Intention to perform at work is very important for employees who are working in the organization. Intention to perform at work is organization's employee\'s plan and use the good ways to perform work with effective and efficiency at their job position. Intention to perform at work is can also call job performance. This is because organization's employees plan to perform the task with effective and efficiency in the organization.
Define job performance is a behaviour of employees to carry out the overall expected value to the organization. Job performance has involved two types of performance which are task performance and contextual performance. Task performance is employee directly to product goods and service using by raw material and technical skill. Furthermore, contextual performance refers employees' behavior to maintain and enhance the social network and psychological climate in the organization. This is because social network and psychological climate need to support technical task in the organization (Robert Bullock, 2013).
In addition to research mention, that turnover intention will influence job performance of employees in the organization. Turnover intention is to measure that whether employees plan to leave the organization or whether employer fires them out of the organization (Michaele Curtis,2016). Turnover intention is a series problem in the organization, and organization can't afford to retain employees with the many reasons such as voluntary and involuntary. Voluntary turnover is employees willing to leave the organization because another organization gives them more opportunities than an actual organization. Define involuntary turnover is an employer isn't satisfied performance of the employees and they cannot fulfill the requirement of the employer so that it will cause employer make the decision to fire them out of the organization (Saeed, I., Waseem, M., Sikander, S., & Rizwan, M., 2014).
However, the turnover intention will influence by Job satisfaction, Organizational commitment, leader membership exchange (LMX), Emotional intelligence, Job performance. Job satisfaction is employees are satisfied and feel get the high achievement on the task which is performed by them. It will bring negative influence in the organization because when employees get high job satisfaction, it will lead low turnover intention; when employees get low job satisfaction, it will cause high turnover intention on the organization (Saeed, Iqra, et al., 2014).
According to Saeed, Iqra, et al. (2014), emotional intelligence is a person who has the ability to control and manage their emotion and others emotion. Emotional intelligence is critical to understand the social environment and can provide the useful information to employees to perform a good task in the organization. It can help employees to increase the relationship between them and their college. When emotional intelligence of employees is high, it can lead low turnover intention in the organization. Organizational commitment refers to a person who is working in the organization need to provide positive response and effort in working environment and to be loyal to organization (Saeed, Iqra, et al., 2014). If low turnover intention, it means that employees have a strong relationship and loyal to the organizational.
Reward management can lead the employees to intent perform at work. It can be the best tool used by Human Resources Department to motivate, retain, and attractive the employees to perform in the best task in the organization. The purpose of reward system is lead employees to increases performance, satisfaction, and productivity into an organization (Njanja, W. L., Maina, R. N., Kibet, L. K., & Njagi, K., 2013). Reward system has included compensation, promotion, recognition and other non-monetary bonus such as vacation. Reward management can encourage and reinforce positive behavior on employee's performance into the organization.
In a nutshell, the intention of individual to perform on job task is related to several of factors, organizations and managers will have to do well in managing the intention of their employees, in order to sustain the organization outcome and overall performance.
Organizational Justice and Job Performance
Based on the study of Jankingthong & Rurkkhum in year 2012, organizational justice is one of the factors that will affect individual job performance. Organization justice refers to the perceive fairness of the employees in the workplace (Oxford Bibliographies, 2016). According to Mohamad, Attle, & Corporation in year 2014, organization justice is an umbrella to refer to individual perceptions about the fairness of decision making process within the organization, and how to perceptions can influence individual performance. The fair treatment in the workplace has significant effects on individual attitudes, satisfactions and commitment. When the organization justice culture is high, employees will more likely to have high job satisfactions, and subsequently increase their effort to perform their job tasks according to the job descriptions. Based on the study of Mohamad etc. in year 2014, organizational justice has a positive relationship with the quality of performance. The more satisfactions that the employees have based on the justice system of the organization, the more commitment they have to deliver high quality of performance.
