Information Communication Technology (ICT) is the process of accessing or getting, storing, transferring, processing and transferring ideas and information through computers and other communication facilities (Fabunmi, 2012). Wikipedia defines ICT as the hardware and software of electronic devices such as computers, radio, television, digital camera, telephone, computers networks to improve communication. ICT has played a critical task in the development of any nation; it has been a tool for achieving social, economic, educational, scientific and technological development (Adedeji, 2010).
The development of science and technology has made incredible improvement in the lifestyle of the society today. It has Influence almost all walks of life, especially, the magnetic words; Information Technology has been chanted in all corner of the world and has been incorporated in organization, managerial, development and marketing sectors. These are services offered with the aid of Information Communication Technology (ICT) which are faster and more effective. Libraries have not been exempted from the impact of the ICTs. The implementations of ICT in the library and Information Centers have made great improvement in the management of these centers. These have made libraries users friendly and have improved the efficiency of the library professionals (Kumar, 2011).
According to Khan et al, (2012) Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have impacted greatly on many fields including teaching, learning, research, and school management in a many ways. In libraries ICT has made information faster from acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval. Also it has improved the service delivery of library and information services reducing time, distance and other barriers. However, it is extensively settled that ICT adoption in libraries is not a solution for all library problems as initially assumed. Regardless of their remarkable potential, ICTs have also brought different challenges that must be dealt with to boost the efficiency of libraries in unindustrialized countries.
Avemari, (2011) describes library automation as computer use and general/ customized software designed for library and information services procedures that are used to perform specific information services deliver. Globally automation in libraries first began in the 1960s. According to Muhammad (2014) Libraries automation began in the 1970s, where libraries began adopting software applications and Machine Readable Cataloguing (MARC). In 1980s, network technologies, optical discs, CD-ROMs and communications technologies were introduced. The major goal of the early technology applications was used in automation circulation, acquisitions and the catalogue to make library operation and services efficient and effective. The 1990s witnessed radical changes in the application ICTs in libraries such as the Internet, World Wide Web protocols. The 2000s is an era of digital libraries, virtual collections, paperless environment and 24/7 instant remote access to unlimited resources.
In Africa it began in 1950s, however, there were several challenges which were making it harder for academic libraries to adopt it, thus depriving them of the several touted benefits a library stands to gain from automating its services. In Kenya, most libraries, especially universities, schools, private organizations and little-funded institutions, were using Computerised Documentation System/Integrated Set of Information System (CDS/IS) library software. CDS/ISIS was used mainly for maintaining databases. For instance, the University of Nairobi maintains a list of research theses in Kenyan institutions of higher learning and a list of publications held in libraries in Kenya using Computerised Documentation System/Integrated Set of Information System(CDS/IS)(Mutula, 2012).
Kamba (2011) also noted that Information Communication and Technologies are not well spread and utilized in African higher learning institutions, mainly due to poor communication network, inadequate ICT hardware and software and governmentâ€™s ineptitude to provide adequate funds to run the libraries. Inadequacy of skilled staff, lack of theoretical knowledge, lack of computer culture, lack of knowledge on the importance of ICT, lack of funds were among other factors have been cited by several authors.
1. 2 Statement of Problem
ICTs have become an important subject for all information providers. This is because of its relevance and application to tasks in the library such as quick and easier access of information and performing of library tasks with greater efficiency. Despite these benefits of ICT use many libraries are still not automated. Most of the problems faced by these libraries include; lack of sufficient funds to support the purchase of the technology, lack of qualified library professionals, lack of motivation and poor remuneration need among librarians to adopt ICT in their daily operations, lack of awareness of ICT potential users and poor attitude of library staff on automation. Other problems such as government policies, maintenance and security issues also consist of challenges faced by the libraries in the adoption of and implementation of ICT.
Libraries need adequate finances to obtain current ICT facilities such as scanners, photocopiers, computers, servers, software and paying of online and offline services such as e- journals and digital libraries which are very expensive to be purchased, and this has made many libraries lag behind because of insufficient funds. Lack of qualified professional has been a great hindrance to adoption since most of the staff do not have adequate skills to handle computers and other information technologies.
Staff motivation, poor remuneration and attitude have also been considered as factors affecting adoption in libraries. This has contributed to migration of skilled labor in search of better job opportunities abroad thus affecting the adoption of ICTs. Staff attitude has also been considered as problem since most staff feel that automation of libraries will take away their jobs. Lack of sufficient information on the potential user has also been a problem that hinders adoption, since most users had bad perception on ICT. University libraries need to sensitize their students and library staff that ICTs are very important part of library and library systems. They make it possible for information to be easily accessible, available with minimal effort. Given that libraries are the physical foundation of knowledge. It is therefore critical that they are equipped and every opportunity to make them efficient explored. However various factors impede the progress for the adoption of ICTs in universities. Therefore the study will assess the factors that influence the adoption and use of ICT in the university libraries in Kenya.
1.3 General Objective of the Study
This aim of the study is to assess the factors influencing adoption and use of Information Communication Technology in the Kenyan University Libraries.
