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  • Published on: 14th September 2019
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Nowadays world is facing a critical environmental crisis. Almost everyday we hear about a lot of disasters in the news that happen throughout the globe. The disasters like land slide, earthquakes, global warming are happening frequently and unnaturally. They have destroyed many things including lost of live, damaging the buildings and disturbing the nature ecosystem itself. All of these are the cost that we, human have to pay because of our careless in conserving and preserving the nature while greedily develop our national wealth and material achievements. These is how God stabilise the nature order by punishing us on our large mistakes. In the same time, He want us to realism that we have to be good and considerate to the nature, so that, these critical conditions will not become worse and our world becomes better.

Besides of environmental crisis, our country also is facing economical problem. Our money value have drop and very cheap compare to our country's main trade partner such as United State, Great Britain, Euro, Japan, Singapore, and Thailand. There are a few factors that bring us towards this declination, according to Datuk Seri Najib Razak at his blog on 13 August 2015. The first is the action of Chinese government lowered the currency Yuan sending the currency of other ASEAN country lying. Besides, the sudden price declination of our main commodities like oil, palm oil and rubber because of the development of spare part industries. Furthermore, expectation that United State will raise the interest rate, so the investors around the world will move their fund in US Dollar, that will bring up the USD currencies more. The last ones, according to him is high politic speculation case in country, like corruption, that bring our Ringgit value decrease.

Although this declination sound bad to our import activities, at the same time, it does good for our export activities. Because of it, our goods and services are cheap in the US Dollar value. This declination will encourage traders and tourists from other countries, which their money currencies are higher than us, to buy our goods and have their holiday at Malaysia. These activities will bring money flow into our country, and then, bring our Ringgit currency up. These trade cycle, up and down, in and out, that determine up down of money exchange currencies.

So, the best alternative to solve both problem stated above is by promoting ecotourism to the tourists, from inside and outside of our country. By promoting ecotourism to our citizens, every Ringgit that they spend when they travel in this country will give maximum doubled effects to our economy and give some addition to our Gross Domestic Product, besides, also help to promote awareness on preserving the nature and protect the aesthetics value of the nature. These are because of every single people like the calmness of nature and its song, so soothing and relaxing.

Malaysia has many ecotourism spots around this country and they are also famous among foreigner tourists. For examples, Kuala Gandah Elephant Sanctuary and Cameron Highlands in Pahang, Pulau Perhentian in Terengganu, Penang National Park at Teluk Bahang, Santubung and Buntal, Mulu Caves National Park , Talang-Satang National Park in Sarawak, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) at Selangor, Taman Negara (spanning Pahang, Kelantan and Terengganu), and The Royal Belum State Park at Perak. These blooming ecotourism industries are because Malaysia is rich in floral and fauna diversity in our treasure and lush green forests and jungles. Moreover, there are many endemic species that are only can be found in our country such as Licuala stongiensis at Gunung Stong State Park, Kelantan, Kerivoula krauensis (wolly bats) at Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang, and Nepenthes Rajah (biggest pitcher plant) at Gunung Kinabalu, Sabah.

Besides of the endemic specieses, tourists are attracted to travel to Malaysia because of the lush green sceneries that our jungles and forests offer. There are also many types of forests here, which are, lowland dipterocarp forest, hill dipterocarp forest, upper hill dipterocarp forest, oak-laurel forest, montane ericaceous forest, peat swamp forest and mangrove forest. In addition, there also smaller areas of freshwater swamp forest, heath forest, forest on limestone and forest on quartz ridges. Famous forestry spots are Kuala Selangor Nature Park, Kuala Selangor, Kenong Rimba, Pahang, Open Sky Unlimited, Kuala Lumpur, and Cameron Highlands, Pahang.

Furthermore, our beaches are also have amazing scenery that are really something to be see like Bukit Keluang Beach, Besut and Pulau Lang Tengah (between  Pulau Redang and Pulau Perhentian, Terengganu, Pulau Sibu and Pulau Aur, Johor, also Sipadan and Kapalai Islands, Sabah. Most of these beaches and islands offer clear crystal cool water to diving, swimming and snorkeling, star gazing in the vast open sky there, attractive coral reefs and also beautiful landscape and unspoilt natural environment.

All of above detail, are the vivid attraction to our country tourism industries, the scenery are so spectacular that one can relax his mind from the rocks in his mind and be in ‘other' world without the hectic and rush life at work and study tension. Besides of the nature scenery, foreigners also come to our country to travel ad relax because of they are keen to our people hospitality that have been promoted through the communication medias, internet and also the people that already have been here.