Job Stress and Job performance
According to the study of Arshadi & Damiri in year 2013, stress at work is an increasingly common feature in modern life, and has harmful effects on individual health and organization outcome. Job stress can be defined as a harmful emotional response which arise from the issue when the individual capabilities are not match with the job requirement or the resources, and may lead to poor health and psychological problems (CDC, 2014). According to Sincero study, when the job stress is perceived as uncontrollable, the individual begins to experience a dramatic drop in the job performance compare with other. Due to overwhelming mix of situations, if the job stress did not managed carefully and totally, well result to poor performance, poor health condition and even poor relationships. Thus, the stress arises from job environment will affect individual intention to perform. Stress will affect our ability to remember things that we already know, and the new acquired information to apply on any situation that need much concentration. When individual exhausted from mentally worries, anxiety, and tensions which are brought on by the stresses, he or she will tend to make mistakes on job, and also low degree on job performance (Hamlett, 2016).
Job stress derives from different resources such as a demanding boss, bad customer, unfriendly coworker, as well as long working hour. Your intention to perform on your job task is directly relate to the degree of your job stress. Thus, there is a big challenge for both employer and employees, to handle the stress and change the stressful situation by changing the attitudes toward the stress, in order to balance the job stress and job performance.
Aging and Job Performance
Based on the case study from D.Balas Timar, they is a dynamic relationship between aging and job performance. The age was not significantly related to core task performance, but positively related to organization citizen behavior and has a negative relationship to counterproductive tasks.
According to Linda Stolling's study, when people getting older and older, he or she will become wiser, and become a great contributor to the employer because of the working experience, maturity and work ethic. One of the biggest challenge in today's workforce is, the baby boomers or the Gen X will have the higher chances to resist the change. They might not able to identify the needs of the change to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of job task, and only accustomed to perform job task by using traditional approach.
Aging is most likely to have effects on job performance when the job requirement involved sensory perception, selective attention, working memory, information processing, immediate reaction or physicals strength ( Suttle, 2016). Based on Suttle study, people tend to loss their hearing as they age. Consequently, older people work performance may be affected, since communication process is important, hearing problem can have a negative effect on performance.
Apart from that, age also affect individual memory. Older workers may have trouble when performing tasks which need to memorize facts and recite them back swiftly (Suttle, 2016). For example, a firm may only have one person handling various marketing research activities. This individual may need to memorize a lots of technical aspects of the information to develop a questionnaire for a survey. An aging person may face with difficulties when comes to memorizing, and might be slower with developing the questionnaire.
Last but not least, people tend to lose bone mass and muscle strength when they getting older. In certain circumstance, an older worker who is required to lift heavy objects due to job tasks, might be at a disadvantage (Suttle, 2016). Example like in a restaurant, the job specification for the waiter or waitress require strong physical stamina and energy, because they need to stand for long hours and serves the cuisines to the customers. Older worker may have difficulty to keep up with the demands of the restaurant or factory job that requires a lot of lifting task.
Employee Engagement and Job Performance
Employee engagement is a workplace approach resulting in the right conditions for all members of an organization to give of their best each day, committed to their organization's goals and values, motivated to contribute to organizational success, with an enhanced sense of their own well-being (Engage for Success, 2016). According to International Journal of Business and Management in year 2010, companies must invest in employee engagement because employee engagement is significantly important for business outcomes. Employee who are not engaged are likely to be spinning, settling and splitting .They tend to misunderstanding about what they organization wants in terms of performance measures. As a result, this studies have found that there is a positive relationship between employee engagement and organizational performance outcomes.
According to Harvard Business Review in year 2013, company have been increasingly monitoring their engagement levels in the past few years. One of the reason is that most of the research have shown that having a highly engaged workforce not only maximizes a company's investment in human capital and improves productivity, but it can also significantly reduce costs.
“Engagement leads to profit, and profit wisely publicized and distributed, leads to engagement” (Bob Keller, 2011). An organization is very difficult to have profit without engagement because profit is the lifeblood of the organization. If employees in an organization lack of engagement, the organization's profit will only be temporary. In contrast, if an organization lack profitability over time, employee engagement levels will also drop and this will also affect employee's intention to perform.