1.3.1 Specific Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the studies were:
i. To determine whether students and staff perception and attitudes towards ICT has influence adoption and use of ICT in at the University of Eldoret library.
ii. To analyze effects of perceived benefits of ICT in the adoption and use ICTs at University of Eldoret library.
iii. To establish how the availability of ICT technologies has influenced the adoption and use of ICTs in University of Eldoret library.
1.4 Research Hypotheses
i. Ho1: The students and staff perception and attitude towards ICT has no significant influence on the adoption and use of ICT at the University of Eldoret library.
ii. Ho2: Perceived benefits of ICT have no significant effect on the adoption and use ICTs at the University of Eldoret library.
iii. Ho3: The availability of ICT technologies has no significant influence on the adoption and use of ICT at the University of Eldoret library.
1.5 Assumption of the Study
The study assumes the respondent selected to participate in the study were honest and truthful and they represent the population of the study.
1.5 Significance of the Study
i. The study findings were beneficial to the library staff and users of the University of Eldoret to acknowledge the benefits of ICT usage in the library.
ii. The study findings will be of useful to the entire university as it will provide sufficient information on ICT and it will make them have positive attitude towards ICT use in the library.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study was carried at the University of Eldoret Library. The research concentrated on factors influencing the adoption and use of ICT in the university library.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The limitations of the study were the area of study; the study was carried out at University of Eldoret Library. Secondly, the researcher had no control over the sincerity of the respondents in giving accurate and reliable responses. This also depended on individual capacity to read and understand the English language in a way that conveyed the same meaning to every respondent.
1.9 Conceptual Frame Work of the Study
The conceptual framework is used to show the association linking the dependent and independent variables. CT adoption is the dependent variable in the study. The dependent variable provides the solution to the problem i.e. what contributes the University to adopt ICT in their Libraries? In this situation, the study has tested three independent variables i.e. perceived benefit of ICT, user and staff perception and attitude towards ICT, and availability of Technology. These factors are believed to have some influences towards the dependent variable (ICT adoption) either in positive or negative way.
Figure 1 Conceptual Framework
1.9.1 Perceived benefits of ICT
One of the factors that might affect ICT adoption in the firms is the benefits. Peyala (2011) asserts that computerization of acquisition unit enhances funds control, quick and easy checking of approved books, devoid of duplication is managed. There are several benefits that have been made accessible through ICT adoption and there are still several organizations that are not taking advantage of ICT. Therefore, perceived benefits are taken into consideration as one of the factors that affect ICT adoption in Libraries.
1.9.2 Students and staff perception and attitude on ICTs
Attitudes of librarian are crucial in the adoption and use of ICTs in the libraries because they librarians affect the adoption if they are not checked properly. The acceptance of the ICTs by library professional is a crucial factor in the realization of the mission of the university library. For successful utilization of technologies in university libraries librarian should change their attitude toward these ICT tool.
1.9.3 Availability of ICT Technology
The availability and utilization of ICT facilities is essentially to fast track the processes about and to ensure that information resources spend the least period of time in library. Use of ICT technologies in the libraries provides most effective and efficient retrieval option to the library clientele. In computer system and network, availability has been described as the amount of time facility is available in the wake of components over a specified period of time.
1.9.4 Management Support
Management support refers to the degree to which an individual believes that management has committed to the successful implementation and use of a system. Duan (2012) Believes it ensures the limited resources and technological expertise are allocated for the embracing of new technology. Many university libraries are still lagging behind in terms of technology adoption due to lack of management commitment to support the technology both financially and formulating pertinent policies that provide the essential infrastructure for adoption of ICT.
1.10. Operational Definition of Terms
Adoption: In the study adoption is used to show how libraries are changing functions of the library from manual paperwork to the use of machines.
Attitude: in the study attitude has been used to show how user feels about ICT use in the libraries.
Perceived benefits: In the study benefits has been used to show the how ICT has influenced the service delivery in the library easy.
ICT: In the study ICT has been used as technologies used to generate process, store and disseminate information.
ICT application: it has been used in the study to show ICT based serviced in the Library.
Library Automation: In the study it has been used to define the application of ICT in the day to day operations of the library.
Library Networking has been used in the study to show a group of Libraries and Information Centers that are interconnected for some common pattern or design for information exchange and communication with a view to improve efficiency.
Library Management Library Management includes the following activities which are geared up by the use of these fast ICT based developments, Classification, Cataloging, Indexing, Database creation, Database Indexing.
Digital library: has been used in the study to mean a library in with a significant proportion of the resources that is available in machine-readable and accessible by means of computers.
E-reference services: has been used to show how electronic references services that has been enhanced with the use of ICTs.
Online Searching: has been used to refer to searchable information o on line. Which includes electronic resources and databases can be searched using the Internet through search engines.
Virtual library: has been used in the study to mean access points as well as the graphic records are in electronic/digital form when these electronic/digital libraries are connected via various networks, particularly the internet, this is called virtual library
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