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  • Published on: 14th September 2019
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This paper aims to discuss the relevance of computing in the practice of management in an operating institution. Actor-Network Theory is a relevant theory for studying computing in management.

Case story 1:

Alex Stamos, Yahoo's chief information security officer, gave the first public demo Sunday of its new encrypted email service designed to make it easier for average users to send and scrambled email  messages that not even Yahoo can read.

But, at the Southwest conference in Austin, Texas., Stamos acknowledged the new service won't let users completely mask their digital communications. Even if the message is unreadable, data about the message- such as when it was sent, to whom and its bject line- remain readable. That's so the message can be routed across the internet.

Yahoo expects the encrypted email to be available by the end of the year.

Some security hawks think consumers should abandon email for new messaging systems- some based in smartphone apps- that don't leave the same digital traces.

For now, that's impractical, Stamos said. “We're one of the world's email providers. We're not going to throw away email,” he said.

For instance, he noted that the most used function in email systems is the “search” feature, used more often than writing emails. Searching the text of thousands of messages becomes much harder if the data is encrypted.

Still, yahoo's encrypted appears to be notably faster than the current favorite, through a version of PGP encryption ( which, notably, stands of “pretty good privacy”)

In a video , Stamos showed how he could set up the encrypted yahoo too and send a message in a minute, half the time it took him to do the same with traditional PGP tools.

He used the extra time to look at cat pictures on Yahoo's Tumblr.

Analysis

This story focuses on the impact of encryption protocols, a digital actant, on the computing assemblage. Assemblages have many levels. Or scales, on which an actant can act.

Encryption protocol acts at the technical level in the assemblage by making an email unreadable to any but the intended recipient. The story highlights a technical risk of allowing encryption protocol to act- it can disconnect other actants, for example, prevent the digital actant “email message” ( if fully encrypted) from moving through the internet, and it can make the work of algorithm that searches for text in emails more difficult.

At the scale of culture, the story identifies how encryption protocol could change the culture of how we send and receive emails (from browser to smartphone app).

At the political-economic scale, the encryption protocol actant connects humans to yahoo's business plan, as encryption can change how many humans are willing to sign up for yahoo's account; and to politics by affecting ability of state and business to snoop on emails.

I connect the issue of human actants in the assemblage having increasing privacy concerns as possibly being due to the bigger issues of WikiLeaks, Snowden and rise of pervasive computing, e.g. Internet of Things, wearables, ”big data.”

Case story 2:

Facebook's internet.org initiative aims to connect ‘the next 5 billion people'

Facebook may be reaching 1.15 billion people a month, but the social network has grander ambitions to connect many more people. The main barrier: whether they have internet access at all.

Now chief executive Mark Zuckerberg is spearheading an initiative- internet.org – that aims to ensure they do. Facebook is one of its founding partner alongside Samsung, Qualcomm, Ericsson, Nokia, Opera and  MediaTek.

The body's goals involve collaborating on technologies to reduce the cost of internet access; make apps that are more efficient in their data usage;  and form partnerships with local operators and companies on new business models for providing internet access. “ there are huge barriers in developing  countries to connecting and joining the knowledge economy,” said Zuckerberg  as he announced the new alliance.

Analysis using actor-network theory

This story focuses on the impact that Facebook's Internet .org business plan, a structural actant, has the computing assemblage by granting free but limited internet services to potential users around the world.

Internet .org establishes itself as the gate

Computing management application offers PeopleSoft enterprise that transforms the usual routine and processes to maintain proper function and effectiveness. It is also being automated as a computer system having a flexible development computer clouding environment that integrates all kinds of business model tools essential in computation processes. It also contains predictive outputs from computed multi-network channeling and supports system-specific diagnosis and necessary tools. This applicability is compatible with computing management for it creates comfortable and convenient network access safely which are configurable by employees in a certain organization for computing resources which can be provisioned and released with low supervision or minimal inspection.

Lastly, computing management creates Customer Relationship Management which is applicable for connecting all members of a certain organization promoting harmonious interpersonal relationship at workplaces with a secured environment while conducting operational management. It enhances any organization that will absolutely empower them to deliver high-quality products and services to the dedicated client, consumers and all members in the public through a secured and protected process of transaction services. Troy (2004) indicated that this will enhance marketing procedure which will increase the system's financial performance and productivity by helping to fasten computing management in accounting services, transaction, and in legal procedures to allow faster service which will impress the clients. This method allows the valuable client to dedicate themselves with the organization for committing him or herself to become a long term client and establishing long-term regular transactions which are a positive outcome from the effects of proficient computing process brought by the support of computing management. Furthermore, it protects the client's dignity and confidentiality due to the firm security protection made by the support of computing management in securing transaction procedures and financial securities according to Troy (2004).

Another thing is the presence of data segregation in clouding operations which are being brought by encryption accidents performed by specialists for which it permanently damage stored data and makes it unusable. Some normal encryption systems will segregate relevant data which creates problems to clouding transactions because the authorized employee will presume that these misplaced and segregated data as a lost and deleted data. This will cause chaos and miscommunication that alters the clouding process in accounting and in financial computations due to the absence and missing data which have been segregated by encryption. This will cause security threat and it will lead to its availability for outside interests to obtain that lost data or information that negatively impacts the company's clouding process and procedures.

