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1) Introduction      

2) Industry Analysis

2.1) Structure of Industry  

1.0 Introduction  

This report is aimed to determine the current position of the UK Museum industry, there are more them 1,800 museums and galleries in England Accredited by Arts Council England (Mednoza, 2016) for the use of this report ‘museums industry', has been taken to include galleries; at times they fall within the museums industry specification. The report will focus on museums and galleries funded by the Department of Culture, Media and Sport.  By taking into consideration the size of the industry and structure, as well as geographic distribution of the museum industry, considering whether there are areas of clustering and discussing why this may have occurred. The report will go on to contemplate where the industry currently sits in Grants (2005) life cycle diagram, preceding to carry out strategic group analysis as well as the competitive dynamics. In doing this the report will then move on to the second section, by presenting three case study's representing examples of different corporate strategies and strategic groups, discussing their mission competencies value they offer and their brand.

An Industry analysis will be formed by using information for current and past reports, alongside background research for the museum industry, applying relevant literature to the industry. To conclude discussing the implications for the industry analysis, going on to examine the gaps, opportunities and broad strategy in relation to key members and industry structure.

, the report concentrates on the larger museums and gallery's funded by the Department of Culture, Media and Sport

Abbreviations: DCMS

2.0. Industry Analysis

2.1. Structure of industry  

To analyse the industry structure two key opponents were distinguished, first was to discover the size of the industry, second to determine if the industry was fragmented or concentrated.

Through Travers (2006) data analysis report of the economic social and creative impacts in Britain, and The Department of Culture Media and Sports: museums review, alongside a general search for data on publically funded museums and galleries, data shows there are more them 1,800 museums and galleries in England Accredited by Arts Council England (Mednoza, 2016), it allows to create an understanding of the industry. With the report mainly focusing on the large museums and gallery's funded by DCMS and a group of large regional museums, this sub-sector representing the wider scale of the industry. This brings to conclusion that the museum and galleries are a large scale industry.

Travers (2006, p.89,91) shows (appendix 7) there are more than 137 museums and gallery's funded by the Department of Culture, Media and Sport, and local authorities, with the amount growing every year, museums and gallery's being key for communication for culture in England. The major museums and galleries create a large sub-sector of Britain's industry visitor numbers. It is clear in appendix 6 that the industry is concentrated, although there are many well know national and regional museums and galleries in Britain, appendix 6 shows the industry has been dominated since 2000 by The Tate Gallery, British Museum, holding the largest visitor numbers around 48% of the total is made up from the dominating organisations.

There are more than 42 million visits a year stated in DCMS Taking Part survey (2016a), in 2015/2016 52.5% of adults visited a museum or gallery, holding a rather significant attendance increase from other years. Income to the industry can reach highs of £200 million a year (Travers,2006) as show in appendix 8 The Tate and British Museum dominating the overall income within the industry controlling over 35% between them. Creating the conclusion that is it a National, Regional and International industry.

2.2) Geographic Distribution

From analysing the industry structure, two dominant organisations where found both based in London, this sub section is to undercover what may have driving the chosen locations, and discussing any forms of clustering made within that. Using Historic UK (2016) mapping system for the museums in England, with a colour coded system to show the type of museum (appendix 1).

Appendix 1 dose show signs of scattering based around England, with most cities and towns having one to three established organisations, reasoning for this could come from local heritage and related industry around the town or city, for example Appendix 1 clearly shows a cluster within the south, mainly surrounding London with around 40/50 Museums and galleries. Both dominant organisations are based within central London. One of the major factors of this could be Britain opened the first national public museum in the world in 1753 guaranteeing free entry to all (British Museum, 2000) made of wide cultural related industry art facts, thus creating a shared cultural hub for existing clusters for related industry creating connections through out many cultural industry making it clear that to make it in the industry you needed to part of that cultural hub.

Data shows the five UK top attractions (BBC 2013) are Museums and gallerys all based in London, thus epistemic clusters have developed in aide to participate in the cultural economic growth that surrounded London. Appendix 8 states the museums and galleries funded by DCMS, 45% of the organisation mentioned were based in London. Many organisations may have based themselves in London due to the wide variety of the arts and the skill level that was being created in London (Zeballos, 2015). Thus making it evident that London is dominating the industry, helping understand why it is seen as the cultural capital of the UK.