Reward and Job Performance
Rewards system are very crucial for an organization. Human Resource Management of an organization takes advantage of reward systems which include systems, programs and practices for attracting and retaining employees to improve their performance through motivation. Research has proven that when human being are appreciated and praised they tend to improve their performance (Njanja,Maina,Kibet & Njagi, 2013). Employee's performance will be enhanced if an organization willing to take more time on recognize those employees who are performed well. Therefore, in order to improve employee's performance, organization should reward them more often. When comes to the reward system, equity theory must be applied. According to Boundless in year 2016, the equity theory explain the satisfaction of individual in terms of the perceived fairness, whether is fair or unfair distribution of resources within interpersonal relationship. The equity theory in a workplace structure is measure by the input and output of individual performance. People value fair treatment will be motivated to maintain a similar standard of fairness within the organization. Employees in and organization wants to feel that their efforts are being rewarded with fair pay ( Boundless, 2016). When inequitable situation happened, individual will become distress and tend to put less effort on job task, which will lead to a decline in performance.
Leadership Style and Leaders Value on Performance
Leadership is a very important role in the organization. It will influence the employees to intention perform to the task in organization. This is shows that employees and the leader need have to collaborate to each other and give direct interact such as communication, direction, support, and feedback, so that organization will get the greater productivity with effectively. According to OSABIYA Babatunde, IKENGA, Emem (2015), leaders need to have characteristics of leadership which are communicate effectively, good performance regularly, and develop responsibilities to become role model of organization and perform task together with the employees. This can cause the employees willing to follow the leader and intent to perform during working.
According to OSABIYA Babatunde, IKENGA, Emem (2015), leader use different leadership style to motivate employees to accomplish the task and will getting different performance of task. In organization, leader can use situational leadership style to convince employees to intent perform at work. This is because leader will receive decision from employees provide and then leader do final decision making together with employees. Additional, leader will assign the task to employees according to their ability, skill, and knowledge. Leader will give enough support to their employees and fulfil their need and want during their facing problem.
For example, employees face problem in the event and have black out at their work. For this circumstances, situational leader will put themselves in the situation and give some suggestion to the employees to solve the problem and also help them to calm down their frame of mind. While, if leader who is contingency leadership, they don't care about the feeling and need of employees. They always know to aspire their employees to perform the task effectively and efficiently. They don't focus on relationship between leader and co-worker and they just focus on quick and perform the best based on the task, so some employees will not wiliness to cooperate them and intern to leave the organization.
Job Design, Job Satisfaction and Job Performance
Based on study on Ali and Rehman (2014), the authors had measure the effect of job design toward employee performance but effect of mediation is job satisfaction. The definition of job design is all jobs as a set of tasks that plan by management to one employee to achieve and these tasks is distribution of small patches of work to let employees achieve it within a specific time period (Ali and Rehman, 2014). In additional, job design is including job control, perceived work demands and supported by social that can improve the output. More, there is strong affect job design on satisfaction of job of employees in an organization.
Based on the journal in Zareen, Razzaq and Mujtaba (2013), the performance of employees on working is enhancing by motivating, encouraging, engaging and involving them and fulfill to maximization performance (Zareen, Razzaq and Mujtaba, 2013). Job design is the important factor that meets above challenges faced by human resources management in many organizations. A good defined, designs in job and tasks that according to behaviors and psychic of employees can leads employees perform up higher performance. The effective job design can from blend of three approaches which are job enrichment, job enlargement and job rotation according to the perception of employees (Zareen, Razzaq and Mujtaba, 2013).
According to study on Chinese Family Enterprises, the author found that degree of job satisfaction evidently influences work performance and turnover intention of employees. The dimensions of job satisfaction of affecting the work performance and turnover intention are relation of interpersonal, inner management, payand-benefits package and career development.
After that, according to the study on javed, Balouch and Hassan (2014) that they had research that understanding the factors that affect the job satisfaction in organization. They research job satisfaction is dependent variable that affected by independent variables which are employee empowerment and workplace, and they took job satisfaction is independent variable that affect the dependent variables which are turnover intention, job loyalty and job performance. They found that employee empowerment has a significant positive relationship with job satisfaction but negative relationship with turnover intention.
