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Assessment of Service Quality in Public and Private Sector Banks of India with Special Reference to Jaipur City

Abstract- Service quality is defined as a global opinion, or attitude, concerning to the superiority of the service. In today's growing competitive world providing service quality is significant for any service industry. This study deals with service quality gaps in banks as after nationalization of several commercial banks competition was restricted but with the entry of new generation tech-savvy private banks the banking sector has become too competitive. For comparative purposes, five service quality dimensions are used i.e. tangibility, reliability, assurance, responsiveness and empathy. The 22 items SERVQUAL scale based on gap model proposed by Parasuraman, Zeithmal and Berry was used. A sample size of 110 was taken. Gap analysis was applied to find the gaps between expected and performed service in private and public Banks of Jaipur  to find difference between perception and expectation. Data was collected from total 100 customers of jaipur public and private sector banks using Questionnaire. The results show that dimensions of service quality such as Tangibility, Reliability, Responsiveness, Empathy and Assurance significantly forecast customer trust and commitment. Private bank customers are more committed and satisfied as they receive better quality of service. The study implies that public sector banks should also come forward and try their best to provide better quality service to win back their customers

Keywords- Service Quality, Service quality gaps, Expectation and Perception.

Introduction

Banks play a significant and active role in the financial and economic development of a Nation. An effective banking system significantly impacts the growth of a nation in various sectors of the economy. Service quality is a evaluation of expectations with performance. From the point of view of business management, service quality is an achievement in customer service. It reflects at each service encounter. A customer's expectation of a particular service is determined by factors such as recommendations by peers, personal needs and past experiences. The expected service and the perceived service sometimes may not be at par, thus leaving a gap. The service quality model or the „GAP model‟ developed by the authors- Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry at Texas and North Carolina in 1985, highlights the main requirements for delivering high service quality. It identifies „gaps‟ that cause fruitless delivery of service. Customers generally have a tendency to evaluate the service they 'experience' with the service they 'expect'. If the experience does not equal the expectation, there arises a gap

According to Parasuraman, Zeithmal and Berry Service quality is the degree and direction of difference between consumer's perceptions and expectations in terms of different but relatively vital dimensions of the service quality, which can affect their future purchasing behavior.

According to Smith  Service quality can be defined as meeting the needs and expectations of the customer

Review of Literature

Jain, V, Gupta, S and Jain, S (2012) in their study “Customer Perception on Service Quality in Banking Sector: With Special Reference to Indian Private Banks in Moradabad Region” focus on  the customer perception regarding service quality and to learn and understand the different dimension of service quality in banks. The Sample size used is 100 and the sample population is Moradabad. The service quality model developed by Zeithamal, Parsuraman and Berry (1988) has been used in the present study. The analysis reveals that among the private sector banks all the dimensions of service quality are equally important.

Malhotra and  Mukherjee, (2004).It is crucial for banks to better understand changing customer needs and adopt the latest information technology system in order to compete more effectively with global organizations.

Ananth, A, Ramesh, R and B, Prabaharan (2010) in their paper “A Service Gap Analysis in Private Sector Banks- an Empirical Study of Customers‟ Expectations vs. Perceptions” evaluate the Quality of Service in selected private sector banks (ICICI & CUB). They also tried to make out the gap between customer expectations and their perceptions. The Sample Universe is CUB and ICICI. The study followed SERVQUAL as a framework and one dimension (accessibility) was added to the previous dimensions to fit into the study. The gap analysis shows that empathy shows a bigger gap between customer expectation and perception of service quality. The multi - regression analysis shows that the dimension Empathy Reliability-Assurance positively influences the banking service quality.

Brahmbhatt, M and Panelia, D (2008) in their study “An Assessment of Service Quality in Banks” Foremost aim of this research is to comparatively examine and measure of service quality and customer satisfaction among private sector, public sector and foreign bank and to offer suggestion based on results of the study. The Sample size was 246 and the Sample universe included Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar. The Sampling Technique used was stratified random. The five dimensions of SERVQUAL as proposed by Parasuraman et al. (1988), Othman and Owen (2001, 2002) and Jabnoun and Al-Tamimi (2003) were adapted and modified in this study. They conclude from the study that Foreign Banks is better than public sector banks and private sector banks

Objective

• To measure and analyze the quality of services provided by public sector and private sector   Banks in Jaipur.