Others Clusters have been created around England, though they are not as large and diverse as London's, questions still arise as to why? Appendix 1 shows clear smaller clusters within regional areas like Manchester, Liverpool and Birmingham, which clearly shows they are trying to compete with London's large and successful museums and gallery industry. It is clear to see Manchester is a close second with its new and thriving clustering around the city centre (appendix 4). Many state Manchester as the new Cultural hotspot of England (Bousfield, 2015).

Evidence can show that Manchester has held a thriving cultural industry for quite some time, Manchester was the original shock city of industrial revolution, Manchester status was built through its manufacturing and trading history, with its networking in the 1800 reached across the UK (Manchester University, 2013). Manchester become to leaders of the industry revolution, “Manchester and the surrounding towns proved to be ideal locations for production because there was a constant power supply in the fast-flowing rivers that tumbled from the Pennines” (Swettenham, 2014). Evidence clearly states Manchester had a creative growth and population growth, because of the surrounding being the correct for the industry needs creating clusters, thus leading to the conclusion that with so many industrial industries basing around Manchester it was the best for the many organisations to be based there to create work effectively and cheaper. This lead to epistemic clustering based of shared knowledge.

2.3 Lifecycle

Grants (2005) industry life cycle suggests that all products and industries go through 4 stages, introduction, growth, maturity, and decline (see appendix 5). It is important to analyse the industries life cycle, to determined what stage the industry is within, this can help estimate the growth decline or stability.

Travers report on the industry indicates the important of museums sub-sector to the wider economy, ‘broadly £1 in every £1,000 in the UK economy can be directly related to the museums and galleries sector'(Travers, 2006) evidence like this shows clear needs for the museums industry, with the industry producing such a large economic growth with England, appendix 8 shows a steady income being received by every organisation, with only one drop in the total in 2002/2003, reasoning for this would be the economic recession that hit Europe in 2000/2001, as shown after the recession a slow but steady growth in the income has occurred every year. Thus, leading to believe the industry will be within the growth sector with its total income in 2006 hitting 692,565 10% lower than that before the recession. Yet with factors like brexit considered, and the inflation of the pound, England losing connections with the EU could lead the industry to move into the maturity stage. Yet this is believed not to happen for at least two to three years, in conclusion it is debatable whether the industry belongs in growth still, there for placing it in-between both as the future is uncertain for the funding and income of the industry.

2.4 Value Analysis

 “The value chain provides a systematic way to divide a firm into its discrete activities” (Porter, 2004, p.59), porter's idea of a value chain in many ways differs from one needed for a creative organisation, a large amount of creative contribution in an industry which is still in major development. The value chain is created and used to investigate the publicly funded museum and gallery industry, to allow organisations to reach full potential in the most effective way. The value chain would be used in a unique way to each organisation to measure the balance of power within their environment, Porter (2004) suggests that the worst strategy that an organisation can do is to compete with rivalry within the same dimension, the chain creates the ability for the leaders of the organisation to identify where gaps in the market are, enabling creative new opportunities. Taking all this into conclusion the value chain within the report (appendix 2) focuses on the social benefits, museums regularly produce many social benefits, each organisation surplus outcome depends on their ability to complete each section correctly (Kotler, Kotler, and Kotler, 2008).

It is evident that each section requires a major amount of capability, from within the organisation to gain the outcome needed which brings to light the largely multi-talented team needed. Appendix 10 shows the stages Liverpool museums went to gather resources by creating a commodity chain to identify the different stages and teams needed to run the industry, Liverpool industry commodity chain could be applied to all of the industry having a vertical structure allows for organisations to distinguish where they believe the most value to be through a series of links with networking opportunities, the museum industry is able to reach out and try new ideas as many galleries would not have all the recourses for this, on from that with the confidence of knowing the commodity chain it allows the originations to create an adapted value chain to personally benefit them.

The value chain is clearly horizontally integrated though its stages with each section aiming to reach the same goal. This is a major key to stainability within the industry. The directors of the museums or galleries would take a leading role in creating the value chain adapted for each origination, within this would be the area that the organisations values are highlighted, as museums are created for the value and engagement of the visitors.