They analyze the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention of employees toward leaving the organization. The low level of job satisfaction in organization which makes employees will intention to leave the organization to find a new job. The highly degree of job satisfaction will increase the degree of the loyalty of employees in organization. More, there is a positive relationship between job performance and job satisfaction. It means high of job performance also impacted by high of job satisfaction.
Based on the study on Madina (2012) I studies that the purpose of research is to explore the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention of employee in the organization culture's context. Moreover, the level of satisfaction with workplace culture will affect the job satisfaction and turnover intention of employees. The low culture satisfaction will increase the turnover intention to leave of employee in an organization.
Work Environment and Employee Performance
Based on the journal in Oswald (2012), the author mentioned the effect of working environment on employee performance. First, the effect of comfort level as office building space for employee to work, the physical aspect of environment such as space of office and furniture in office will affect the employee performance in organization (Oswald, 2012). Next, the effect of interaction's level as interaction with other employees within organization, the interaction with employees should be backed up with existence of job aids, goal setting and feedback that only can affect the performance of employees in organization (Oswald, 2012). Other than that, equipment availability influenced the performance of employees in organization. Employees can perform better and efficient in working if the necessity for tool likes equipment.
According to the study on Mathews and Khann (2013), the working environment is very important to influence employee performance. These also have four factors of working environment to affect employee performance which are lighting, noise, temperature and furniture that all can influence employees on psychologically and physically.
Turnover Intention and Job Performance
According to the journal in Saeed, Waseem, Sikander and RIzwan (2014), turnover intention is a big issue for today that employees going leave the organization or organization fired employees due to employees cannot achieve the goal setting. There are some independent variable which are organization commitment, job performance, leader member exchange, emotional intelligence and job satisfaction that influence dependent variable which the turnover intention of employees (Saeed, Waseem, Sikander and RIzwan, 2014).
Based on study on Ntisa (2015), the author had mentioned that attitude and work performance of employee influence the turnover intention. This journal shown that the lower work performance, then will make the higher the turnover intention to leave in organization. If the social identify of an employees in organization is not noticeable or important in given situation, it will stronger turnover intention to leave the organization (Ntisa, 2015). More, if employee who has negative emotion then does not face challenges in working that will make the employee has lower work performance.
3.0 Findings and Recommendation
Contributions Within The Work Organization
Health and Aging
Based on the articles and journals we had read, it showed that the health condition and aging problem of the employees will affect their job performance. When sufficient health benefits are provided, employees will feel that the organization appreciates them and values their involvemnent of being the members of the organization. Hence, the employees are willing to contribute more and increase their commitment towards the organization. As a result, they are more engaged to their job and improve their job performance. Now, many companies are providing health benefits to their employees as one of the effort to improve the job performance of the employees. For instance, Google Inc. provides health insurance and health benefits to the employees. The health insurance covers medical care. Vision care, meantal health care, dental care and prescription drug subsidy. The health benefits include breast cancer screening, blood pressure screening, cholesterol tests, flu shots and other medical facilities (Google Inc, 2016). Other than Google, ASUS company also provide medical clinics with speacialized doctors and nurses to take care of the safety and health of the employees. ASUS also provides annual health examination and gymnasium for the employees.
In an organization, a rewards system refers to the incentive and benefits programs that offer to the employees for the purpose of rewarding the employees who are loyal, consistent and putting quality and value in their work with the financial remuneration (Credit, 2016). The result of the researches which shown that there is a significant relationship between the reward systems and the employee\'s job performance in the organization has contributed a significant positive impact towards the operation of an organization. A good and systematic rewards system increase the overall performance of the company. With a good rewards system, the employee's productivity and morale have increased. This is because employees have the incentive to perform better and be more productive if their efforts are being appreciated. Other than that, high employee morale can also lead to high job performance as rewards program encourage employees to meet goals while reducing job burnout. Therefore, every organization cannot be so successful without a good rewards system that enhances and rewards the performance of their employees. For instance, QuikTrip provides a variety of benefits to rewards its employees such as contributes a percentage of pretax profit to employees who are at least twenty-one years of age have worked at least one thousand hours and have been worked for its organization at least one year (Corporation, 2016). QuikTrip also takes good care of its employees by paying competitive wages and good benefits. Most of their former employees of QuikTrip has given positive reviews on QuikTrip and also its rewards system (job, 2016).