ABOUT ECOTOURISM

In nowadays globalizing world, transportation have developed rapidly and this allow people to travel faraway from their places. This development also kill the time and distance, that we don not have get through long time in the ship to be at the places. To cover up the pollution because of the transportation, we must support the ecotourism activities and the proper and good management one that give less or no at all damages to nature. The problem is, what is it ecotourism, its principles and the autoritiy that lead the activities?

Ecotourism is defined as \"responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment, sustains the well-being of the local people, and involves interpretation and education\" (TIES*, 2015).  Education is meant to be inclusive of both staff and guests.

 *The International Ecotourism Society.

Principles of Ecotourism

There are a few principles that are underlying this activities to make sure that they are not out from the objectives of these activities, which are about uniting conservation, communities, and sustainable travel.. This means that those who implement, participate in and market ecotourism activities should adopt the following ecotourism principles:

Minimize physical, social, behavioral, and psychological impacts.

Build environmental and cultural awareness and respect.

Provide positive experiences for both visitors and hosts.

Provide direct financial benefits for conservation.

Generate financial benefits for both local people and private industry.

Deliver memorable interpretative experiences to visitors that help raise sensitivity to host countries\' political, environmental, and social climates.

Design, construct and operate low-impact facilities.

Recognize the rights and spiritual beliefs of the Indigenous People in your community and work in partnership with them to create empowerment.

There is a big ecotourism society that leads and determines the development of this activity, is The International Ecotourism Society (TIES). TIES is a program of the International Tourism Collective, a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting ecotourism. It was founded in 1990, TIES is the world\'s oldest and largest international ecotourism association that has been on the forefront of the development of ecotourism, providing guidelines and standards, training, technical assistance, and educational resources.

For example, TIES have organised The Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Conference (ESTC). This conference highlight global challenges and local opportunities, supporting sustainable development of tourism and promoting solutions that balance conservation, communities and sustainable travel. In addition, it also has organised a workshop on “Authentic Ecolodge Planning, Design and Operations” on  September 2011 & 2012. The participants are lodge and resort developers, owners and managers, tourism operators, architects, landscape architects and engineers, students, professors, and other stakeholders. This workshop was focused on physical feasibility and market potential for ecolodges; discuss research results (and trends) in this industry; accurately projecting costs and potential revenue; select a site, plan and design an ecolodge; ecolodge guidelines and certification standards and incorporate renewable energy and efficient management systems into design and construction.

All of these principles and guidelines have already been done and structured. Although this tourism activities have been done in Malaysia before the guidelines are structured, we still can apply them at our places to improve our environmental management and enforcement aspects in ecotourism industries. So, our job is to support them and cooperate in the effort to preserve and conserve the nature for our own goods and also for the next generations.

BACKGROUND OF ENDAU-ROMPIN NATIONAL PARK

Background of tourism and ecotourism activities in Malaysia

Our world history has stated that prehistoric people always move from a place to another place to find the foods, water and shelter. Then, the people at that time use ship to trade their commodities with other entities' goods. As for the next generation are the era of colonialism when people go and attack people at other places for power, to monopolise the nature resources and became strong, powerful and rich. At that time, people started to exploiting the nature in big scales. After many years, people acknowledged that they had to preserve and conserve the nature and could not recklessly use up the resources as it will bring disaster (pollution and illness) back to them.

The above statement above is to address that people travel and know the need to take good care of the nature long time ago. It is just now, the people populations has grew very rapidly, there are also national state, and how people explore the nature and take benefit from it economically. Well, the ecotourism industries take quite time to establish in our country and then, get the attention from our citizen and foreigner tourists. It is like now is because of our government concern, followed by the cooperation from the businessmen and support from the ordinary citizens. This effort to improve our environment and economic condition will not achieve this state without the past generations' effort.

The tourism industries in Malaysia was until 1990s focused on the mainstream tourist destinations such as Langkawi and Penang with its beaches and resorts. The industry has been developing since 1970s, and in 1980s, the government, under Tun Dato\' Seri Dr Mahathir bin Mohamad, made its first strategic policies in tourism. In 1990, the successful brand “Malaysia Truly Asia” was launched to position as a major destination in the region. The campaign is for a brand that is arguably Malaysia's largest, being the nation's second biggest revenue earner. The campaign which by now is the world's most awarded brand campaign for a country brand with more than 30 international creative and marketing effectiveness awards in the last ten years. This is a really great achievement and encouragement to our tourism industries.