 2.5 Network and Organisations

“We rely on our networks to advise us and keep us on track, and we give back to our networks in return. Give a lot and you have credit in the bank when you need to make a withdrawal. The better you network the more knowledge you can tap into” (Garret, 2012).

Industry relationships can enable the organisation to stand out, achieve things you may not be able to reach for alone, become a sustainably organisation. Networking is a vital point within the industry the commodity chain is clear proof of ways to identify sections where your organisation can not achieve alone. A large formal connection between each gallery and museum within the industry would be that each are funded by Department of culture media and sport; this can lead to many opportunities to collaborate and the ability to share collections which may be owned by the organisations or department of culture media and sport. Having a large body funding them all can make the artefacts more accessible to all ages, and valued parts of the industry\'s future, creating a more diverse shared museum industry appendix 11 shows the importance of networking for sustainability.

2.6 Strategic groups

“Strategic group analysis is a useful tool in identifying strategic niches within an industry and the strategic positioning of different firms”. (Grant, 2005). An analysis of the strategic groups within the publicly funded museum and gallery industry, aims to help determine the main certain groups as well as highlighting certain gaps within the industry, having identified the opportunity for an increase in growth within the industry, as well as problems leading the industry to move full into the maturity stage. Porter (1980) identifies four key groups of companies, due to the nature of the industry it is more relevant to situate the strategic groups within the industry per the visitor's numbers and specialisation yet many elements of porters grouping can be applied. Appendix 12 is an adapted version of porters strategic grouping measuring, visitor numbers and variety of artefacts.

The first grouping is national museums and galleries, such as both organisations dominating the industry, The Tate, The British Museum. Organisations who are well known for their great number of artefacts, and large number of visitors. The organisations are nationally popular and be internationally popular, with large incomes (chapter 2.1) as they appeal to the wider audience, owed to the vast number of cultural artefacts, the main goal for the organisations is to show a wide range of work known national.

The second group is much smaller local museums and galleries, based around the heritage culture and art around the local cities and towns, like New Walk Museum and Art Gallery, Portsmouth Museum. They tend to centre the work around local areas and artefacts, rarely seeking to move from that. The local museums and galleries focuses on the local areas around them.

The Third group is Specialised Museums and Galleries, tending to focus on a certain aspect of heritage and culture, places such as Museum of Science and Industry, Imperial War Museum. All organisations are well known within the specialism, tending to attract a potation of visitors, causing an uncertain footfall. Many focus on one aspect of time or culture and heritage leading to not a larger amount of vitality in other areas. Many are used as founds of educating the nation on history and culture.

3.0 Competitive Case Studies

3.1 Introduction

The following three organisations have been chosen as they fit within the three different strategic groups within the industry, data for this was collected from Travers (2006) report mentioned within the first section on the report. An analysis of the industry will be provided in order to understand the company's performance, all case study receive funding from Department of Culture Media and Sport.

3.2 The British Museum

It is located within central London – it is over 250 years old and holds a large collection of antiques and art from living cultures and ancient time. It has the third largest collections purchases in the industry with £23,20000 being spent on purchases in 2006 (appendix 13), and also dominating within visitors and income sector (chapter 2.1). The museum has 10 curatorial and research departments; this could be a strategy to help dominate the industry with the plan to create a wide amount of variety within the museum. Furthermore, it has one of the largest amount of loans and touring exhibitions within the UK (appendix 14). The museum has strong marketing initiative - being known nationally for aiming to reach a broader audience by extending the engagements with the audience. The museum is frequently trying to make collections available within the wider audience (The British Museum, 2015). The museum is free for anyone wishing to indulge in culture and the factors mentioned above are a collection of their core values offered to customers and other organisations though visitor interactions and a large amount of work within the museum. With 10 curatorial departments, this gives opportunities to grow the variety of audience that may attend the museum. The museum has two major competitors: The National Gallery and The National Maritime Museum, however being about to provide this opportunity helps the origination to grow without fear or competition. Due to the museums large network the option to grow the museum's collection internationally is a large factor to the industry and its ability to have major growth in the next few years (The British Museum, 2015). The Museum is very much still within the growth stage.