Database Input and Output issue associated with having database on a computing management

In a database that takes place in the input and output framework when utilizing cloud processes, there is SGL server that are embedded and contributes some disadvantages. There are issues regarding on system corruption is one of the most considered issues affecting I/O which can cause master database file inconsistency to have malfunctioning activity. In severe situations, the database becomes totally inaccessible for the users who are having cloud networking services in which files are now being lost and deleted forever. In order to retrieve your important back to r essay in here...

“An Actant in modern computing does not act in isolation.”

Computing in management

Introduction

This paper aims to discuss the relevance of computing in the practice of management in an operating institution. Actor-Network Theory is a relevant theory for studying computing in management.

Case story 1:

Alex Stamos, Yahoo's chief information security officer, gave the first public demo Sunday of its new encrypted email service designed to make it easier for average users to send and scrambled email  messages that not even Yahoo can read.

But, at the Southwest conference in Austin, Texas., Stamos acknowledged the new service won't let users completely mask their digital communications. Even if the message is unreadable, data about the message- such as when it was sent, to whom and its bject line- remain readable. That's so the message can be routed across the internet.

Yahoo expects the encrypted email to be available by the end of the year.

Some security hawks think consumers should abandon email for new messaging systems- some based in smartphone apps- that don't leave the same digital traces.

For now, that's impractical, Stamos said. “We're one of the world's email providers. We're not going to throw away email,” he said.

For instance, he noted that the most used function in email systems is the “search” feature, used more often than writing emails. Searching the text of thousands of messages becomes much harder if the data is encrypted.

Still, yahoo's encrypted appears to be notably faster than the current favorite, through a version of PGP encryption ( which, notably, stands of “pretty good privacy”)

In a video , Stamos showed how he could set up the encrypted yahoo too and send a message in a minute, half the time it took him to do the same with traditional PGP tools.

He used the extra time to look at cat pictures on Yahoo's Tumblr.

Analysis

This story focuses on the impact of encryption protocols, a digital actant, on the computing assemblage. Assemblages have many levels. Or scales, on which an actant can act.

Encryption protocol acts at the technical level in the assemblage by making an email unreadable to any but the intended recipient. The story highlights a technical risk of allowing encryption protocol to act- it can disconnect other actants, for example, prevent the digital actant “email message” ( if fully encrypted) from moving through the internet, and it can make the work of algorithm that searches for text in emails more difficult.

At the scale of culture, the story identifies how encryption protocol could change the culture of how we send and receive emails (from browser to smartphone app).

At the political-economic scale, the encryption protocol actant connects humans to yahoo's business plan, as encryption can change how many humans are willing to sign up for yahoo's account; and to politics by affecting ability of state and business to snoop on emails.

I connect the issue of human actants in the assemblage having increasing privacy concerns as possibly being due to the bigger issues of WikiLeaks, Snowden and rise of pervasive computing, e.g. Internet of Things, wearables, ”big data.”

Case story 2:

Facebook's internet.org initiative aims to connect ‘the next 5 billion people'

Facebook may be reaching 1.15 billion people a month, but the social network has grander ambitions to connect many more people. The main barrier: whether they have internet access at all.

Now chief executive Mark Zuckerberg is spearheading an initiative- internet.org – that aims to ensure they do. Facebook is one of its founding partner alongside Samsung, Qualcomm, Ericsson, Nokia, Opera and  MediaTek.

The body's goals involve collaborating on technologies to reduce the cost of internet access; make apps that are more efficient in their data usage;  and form partnerships with local operators and companies on new business models for providing internet access. “ there are huge barriers in developing  countries to connecting and joining the knowledge economy,” said Zuckerberg  as he announced the new alliance.

Analysis using actor-network theory

This story focuses on the impact that Facebook's Internet .org business plan, a structural actant, has the computing assemblage by granting free but limited internet services to potential users around the world.

Internet .org establishes itself as the gate

Computing management application offers PeopleSoft enterprise that transforms the usual routine and processes to maintain proper function and effectiveness. It is also being automated as a computer system having a flexible development computer clouding environment that integrates all kinds of business model tools essential in computation processes. It also contains predictive outputs from computed multi-network channeling and supports system-specific diagnosis and necessary tools. This applicability is compatible with computing management for it creates comfortable and convenient network access safely which are configurable by employees in a certain organization for computing resources which can be provisioned and released with low supervision or minimal inspection.

