This chapter presents the methodology employed in this study. After providing the details of the research design, it presents the population of study, sample and the sampling technique used, and the research instruments employed. This chapter concludes by explaining the techniques used for the statistical data analysis.
There are two main types of research: quantitative and qualitative research. While qualitative research is an in-depth exploration of what people think, feel or do and crucially, quantitative research provides a measure of how many people think, feel or behave in a certain way and uses statistical analysis to determine the results (Marketing Donut, 2015). The major difference between both approaches relates to the sampling collection, and the analysis of the data and the types of results obtained from the analysis. This work utilizes survey research, which is one of the quantitative approaches of data collection and was more convenient for the collection of data for this study.
Research design helps in the structuring of investigation aimed at identifying variables and their relationships to one another (Asika, 2012). This research is designed as a case study of Nigeria's Amnesty Programme, and gathers data on policy making and implementation in Nigeria through a quantitative survey.
An independent variable is the variable you have control over, what you can choose and manipulate (Ncsu.edu, 2015). It mostly has an influence on the dependent variable. While dependent variable is what will be measured; it is what the investigator thinks will be affected during the experience (Psychology4A.com, 2015). For this research, amnesty policy is the dependent variable while sustainable peace and development, corruption, ethnic pluralism and data gathering are the independent variables.
3.3. Population of the study
The population of this study is Delta State. Delta state has three senatorial districts and 25 Local Government Areas. In the 2006 Population and Housing Census, Delta state is made up of 2,069,309 males and 2,043,136 females (User, 2015) which totals 4,112,445. However, five Local Government Areas were selected for this study, owing to the large size of the state; they include Sapele, Ughelli North, Aniocha South, Ukwani, Warri south.
A sample of 250 respondents was taken from the total population of the selected local government areas. The sampling techniques employed was the cluster sampling which refers to a type of sampling method where the researcher divides the population into separate groups, called clusters and then, a simple random sample of clusters is selected from the population (Onlinecourses.science.psu.edu, 2015). Analyses would be conducted based on data acquired from the sampled clusters of this work. All the respondents were above 18 years of age.
3.5. Research instrument
The instrument used for the primary data collection was a questionnaire made up of two sections, A and B. Section A contained eight questions for the bio-data of respondents, while section B contained (20 questions) in four items, which the respondents were expected to respond to at their disposition by agreeing, disagreeing or remaining undecided. The sample of the questionnaire is provided in appendix A.
3.6 Data collection
Data collection employed the use of questionnaire (a total of 250) which was written in English language. Due to the fact that most of the respondents were foreseen to have little interest in reading, the questions were read to the respondents in easily understood way. Local language was used by the administrator to explain the questions and its purposes to the illiterate respondents. The respondents that were met in the right mood were hand-distributed the questionnaires and answered without supervision. Some totally refused to answer the questionnaire and some went away with the questionnaire for reasons best known to them. This administration was done randomly in five Local Government Areas which featured Police Stations, Schools, Post Offices, Car Parks, and Churches. Due to the area of focus of this study and the jurisdiction of interest, which is my State in Nigeria, a colleague in Nigeria, who is an expert in Data Collection and a professional in dealing with huge information in coded form, was involved to help administer the questionnaire, collect, code and send to North Cyprus through email in SPSS 20 version. While this research began during the month of February, the questionnaire was formulated by the researcher, vetted by the supervisor before approval and sent to Nigeria for administration in the population sample.
The questionnaire administration, collection and coding took place between 3rd of May and 25th of June 2015.
3.7 Data analysis
A total of 250 questionnaires were taken to the field of survey and successfully distributed in the five Local Government Areas. About 243 questionnaires were recovered back from the field, and they were coded by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 20. The analysis includes the use of descriptive analysis to express the frequency distribution of the respondents in areas of their personal information. Chi-Square test was employed to mathematically ascertain how significant the relationships between the dependent variables and independent variables are.
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