• To ascertain service quality variations across selected banks by demographic variations.

• To measure the customer satisfaction in selected public and private sector banks by analyzing   

    the gap between expectations and their perceptions of banking services

Research Methodology

Primary data has been collected mainly through structured questionnaire. Perception and expectation of private bank‟s customers has been obtained on a 5-point Likert‟s scale, ranging from „highly disagree‟ to „highly agree‟. The data has been collected from Jaipur City using convenience sampling and sample size of 110 Secondary data related to previous studies has been obtained from authentic sources like books, and online magazines and journals Questionnaires were personally delivered by hand at workplaces and homes, which was used as a method for data collection. The respondents (59 of public sector banks and 51 of private sector banks) were required to record their perceptions and expectations of the service of the respective public sector Bank and private sector banks in Jaipur. Three public sector banks-SBI, PNB and BOB and three private sector banks –HDFC, ICICI and Axis were selected for the study. The study is based on the assumption that all banks belong to the same category. This categorization was based on the responses of the customers. The parameters identified are Tangibility, Assurance Reliability, Responsiveness and Empathy.

.

Data Analysis

DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS

Table 1: GENDER WISE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS

Gender Number & % of respondents

Public sector banks Private sector banks

No. % No. %

Male 38 64.55 38 74.73

Female 21 35.45 13 25.27

    

     Table 2: AGE WISE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS

Age Number & % of respondents

Public sector banks Private sector banks

No. % No. %

<25 years 7 11.82 6 12.1

25-35 10 16.36 17 33.15

35-45 14 23.64 15 28.95

45-55 15 25 9 17.36

>55 13 23.18 4 8.44

Table3: EDUCATION WISE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS

   

Table 4: OCCUPATION WISE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS

Occupation Number & % of respondents

Public sector banks Private sector banks

No. % No. %

Government 15 25 6 11.58

Private 16 26.82 17 33.15

Professional 6 09.55 12 22.63

Business 5 09.55 11 21.58

Student 7 11.36 3 06.32

Others 10 17.72 2 04.74

Table 5: INCOME WISE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS

Income/Rs. Number & % of respondents

Public sector banks Private sector banks

No. % No. %

<10,0000 6 10.91 2 04.74

10,000-15,000 10 17.27 6 11.58

15,000-25,000 16 26.36 12 22.63

25,000-40,000 19 32.73 15 28.95

>40,000 8 12.73 16 32.10

VI.   ANALYSIS OF CHI SQUARE TEST OF INDEPENDENCE

 Chi square test of independence

Hypothesis:

H0: Preference towards public/private sector banks and age group is independent of each other.

H1: Preference towards public/private sector banks and age group is dependent of each other.

   Observed frequency

Observed frequency

Age group

Age group

Preference towards banks <25 years <25 years <25 years <25 years <25 years <25 years

<25 years 25-35

25-35 35-45

35-45 45-55

45-55 >55

>55 Total  of row

Public  sector banks

 7

10

36

14

52

15

55

13

51

59

220

Private  sector banks  

   6

17

63

15

55

9

33

4

16

51

190

Total of column

Total of column 13

27

99

29

107

24

88

17

67

    110

410

       Expected frequency

Expected frequency

Age group

Age group

Preference  towards banks <25 years <25 years <25 years <25 years <25 years <25 years

