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  • Subject area(s): Marketing
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  • Published on: 14th September 2019
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CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. Introduction

The theoretical part of the study deals with the basic idea and meaning of tourism, tourist's satisfaction, and the attributes of a destination as it affects tourists' satisfaction. And also, this chapter focuses on analyzing how destination attributes relates with tourists' satisfaction with respect to tourists' demographic characteristics and travel behavioral characteristics.

This chapter begins with discussing the meaning of tourism. After which, the chapter discusses previous research on the idea and meaning of tourist, such as tourists' characteristics, perception, expectation, and satisfaction. Finally, focuses will be made on how destination attributes relates to tourists' satisfaction.

2.2. Tourism

There are several tourism definitions. World Tourism Organization defines tourism as a social, cultural and economic phenomenon which involves people moving from their usual environment to places outside their usual environment for different reasons which could be personal or business/professional [4]. These people are referred to as visitors (which may be either tourists or excursionists; residents or nonresidents) and are required not to spend more than one consecutive year.

Tourism or voyage originally means movement of people with the intention of trade and conquest [5]. Holden in 2000 stated that “these days, there is a change in this idea; instead there seem to be change or drift towards fun and pleasure which serves as a mark of social status. It was influenced by media like social networks, web-based promotions and advertisement, and greater leisure awareness; tourism has become one of the rapidly growing industries in the world” [5] .

According to Krapf and Hunziker tourism is the “sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, in so far as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected to any earning activity” [6, p. 2].

From the definitions mentioned above, tourism can be seen as any activity which a person, a group of group of people or an organization undertakes that goes out of their immediate residence sojourning to another place without a primary motive or intention of making a monetary or some other profit.

2.3. Tourists' Characteristics

The characteristics of tourist were studied by many researchers, some of which this study reviewed; theses authors had almost the same views. Ivanovic (2008) [7, p. 302] identifies three different classes in which tourists characteristics can be expressed which are often useful in conducting tourism research or tourism marketing and promotion plan. Age, income education, occupation type, gender, marital status, family status, ethnicity were included as demographic features. Secondly is the tourist socio-economic condition, which referred to how the tourist to be able to afford to engage in a chosen destination. Lastly is the tourists' behavioral characteristic which has to do with understanding of needs or desires, motivation and travel awareness of a tourist.

Tourist characteristics were modeled as a formative constructs consisting of customers' socio-economic characteristic and previous consumption experience and addition of tourist characteristic such as demographic and cultural background are valuable as to allow one to distinguish tourists' satisfaction levels Zhu (2010) [8, pp. 188-189].

Certain scholars such as Tassiopoulos (2008) and Ivanovic et al (2009) found that demography which consist of such factors as gender, income, age, family lifecycle, social status, occupation and educational level has some level of influence on tourism demand and these diversities make the tourism business more successful [9, p. 31], [10, p. 134].

Hond and Prideaux, (2000) [11]  dissected  the variance by age, gender, occupation and past trips of Taiwanese cultural/heritage vacationers to learn if demographic and travel behavioral characteristics affected reactions on the significance of attributes and levels of trip satisfaction.

Light (1996) [12], in his study made a correlation between tourists' characteristics travelling to a heritage site in South Wales. In this study, tourists' expectations/perceptions were essential attributes identified with satisfaction with the destination and in boosting the odds of tourists to return

Rafat S. (2012) [13], in studying the Factors That Influence Tourists' Satisfaction shows that tourist satisfaction showed significant differences based on such controlling factors as travel behavior characteristics, demographic characteristics, cultural characteristics and information source.

After all these reviews, this study included demographic and travel behavioral characteristics of tourists as very necessary indicators as to examine the level of tourists satisfaction.

2.4. Tourists' Expectation

There has been different studies on consumers' expectation and some of which this part of the study reviewed. The term expectation has been defined by various authors in many ways. Richard (2010) [14], in his work “Satisfaction: A Behavioral Perspective on the Consumer” asserts that expectation is a prediction of the future results based on encounters from past experiences, current situation of things, or other information sources.

Expectation takes place before the tour or visit. Tourists always picture in their minds their chosen destination and the likely benefits that they stand to gain from their future trip Manente (2008) [15].

In the case of Ireland, Jonathan and Dimitrios (2011) [16] observed that many first-time visitors had well prepared for their tour by getting some information in advance via the use of the internet. Numerous websites with virtual brochures are available for seekers to view idyllic scenery of Ireland. As a means of motivating tourist to travel destinations invest in creating unique and eye-catching attractions.

Expectation can be seen as performance of establishment, ideal performance or desired performance Teas (1994) [17]. Regarding the relationship in the middle of expectation and satisfaction, expectation can be characterized as earlier estimations made by customers while been serviced Oliver (1981) [17].

It is known fact that tourists have expectations in mind after making a destination choice for a holiday and that their satisfaction levels during and after their holiday period depend mostly on their expectations Jin et al (2006) [18].

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