This chapter discusses the methodology employed in this study. It begins with the research design, which is followed by the population of study, sample and sampling technique, research instruments used, administration of question. This chapter ends with the techniques used for the statistical data analysis.
There are two types of research: the first one is quantitative while the second is qualitative research. Quantitative research is an in depth exploration of what people think, feel or do and crucially, why quantitative research provides a measure of how many people think, feel or behave in a certain way and uses statistical analysis to determine the results (Marketing Donut, 2015). The major difference between both researches has to do with the sample of data, collection of data, analysis of data and the results of the analysis. This work uses survey by the use of quantitative system which seems to be more convenient for the collection of data.
3.2. Research Design
Research design helps in the structuring of investigation aimed at identifying variables and their relationships to one another (Asika, 2012). The design of the study is survey. It involves the gathering of data to analyse and describe policy making and implementation in Nigeria: A study of the amnesty programme.
An independent variable is the variable you have control over, what you can choose and manipulate (Ncsu.edu, 2015). It mostly has an influence on the independent variable. While a dependent variable, according to the way it sounds, is what will be measured; it is what the investigator thinks will be affected during the experience (Psychology4A.com, 2015). For this research, amnesty policy is the dependent variable while sustainable peace and development, corruption, ethnic pluralism and data gathering are the independent variables.
3.3. Population of the study
The population of this study is Delta State. Delta state has three senatorial districts and 25 Local Government Areas. In the 2006 Population and Housing Census, Delta state is made up of 2,069,309 males and 2,043,136 females (User, 2015) which totals 4,112,445. However, 5 Local Government Areas were selected for this study, owing to the large size of the state; they include Sapele, Ughelli North, Aniocha South, Ukwani, Warri south.
Table 3.1 Study Population
Senatorial Districts L.G.A Population
2006 Census 2011 Projected Census
Delta central Sapele
Ugelli North 174, 273
320, 687 204, 510
Delta north Aniocha south
Ukwani 142, 045
119, 034 166, 690
Delta south Warri south 311, 970 366, 100
Total 1, 068, 009 1, 253, 320
Source: (Nideref.org, 2015)
3.4. Sample and sampling technique
A sample of 250 respondents was taken from the total population of the selected local government areas. The sampling techniques employed was the cluster sampling which refers to a type of sampling method where the researcher divides the population into separate groups, called clusters and then, a simple random sample of clusters is selected from the population (Onlinecourses.science.psu.edu, 2015). Analyses would be conducted based on data acquired from the sampled clusters of this work. All the respondents were above 18 years of age.
3.5. Research instrument
The instrument used for the primary data collection was a questionnaire made up of two sections, A and B. Section a contained 8 questions for the bio-data of respondents, while section B contained (20 questions) in 4 items, which the respondents were expected to respond to at their disposition as rated below.
2. Name of Town/Village
3. Local Government Area
4. Marital Status
5. Family Size
6. Educational Qualification
Items 1 – 5 examined the relationship between amnesty policy and sustainable peace and development in the Niger Delta.
1. The Amnesty programme is not a lasting solution to the Niger Delta conflict.
2. The Niger Delta State should control all of their resources.
3. Government negligence deters socio-economic development.
4. The Amnesty programme will not bring lasting peace in the Niger Delta.
5. Youth empowerment and opportunity is one of the key solutions to Niger Delta conflict.
Items 6 -10 examined the relationship between corruption and policy making/implementation.
6. There is high rate of crime and conflict because of government failure to formulate and implement good policies.
7. The Niger Delta politicians divert fund meant for socio-economic development of the Niger Delta for their selfish purpose.
8. There is under development in the Niger Delta because of government negligence.
9. Sustainable peace and development cannot be achieved because of inadequate funding of policy implementation.
10. Influence of policy making process is the cause of policy failures.
Items 11 – 15 examined the relationship between ethnic pluralism and policy making implementation in Nigeria.
11. The minority ethnic groups struggle for political leadership in order to bring development.
12. The majority ethnic group has long deprived the minority ethnic group of their benefit from petroleum resources.
13. Ethnic/religions difference encourage crisis in Niger Delta.
14. Politicians struggle for national power in order to actualize socio-economic development.
15. Lasting peace can only be sustained through inter community conference/dialogue in the grass root area.
Items 16 – 20 examined the relationship between data gathering and policy making/implementation.
16. Political orientation can lead to sustainable peace and development.
17. Non-availability of irrelevant data leads to poor policy formulation and implementation.
18. Environmental support aids policy making and implementation.
19. Political communication encourages youth restiveness and violent conflict in the Niger Delta.
20. Lack of pre programme examination lead policy implementation failures.
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