<25 years 25-35

25-35 35-45

35-45 45-55

45-55 >55

>55

Public sector banks

6.97

26.292

14.48

53.121

15.55

57.414

12.87

47.219

9.12

35.951

Private sector banks

6.03

22.707

12.52

45.878

13.44

49.585

11.13

40.780

7.89

31.048

Table 8 Calculation of χ2

Fo

Fe

Fo-Fe

(Fo-Fe)^2

[(Fo-Fe)^2]/Fe

7 6.97

0.03 0.0009 0.0001291

10 14.48 -4.48 20.0704 1.3860773

14 15.55 -1.55 2.4025 0.1545016

15 12.87 2.13 4.5369 0.3525174

13 9.12 3.88 15.0544 1.650658

6 6.03 -.03

3 0.0009 .0001492

17 12.52 4.48 20.0704 1.603067

15 13.45 1.55 2.4025 0.1786245

9 11.13 -2.13 4.5369 0.407628

4 7.88 -3.88 15.0544 1.9104568

        χ2Cal = 7.6535264

   

Degree of freedom=(R-1)*(C-1)

     = (2-1)*(5-1)  = 4

Confidence level = 95 %

Therefore χ2tab = 9.488

Now in this case χ2cal < χ2tab hence null hypothesis is accepted.

VII.   SERVQUAL ANALYSIS

Table 9: GAP MODEL FOR PUBLIC SECTOR BANKS

Tangibility

Statement E-score p-score SERVQUAL Score Average

Dimension Chi square

1. 4.03 3.28 -0.75

-0.79

1.0561

2. 4.26 3.04 -1.22

3. 3.87 3.32 -0.55

4. 4.13 3.50 -0.63

5. 4.05 3.31 -0.74

6. 4.19 3.31 -0.88

7. 4.16 3.37 -079

Reliability

Statement E-score p-score SERVQUAL Score Average

Dimension Chi

square

1. 4.01 3.29 -0.72

-0.737

0.6815

2. 3.92 3.42 -0.50

3. 4.09 2.96 -1.13

4. 3.90 3.30 -0.60

Responsiveness

Statement E-score p-score SERVQUAL Score Average

Dimension Chi square

1. 4.05 3.13 -0.92

-0.97

1.0451

2. 4.14 3.18 -0.96

3. 3.98 3.07 -0.91

4. 4.00 2.91 -1.09

4.

Assurance

Statement E-score p-score SERVQUAL Score Average

Dimension Chi

square

1. 4.07 3.13 -0.94

-.92

1.1684

2. 4.09 3.45 -0.64

3. 4.07 3.04 -1.03

4. 4.09 3.00 -1.09

5. 4.17 3.28 -0.89

Empathy

Statement E-score p-score SERVQUAL Score Average

Dimension Chi

square

1. 4.03 2.81 -1.22

-1.12

2.1284

2. 4.07 2.94 -1.13

3. 3.94 2.69 -1.25

4. 3.97 2.74 -1.23

5. 3.89 2.95

50 -0.94

6. 4.05 3.08 -0.97

Table 10: GAP MODEL FOR PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS

Tangibility

Statement E-score p-score SERVQUAL Score Average

Dimension Chi square

1. 4.07 3.56 -0.51

-0.61

0.7449

2. 3.88 3.50 -0.38

3. 3.98 3.51 -0.47

4. 4.09 3.47 -0.62

5. 4.22 3.42 -0.80

6. 4.11 3.42 -0.69

7. 4.27 3.46 -0.81

Reliability

Statement E-score p-score SERVQUAL Score Average

Dimension Chi

square

1. 4.03 3.52 -0.51

-0.69

0.5195

2. 4.16 3.46 -0.70

3. 4.28 3.51 -0.77

4. 4.17 3.38 -0.79

Responsiveness

Statement E-score p-score SERVQUAL Score Average

Dimension Chi square

1. 4.02 3.53 -0.49

-0.66

0.5574

2. 4.29 3.79 -0.50

3. 4.16 3.34 -0.82

4. 4.18 3.37 -0.81

Assurance

Statement E-score p-score SERVQUAL Score Average

Dimension Chi square

1. 4.11 3.46 -0.65

-0.69

0.6678

2. 4.18 3.79 -0.39

3. 4.20 3.39 -0.81

4. 4.21 3.42 -0.79

5. 4.23 3.42 -0.81

Empathy

Statement E-score p-score SERVQUAL Score Average Dimension Chi square

1. 4.07 3.50 -0.57

-0.79

1.05

2. 4.24 3.24 -1.00

3. 4.25 3.74 -0.51

4. 4.18 3.28 -0.90

5. 4.16 3.20 -0.96

6. 4.26 3.43 -0.83

DATA INTERPRETATION

The major result of the study are given below on the basis of analysis and interpretation.

