas in which they could use as a weapon in empowering themselves. The three areas of improvement included improving on their education, training in industrial sector and owning businesses. Dubois agreed to Booker’s idea and suggested that during self-improvement African Americans should not give up in their citizenship during the period. Marcus on the other hand had a different perspective on the matter. He argued that black Americans would never win the acceptance as equals within the American society. He proposed that their problems would only be solved if they developed their own societies or moved back to Africa


This was a political movement that emerged at the end of the 19th century as a response to inequalities in social, economic and political aspects. The movement’s idea was for the government to make efforts in making a change in the American society.

Margaret Sanger (1879-1966)

She was an American birth control activist and also provided education on matters relating to sex. She was a nurse and opened the first birth control clinic and established organizations that gave birth to Planned Parenthood Federation of America. In addition she is remembered for books and articles that she published in connection to her calling.

Shirtwaist Fire (1911)

She was the deadliest industrial fire disaster took place in the city of New York. It claimed approximately146 lives of workers in a garment industry. The name shirtwaist referred to a type of women blouses the company produced.

Anti-Saloon League

This was an organization in the U.S that prohibited the production, distribution and consumption of alcohol through lobbying and written forms in the beginning of the 20th century. It was formed under bureaucratic methods that were commonly used in business as a strengthening component.

Federal Reserve Act (1913)

This was a congress Act that was establish to create the Federal Reserve System as the central banking authority of the U.S. it was as a reaction to the need of reformation in the banking system.

Pure Food and Drug Act

This is an Act that was passed in 1906 and prohibits the production of adulteration food and food stuffs that were not inspected and classified as fit for human consumption. Its purpose was to eliminate consumable goods that were branded as healthful with no inspection records.

New Freedom’

This was the name given to the three books written by Woodrow Wilson. He used the book as a medium to communicate his ideas and thoughts in presidential campaign. He wrote three books with the title, two during his campaigns and one as the president of U.S. the third was on reformation that he was to make in business, traffic and banking sectors.

Topic 6

America employed a number of tactics during the world war I. one was the use of military tactics. They trained large number of militants who were healthy and had quality physical characteristics. The troops were conspicuous and were pushed to war by a feeling of moral superiority that made them fearless to danger. During the beginning they employed defensive offensive and later shifted to strategic offensive. The troops used heavy weapons such as tanks, machine guns, mortars, flame throwers among many others. Trench tactics were also employed. The authorities employed values such as liberty bonds which became a symbol of patriotic duty and brought the idea of financial security to the citizens. Sources of authority were the institutions that had the trust of citizens. The leaders used churches and other institutions to control neutrality in thought and deed to the American people.


Lusitania was a British ocean liner in which Blue Riband was contained. She was launched of stiff competition for the North Atlantic Trade and at the time she was the largest in capacity passenger ship.

League of Nations was an organization formed 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference. The organization was formed with a goal of preventing war by collecting arms from nations, settling disputes through negotiations and improving welfare globally.

Harlem Renaissance was the term given to a movement that spanned the 1920s. The term referred to the social-cultural explosion that happened in Harlem.

Palmer Raids were frequent mass arrests and expulsion of suspected socialists in late 1919 and beginning of 1920 from the U.S.

Charles Lindbergh was a U.S congressman from Minnesota who was born in 1859 and died in 1924. He took responsibility in exploration, aviation, was a military officer, social activist and was also an author.

Henry Ford was an American industrialist and the founder of Ford Motor Company. He sponsored the development of the assembly line technique for mass production and live between 1863 to 1947.

Houston Riot of 1917 also known as Camp Logan Riot was a mutiny by approximately 150 black soldiers from the Third Battalion of the Twenty-Forth United States Infantry Regiment. It took place for two hours in matching on the city of Houston.

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