Suggestion on The Application
One of the key dimensions that affect the job performance of the employees is organizational justice. Since the organizational justice is so critical to the job performance of the employees, every organization should apply fairness on its operations and procedures. There are 4 factor model of the organizational justice which are distributive justice, procedural justice, interpersonal justice and informational justice (Policy, 2016). Distributive justice can be improved by allocating the organizational resources fairly to the employees. Besides that, the fair organizational procedures allow employees perceive procedural justice. For example, the organization should have a systematic rewards system and apply fairly to their employees. Therefore, employees will perceive their organizational distribution and procedures as justice and fair. Organization should treat its employees same and give them fair treatment in order to gain the perception of interpersonal justice from their employees. The informational justice also can be gained by sharing an equal amount of the information to its employees. Managers and supervisors should be aware of different forms of justice to keep the organizational justice in the perception of its employees.
Organizations should make the best effort to reduce the job stress in the workplace because job stress is harmful to the health of employees and thus lead to bad performance. There are many ways for managers to eliminate the job stress in the workplace. Organizations should develop some job stress preventing programs for its employees to educate them about workplace stress and how to deal with their job stress. In addition, organizations can reduce the organizational sources of stress by making some changes in their policies and procedures. Managers should make sure that employees have the appropriate workload to assure it is matching with their competencies and resources in order to reduce their stress towards their job. Workplace discrimination such as bullying and ostracism should also be avoided as it may be one of the factors of the job stress. There may have many reasons that arise the job stress. Therefore, the most important things for organizations are to find the factors that cause the job stress and suit the remedy to the case. Lacking of job stress is helpful to the mentality of the employees and can thus improve their job performance.
Job design refers to the way tasks are combined to form complete jobs. As mentioned earlier, a good job design is able to promote higher performance of the employees, therefore, employers can apply this theory in their organization to improve the performance. Employers should design the right job to each of the employees according to the environmental change, demand of products or services and the availability of technology with the skills, ability and knowledge of the employees. All these terms have to be matched in order to maximize the performance and productivity of the organization. To design the best suitable job to an employee, the employer has to identify the actual skills, abilities and behavior of the employee and then design the specific roles, responsibility and task for the particular employee. For example, the employee likes to communicate with people and develope relationship while working, the employer should assign him/her to work in team rather than working alone. In addition, if the employee has great skills and likes challenging job, the employer can enrich and enlarge his/her task. When the tasks assigned to them are favorable, they will be motivated to work harder and they will be satisfied with their job. Hence, they have higher commitment to their job and result in better performance.
According to our finding and study on the intention to perform of employee, we found that the intention is actually much more related to the task itself. Thus, the job design, job descriptions and job specifications must be convey to the employee, in order to let them fully understand what the expectation of the organization on them. When the employee's abilities match with the job task, then the job performance will be appreciate.
Apart from that, the job environment as well as job engagement will also affect the intention to perform in the organization. Employee will be motivated if the job environment is ethical and ease, and have high chance to engage in decision making. Furthermore, the reward system and the perceive fairness of the organization will also have impact on employee's intention to perform. It is a must for the organization to ensure the equity fairness within the organization, and reward employee with fair and equal evaluation based on their performance.
Besides that, the leaders in the organization, will also have impact on how the leaders' subordinates behave. An ethical and people oriented leader will tend to have more influence on their subordinates and able to motivate them to perform better compare with task oriented leader.
Last but not least, the individual factors of the employee will also affect the intention to perform. When the employee has a lots of stressful task to perform, or being treated unfairly which caused them to feel not suitable to the organization, and tend to have negative emotion, he or she will performs with lower standard, that will cause a dramatic decline on the job performance. Aging problems will also affect individual abilities, to perform certain job tasks which may cause difficulties to the employees. Thus, organization must look into these factors, and create a healthy working environment to retain talents and also sustain the organization performance.
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