• The outcome of the study reveals that the majority of the respondents of public sector banks and private sectors banks are male (69.64%) and belong to the age group of 35-45 years (26.29%).

• Majority  of  the  respondents  for  this  study  are  post graduate (34.26%), private employees (29.98%) and  are having income in the range of  Rs 25000- 40000 (30.51%)

• A Chi-square analysis was performed to decide the impact of SERVQUAL with banking services. The results are summarized in Tables 6, 7, 8. 9and10.

• It is apparent from the above tables 6, 7 and 8 that the χ2 calculated value at 5% level of significance is 7.6535264 while the χ2tab is 9.488.

• Since in this case χ2cal < χ2tab hence null hypothesis is accepted.

• Preference towards public/private sector banks and age group is independent on each other.

• From  the  tables  9  and  10  SERVQUAL  dimension, Tangibility   (Modern   looking   equipment,   physical facilities appearance communication material) has χ2cal 1.0561 for public sector banks and χ2cal 0. 7449 for private sector banks respectively. Both the values are much lower than χ2tab 12.592 which shows that for tangibility dimension the expected and perceived scores are nearly same at 5% level of significance. And the same trends are observed for other dimensions like reliability (Timely service, error free records, ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately), Responsiveness (Willingness to help and provide prompt service), Assurance (Knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to convey trust and confidence) and Empathy (The firm provides individual attention, care, understanding specific needs and maintain long term customer relationships).

• SERVQUAL SCORE of tangibility suggests that public sector banks need to improve their infra structure and ambience to compete with private sector banks.

• According to SERVQUAL SCORE of responsiveness and empathy training on stress management and better public dealing should be imparted to the employees of public sector banks.

• The overall customers' attitude towards bank services is that they are satisfied with the services provided by their banks. But still customers expect more and better services to be provided.

CONCLUSIONS

In the modern era of marketing customer satisfactions is of vital importance. The study on service quality in selected banks is measured in five dimensions by using SERVQUAL scale developed by Parasuraman et al (1988). The number of responses in the present study reveals that there exists a small perceptual difference regarding overall service quality with the respective banks. The respondents of both the banks normally concentrate on the staffs of the banks for improving customer satisfaction while the bank have more concentration on the tangible factor like a computerization, physical facilities, etc. to attract the clientele. The dimensions Reliability, Responsiveness and Assurance are found to be the most vital and strategic determinants of service quality and customer satisfaction for both public and private sector banks. If banks want to maintain customers on a long term basis, bankers should work towards 100% customer satisfaction that automatically foster customer delight.

References

• Baye M.  R. & Jansen  D.W.  (2006), “Money Banking  &  Financial Marketing”,A.I.T.B.S,  Publisher.

• Bhattacharjee .C “Service Marketing ” Excel Books First edition.

• Dekock, M.H.“Central Banking”, Universal Book Stall.

• Hoffman D K and Bateson J, (2007), “Service Marketing” III Ed. Thomson,South Western

•  K. Rama Mohana  Rao, (2007), “Services Marketing” Pearson Education

• Kasper, H., Helsdingen, Piet v. and Jr, Wouter de V. (1999), “ServicesMarketing Management”, West Sussex, England, John Willey & Sons Ltd.,

• Mishra U.S, Sahoo, K. K, Mishra S. and Patra S.K., (2010) “ServiceQuality Assessment in Banking Industry of India: A Comparative Study between Public and Private Sectors” European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume16, Number4 pp 653

• Parusuraman A, Zeithaml, V. A. and Berry L. L. (1988) SERVQUAL: A multiple item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 64 (1), 12-37

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