Background of Endau-Rompin National Park

In 1933, the Johor State Government has declared an area of 1,014 km² in  the northern part of the state to the Endau-Kluang Wildlife Reserve. The management on that time is only preserve the area (without any act applied) to protect the wildlife there. After Tanah Melayu got our independence in politic, economic and social power, some logging permits along Sungai Emas and Sungai Endau are issued in 1961 and 1963. A major logging road have been built 90km long, along the road leading towards Kahang.

In 1972, a sub-committee under the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries was established to create Endau Rompin National Park. The idea to establish this national park, that was originally proposed located on the border between the south-east Pahang and Johor, which covers an area of 202.429 hectares. The proposed area is hilly area in Johor-Pahang border. In addition, it also covers the plains and marshy areas, which can provide protection to wildlife that inhibit the forest.

The mentioned committee also recommended that this Endau Rompin National Park is divided into two zones, which are, Sejati Zone and Intermediate Area. The Sejati Zone is for the wildlife sanctuary, while the Intermediate Area is for buffer zone.

In the year 1975, this national park reserve under the Ministry of Land and Mines. But, around 1970, a number of issue have arisen when the Pahang State Government had approved approximately 12, 141 hectares of logging concession, while 6,000 hectares were already logged in Jemai and Kemapan area. In addition, the area that should be reserve as the buffer zone in the north has been developed for agriculture. Moreover, several areas in the south-west of Pahang, that covers 15km², was cleared under Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA)'s scheme. Next issue is Johor government state already have approved logging concession for next 20 years for an area of 80m².

Then, in 1986 and 1987, both of the state governments, Johor and Pahang, had decided that this Endau Rompin National Park has to be a national park with the enactment of the state park respectively. In other words, each state will manage and watch over the national park, the area in their own state only. Pahang state government has identified and set the area of 40,197 hectares of the forest area as a state park and gazetted Endau Rompin Wildlife Reserve in 1986 through the National Land Code and is managed by Rompin District Office, Pahang.

Meanwhile, in 1993, the Johor state government has taken the initiative to set up a special agency, namely the Johor National Park Corporation, under National Park Corporation Enactment (Johor) that was approved by the State Executive in 1989. The corporation was established on 27th February 1992. In 1993, Johor state government also has gazetted the Endau Rompin area in Johor as state national park under this enactment and is known as Endau Rompin National Park. The area was gazetted into three part covering 48,905 hectares. The park position is between Department of Wildlife Reserve and National Park (PERHILITAN) Segamat Reserve and Kluang Endau Wildlife Reserve.

Justification of Endau Rompin National Park (Anob,1999) include :

The area has a unique natural beauty and aesthetic valuue that hard to find in other pllaces like a river with rapids, waterfalls and others

This area is Endau Rompin water catchment area. Protection of water catchments in the region will ensure high quality and sufficient water supply and other features of interest to tourism and outdoor recreation activities.

There are several major rivers that irrigate the area this national park such as Kemapan River, Jasin River , Endau River, Selai River, Marong River, and Kinchin River. In addition, there are several montain inn the area that serve as protection for watershed there. The mountains are Gunung Besar,  Gunung Pukin, Gunung Kemapan, Gunung Beremban, Gunung Kichin, Gunung Ulu Tiang, Gunung Lesong and Gunung Tiong. With the rivers, mountains and forests make this Endau Rompin area a unique ang complex ecology area.

This area is one of the oldest tropical rainforest in the world, which is more than 1,000 years old. Then, it must be maintained from any damage to be research center of tropical forest for researches around the world.

it is aprotection and conservtion area for wildlife, especially endangered species like Sumatran rhino. It is also important to suppoort and protect other wildlife that have lost their habitat that come from the developed area around the national park.

Information about Endau Rompin National Park

In 2011, Endau Rompin National Park area covers 31, 797.00 hectares in total, which cover some area of two state, Pahang and Johor. There are six major rivers and eight montains in the covering area. The forest type is dipterocarp forest type that grow in undulation lowland area with 600 metres maximum high.

The main flora species in this national park is

ENVIRONMENTAL APPROACHES THAT HELP TO MANAGE THE ENVIRONMENT

There are three management approaches to manage the environment, which are advisory, legislative and economic. In this assignment context, these approaches are very very important to preserve the ecology of Endau Rompin National Park nature and in the same time allow the visitors come and enjoy the nature without destroying its natural beauty, disturb the rare wildlife habitat and wildness.

First, we go through the legislative approaches. Legislative approaches is an approaches that  

For example, this national park was gazetted as permanent reserved forest under Section 7, National Forest Act 1984. It is an Act to provide for the administration, management and conservation afforests and forestry development within the States of Malaysia and for connected purposes [Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur,1994].

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