3.3 Museum of science and industry

The museum of science and industry based in Manchester is a large scale museum that is designed to showcase development in science, technology and industry, with major focuses on what Manchester has achieved within this field. It is apparent that the museum main focus is covering themes around textiles, transport and computing, being based on the worlds oldest surviving passenger railway station is a big help with the museums strategy to base the shows around this, with record breaking numbers of 707,000 in 2015/2016 increase of 4,1% (Science Museum Group, 2016). Reasoning for this would be its strengths within the outreach sector of the museum, with school children visitor numbers rocketing, though a bold programme of events (Fitzgerald, 2016).

The main visons for the museum, are built around importance of the public, there supports and staff, being proud of what the museum is achieving and a sense of ownership within that (Museum of Science and Industry, 2009.). with that in mind It helps understand the mission of the museum, to inspire, engage a vast audience, around the development of our modern world, and the important of this for the future, using a wide collection of work (Museum of Science and Industry, 2009.) The museum is nationally knowing, part of a Science Museum group which aims to connect each speclised museum together in hope to create a wider knowledge of science, reduce the need for competition and close gaps within the industry, with visitor numbers riseing the museum can be situated within the growth stage of grants (2005) lifecycle.  

BBC. (2013) British museum is the most visited UK attraction again. BBC Entertainment & Arts, 12th March. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-21739486 [Accessed 8/11/2016]

BOUSFIELD, J. (2015) 10 reasons why Manchester is the UK's new cultural hotspot | travel feature. [Online] Available from: https://www.roughguides.com/article/10-reasons-why-manchester-is-the-uks-new-cultural-hotspot/ [Accessed 8/11/2016]

BRITISH MUSEUM. (2000) History of Tate. [Online] Available from: http://www.tate.org.uk/about/who-we-are/history-of-tate [Accessed 11/11/2016]

COUNCIL, N. M. D. (2014) Museums and galleries in Britain: Economic, social and creative impacts - national museum directors' council Website. [Online] Available from: http://www.nationalmuseums.org.uk/resources/press_releases/pr_travers_report/ [Accessed 7/11/2016]

Department of Culture Media & Sport. (2016) Taking part 2015/16 quarter 4: Adult statistical release: Key findings. [Online] Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/taking-part-201516-quarter-4-statistical-release/taking-part-201516-quarter-4-adult-statistical-release-key-findings [Accessed 8/11/2016]

FITZGERALD, T. (2016) Visitor numbers soar at the museum of science and industry. [Online] Available from: http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/whats-on/whats-on-news/mosi-visitor-numbers-manchester-museum-11174832 [Accessed 14/11/2016]

FLEMING, D. (2015) Museums association. [Online] Available from: http://www.museumsassociation.org/about/frequently-asked-questions [Accessed 7/11/2016]

GARRET, C. (2012) 5 reasons you should invest your time in networking. [weblog]Available from: http://www.chrisg.com/networking-roi/ [Accessed 13/11/2016]

GRANT, R. M. (2005) Contemporary strategy analysis. 5th ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing

HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL. (2015) Strategies for Universities & Nonprofits. [Online] Available from: http://www.isc.hbs.edu/strategy/related-topics/Pages/strategy-for-universities-and-nonprofits.aspx [Accessed 8/11/2016]

HISTORIC, uk. (2016) Map of museums in Britain. [Online] Available from: http://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryMagazine/DestinationsUK/Museums/ [Accessed 8/11/2016]

HUTCHINSON, J. (2015) The British museum named UK's most popular visitor attraction. Daily Mail, 11th March. Available from: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/travel/travel_news/article-2986259/Epping-Forest-receives-4-4million-visitors-Brighton-Pier-10-site-outside-London-UK-s-popular-visitor-attractions-revealed.html [Accessed 11/11/2016]

KOTLER, N. G., KOTLER, P., and KOTLER, W. I. (2008) Museum marketing and strategy: Designing missions, building audiences, generating revenue and resources. 2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc.,U.S.