Lastly, computing management creates Customer Relationship Management which is applicable for connecting all members of a certain organization promoting harmonious interpersonal relationship at workplaces with a secured environment while conducting operational management. It enhances any organization that will absolutely empower them to deliver high-quality products and services to the dedicated client, consumers and all members in the public through a secured and protected process of transaction services. Troy (2004) indicated that this will enhance marketing procedure which will increase the system's financial performance and productivity by helping to fasten computing management in accounting services, transaction, and in legal procedures to allow faster service which will impress the clients. This method allows the valuable client to dedicate themselves with the organization for committing him or herself to become a long term client and establishing long-term regular transactions which are a positive outcome from the effects of proficient computing process brought by the support of computing management. Furthermore, it protects the client's dignity and confidentiality due to the firm security protection made by the support of computing management in securing transaction procedures and financial securities according to Troy (2004).

Another thing is the presence of data segregation in clouding operations which are being brought by encryption accidents performed by specialists for which it permanently damage stored data and makes it unusable. Some normal encryption systems will segregate relevant data which creates problems to clouding transactions because the authorized employee will presume that these misplaced and segregated data as a lost and deleted data. This will cause chaos and miscommunication that alters the clouding process in accounting and in financial computations due to the absence and missing data which have been segregated by encryption. This will cause security threat and it will lead to its availability for outside interests to obtain that lost data or information that negatively impacts the company's clouding process and procedures.

Database Input and Output issue associated with having database on a computing management

In a database that takes place in the input and output framework when utilizing cloud processes, there is SGL server that are embedded and contributes some disadvantages. There are issues regarding on system corruption is one of the most considered issues affecting I/O which can cause master database file inconsistency to have malfunctioning activity. In severe situations, the database becomes totally inaccessible for the users who are having cloud networking services in which files are now being lost and deleted forever. In order to retrieve your important back to your main database, you may need to repair and also to restore these corrupted filed using SQL database recovery solutions. Repeated inconsistent database inputs will cause damage and affects the queues of messages being sent by the processors which alter routine procedures which is why it leads to overloading and then corruption of database files and stored information.

Computing failures that have been indicated from errors in system process if there are components and structures that are malfunctioning at work. Employee management is one of the most important segment in utilizing communication through cloud manipulation and mobilization of incoming and outgoing information so problems in processing information that will also halt the flow of input and output mechanisms that improves the workplace. In this case, information will not be processed, delivered and utilized effectively due to the facts that failure of processor's function will shut down cloud service frameworks. Another party will be unresponsive and because the incoming message or outgoing messages will be affected and this will lead to possible conflicts, misunderstanding and failure of the operation. The administrative maintenance should check all working system's tools and conduct a routine inspection to identify possible processors that are not working or being damaged to prevent delaying of data processing.

Multimedia computing also confronts issues in data system which it focuses on handling video and audio Medias which are used in teleconferencing between users in the company. This is being brought by the inability to service real-time playback applications that require real-time output and hinders the staff and employees to conduct group discussion and attending important events and transactions. Multimedia computing is one of the most important clouding operations for it connects users which are administrators and facilitators who will present reports regarding market values and outcomes in business perspectives. To facilitate the problem, the multimedia clouding processing system should be tested before being used by the staff for communication to avoid delay of the transaction as being stated by Menezes (2008).

Implication

In operating institutions, computing management desires to promote employee management. Computing aims to strengthen the skill and level of professionalism of employees and managers. The reason behind is that it seeks to promote the trust as well as the emotional well-being of employees to improve their skills at the workplace. Computing is designed to promote the quality of management that is being applied in order for the company to become productive. Computing promotes systematic management that can be promoting the standards of practice that is managed by an operating institution. For this reason, it seeks to increase the level of client satisfaction because there is an organized way of completing all data as well as activities that are intended to improve workplace management.

“An  actant in modern computing does not act in isolation.”

Reference:

Morales, Troy (2004).”Computing management Company Facts and Insights”. San Francisco: Horton Press.

Yardron, D. (2015). Yahoo Exec Shows Encrypted Email at SXSW. Available:

http://blogs.wsj/digits/2015/03/15/yahoo-exec-shoes-encrypted-email-at-sxsw/.last accessed 4 December 2015

Callon, M. (1997). ‘Actor-Network Theory – The Market Test (draft)' Actor Network and After Workshop. Centre for Social Theory and Technology (CSTT), Keele University, UK

http://www.keele.ac.uk/depts/stt/stt/ant/callon.htm, 31 July 1997.

Latour, B. (1999) On Recalling ANT, in J. Law and J. Hassard (Eds) Actor-Network Theory and After, Sociological Review Monographs, Wiley-Blackwell: London.

Latour, B. (2005) Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Law, J. (2008) Actor-network theory and material semiotics. In: Brian Turner, (Ed.). The new Blackwell companion to social theory. (pp. 141-158). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Al-Muhtadi, J., Ranganathan, A., Campbell, R., Mickunas, M.D.: A flexible, privacy-preserving authentication framework for ubiquitous computing environments. In: Proceedings of 22nd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops. IEEE, Los Alamitos (2002)

Menezes, Kate (2008).”Cloud servicing and Process”. Journal on Information Technology. Huntington Press.

Torsche, Hovern (2005).”Database Security and Management”. Academic Press.

Vaugn, Von Blane (2009).”System Security”. World Book Almanac. Scott-Fetzer Publishing: New York.

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