MACDONALD S. and FYFE G. (eds.) (1998) Theorizing museums: Representing identity and diversity in a changing world. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing

MANCHESTER UNIVERSITY. (2013) 24th international congress of history of science, technology and medicine (the university of Manchester). [Online] Available from: http://www.ichstm2013.com/explore/industrial-local/ [Accessed 11/11/2016]

MEDNOZA, N. (2016) Review of museums in England. [Systematic Review] Department of Cultural Media and Sport, Issue [Accessed 5/9/2016].

MUSEUM OF SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY. (n.d.) Museum of Science and Industry. [Online] Available from: http://msimanchester.org.uk/search?q=values%20 [Accessed 14/11/2016]

MUSEUMS ASSOCIATION. (2012) Museums association. [Online] Available from: http://www.museumsassociation.org/download?id=649221 [Accessed 8/11/2016]

PORTER, M. E. (2004) Competitive advantage: Creating and sustaining superior performance. New York: Free Press

SICENCE MUSEUM GROUP. (2016) Record visitor numbers for science museum group. [Online] Available from: http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/about-us/press/april-2016/record-visitor-numbers [Accessed 14/11/2016]

SWETTENHAM, L. (2014) The way we were: When cotton was king and Manchester led industrial revolution. [Online] Available from: http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/nostalgia/way-were-cotton-king-manchester-6085736 [Accessed 11/11/2016]

THE BRITISH MUSEUM. (2016) UK loans and tours. [Online] Available from: http://www.britishmuseum.org/about_us/tours_and_loans/uk_loans_and_tours.aspx [Accessed 14/11/2016]

THE BRITISH MUSEUM. (2015) About us. [Online] Available from: http://www.britishmuseum.org/about_us/management/about_us.aspx [Accessed 14/11/2016]

TOONEN, S. (2014) The role of the arts in event-led regeneration policies. [weblog] Cultural case. 11th December. Available from: http://www.culturecase.org/research/2014/12/the-role-of-the-arts-in-event-led-regeneration-policies/ [Accessed 9/11/2016]

TRAVERS, T. (2006) Museums and galleries in Britain: Economic, social and creative impacts. Storbritannien: MLA

ZEBALLOS, J. (2015) Why international students are choosing London. The Guardian, 8th April. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/education/2015/apr/07/why-international-students-are-choosing-london [Accessed 11/11/2016]

Citations, Quotes & Annotations

BBC. (2013) British museum is the most visited UK attraction again. BBC Entertainment & Arts, 12th March. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-21739486 [Accessed 8/11/2016]

(BBC, 2013)

BOUSFIELD, J. (2015) 10 reasons why Manchester is the UK's new cultural hotspot | travel feature. [Online] Available from: https://www.roughguides.com/article/10-reasons-why-manchester-is-the-uks-new-cultural-hotspot/ [Accessed 8/11/2016]

(Bousfield, 2015)

BRITISH MUSEUM. (2000) History of Tate. [Online] Available from: http://www.tate.org.uk/about/who-we-are/history-of-tate [Accessed 11/11/2016]

(British Museum, 2000)

COUNCIL, N. M. D. (2014) Museums and galleries in Britain: Economic, social and creative impacts - national museum directors' council Website. [Online] Available from: http://www.nationalmuseums.org.uk/resources/press_releases/pr_travers_report/ [Accessed 7/11/2016]

(Council, 2014)

Department of Culture Media & Sport. (2016) Taking part 2015/16 quarter 4: Adult statistical release: Key findings. [Online] Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/taking-part-201516-quarter-4-statistical-release/taking-part-201516-quarter-4-adult-statistical-release-key-findings [Accessed 8/11/2016]

( 2016)

FITZGERALD, T. (2016) Visitor numbers soar at the museum of science and industry. [Online] Available from: http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/whats-on/whats-on-news/mosi-visitor-numbers-manchester-museum-11174832 [Accessed 14/11/2016]

(Fitzgerald, 2016)

FLEMING, D. (2015) Museums association. [Online] Available from: http://www.museumsassociation.org/about/frequently-asked-questions [Accessed 7/11/2016]

(fleming, 2015)

GARRET, C. (2012) 5 reasons you should invest your time in networking. [weblog]Available from: http://www.chrisg.com/networking-roi/ [Accessed 13/11/2016]

(Garret, 2012)

GRANT, R. M. (2005) Contemporary strategy analysis. 5th ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing

(Grant, 2005)

HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL. (2015) Strategies for Universities & Nonprofits. [Online] Available from: http://www.isc.hbs.edu/strategy/related-topics/Pages/strategy-for-universities-and-nonprofits.aspx [Accessed 8/11/2016]

(Harvard Business School, 2015)

HISTORIC, uk. (2016) Map of museums in Britain. [Online] Available from: http://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryMagazine/DestinationsUK/Museums/ [Accessed 8/11/2016]

(Historic, 2016)

HUTCHINSON, J. (2015) The British museum named UK's most popular visitor attraction. Daily Mail, 11th March. Available from: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/travel/travel_news/article-2986259/Epping-Forest-receives-4-4million-visitors-Brighton-Pier-10-site-outside-London-UK-s-popular-visitor-attractions-revealed.html [Accessed 11/11/2016]

(Hutchinson, 2015)

KOTLER, N. G., KOTLER, P., and KOTLER, W. I. (2008) Museum marketing and strategy: Designing missions, building audiences, generating revenue and resources. 2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc.,U.S.

(Kotler, Kotler, and Kotler, 2008)

MACDONALD S. and FYFE G. (eds.) (1998) Theorizing museums: Representing identity and diversity in a changing world. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing

(Macdonald and Fyfe, 1998)

\"Museums occupy an intriguingly paradoxical place in global culture, as we approach the new millennium. Bound up with much that is heralded to be nearing its end - stability and permanence authenticity, grand narratives, the nation-state, and even history itself - their numbers are growing at an unprecedented rate.\" (Macdonald and Fyfe, 1998)

MANCHESTER UNIVERSITY. (2013) 24th international congress of history of science, technology and medicine (the university of Manchester). [Online] Available from: http://www.ichstm2013.com/explore/industrial-local/ [Accessed 11/11/2016]

(Manchester University, 2013)

MEDNOZA, N. (2016) Review of museums in England. [Systematic Review] Department of Cultural Media and Sport, Issue [Accessed 5/9/2016].

(Mednoza, 2016)

MUSEUM OF SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY. (n.d.) Museum of Science and Industry. [Online] Available from: http://msimanchester.org.uk/search?q=values%20 [Accessed 14/11/2016]

(Museum of Science and Industry, n.d.)

MUSEUMS ASSOCIATION. (2012) Museums association. [Online] Available from: http://www.museumsassociation.org/download?id=649221 [Accessed 8/11/2016]

(museums association, 2012)

PORTER, M. E. (2004) Competitive advantage: Creating and sustaining superior performance. New York: Free Press

(Porter, 2004)

SICENCE MUSEUM GROUP. (2016) Record visitor numbers for science museum group. [Online] Available from: http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/about-us/press/april-2016/record-visitor-numbers [Accessed 14/11/2016]

(Sicence Museum Group, 2016)

SWETTENHAM, L. (2014) The way we were: When cotton was king and Manchester led industrial revolution. [Online] Available from: http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/nostalgia/way-were-cotton-king-manchester-6085736 [Accessed 11/11/2016]

(Swettenham, 2014)

THE BRITISH MUSEUM. (2016) UK loans and tours. [Online] Available from: http://www.britishmuseum.org/about_us/tours_and_loans/uk_loans_and_tours.aspx [Accessed 14/11/2016]

(The British Museum, 2016)

THE BRITISH MUSEUM. (2015) About us. [Online] Available from: http://www.britishmuseum.org/about_us/management/about_us.aspx [Accessed 14/11/2016]

(The British Museum, 2015)

TOONEN, S. (2014) The role of the arts in event-led regeneration policies. [weblog] Cultural case. 11th December. Available from: http://www.culturecase.org/research/2014/12/the-role-of-the-arts-in-event-led-regeneration-policies/ [Accessed 9/11/2016]

(Toonen, 2014)

TRAVERS, T. (2006) Museums and galleries in Britain: Economic, social and creative impacts. Storbritannien: MLA

(Travers, 2006)

ZEBALLOS, J. (2015) Why international students are choosing London. The Guardian, 8th April. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/education/2015/apr/07/why-international-students-are-choosing-london [Accessed 11/11/2016]

(Zeballos, 2015)

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