Generally a system is a set of elements that reciprocate and impact each other, thereabout causing a larger whole of a complex thing. Systems thinking uses concepts to develop an understanding of the interdependent structures of dynamic systems. System thinking can be defined as a technique of critical thinking by which you dissect the relationships among organized components in application to embrace a situation for better decision-making. It can also be a discipline for viewing structures that control complicated situations, and for discerning high and low leverage change (Senge, 1990). In simpler terms, you look at a lot of the trees, other plants and the weather, and why all these parts fit together in order to figure out the forest. When individuals have a better understanding of the systems, they are better able to identify decision points that lead to desired result. System thinking can be used in many area of research and has been applied to study of medical, political, economic, environmental, human resources and educational systems among many others.
System thinking can be applied in human resource department of a firm. Human resource division of a company mainly focus on the activities relating recruiting and hiring of new employees, employees benefits, training and orientation of current employees etc. The human resource plays a big role in the organization, by helping to improve employee engagement and commitment. Many successful firms are strongly attached to look after their personnel needs since they trust that firm that grow employee satisfaction can ensure greater employee commitment (Popoala et al, 2007).
The business world is seemly universal strife and is persistently producing fresh challenges. There is fast evolution of technologies, changing prices and decline workforces. Administrators are in distress to generate a competitive advantage, and using workers virtually is a necessary part of the task. The systems thinking technique brings to administration thinking, an appreciation that unless the whole is taken into account there can be organizational optimization. The aim of this essay is to investigate the effect of organizational commitment on employees' productivity. The problem statement is to examine the impact of organizational commitment on employee productivity in Nigeria Brewery Public Limited Company. Insufficient organizational commitment can affects the employer productivity and thereby contribute to failure of organization not to attain their objectives. However, the organization commitment to employee can be accomplished through some motivation encouragement.
2 Origin of Nigeria Breweries Public Limited Company
Nigeria breweries public limited company is the oldest and biggest brewing company in Nigeria. It was established in the year 1946. The company built its first plant at Lagos in June 1949. The brewery first product is star lager beer. Other branches of the brewery were opened in Aba, Kaduna, Ibadan, and Enugu in 1957, 1963, 1982 and 1993 respectively. In October 2003, a sixth brewery was built at Ameke, in Enugu State. The company now has eight operational breweries from which its products are distributed to all parts of Nigeria. The company has a high quality brands, which are divided into alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks. The alcoholic drinks include Star lager, Gulder lager, Legend extra stout, Star lite lager, Goldberg lager and Ace passion apple spark. While the non-alcoholic drinks namely Maltina, Amstel malt, Fayrouz, Climax energy drink and Malta gold. Today the company has over 3000 number of staffs (Owomoyela et al, 2013).
2.1 Concept of organizational commitment
Organizational commitment is defined as a worker firm compliance to an organization´s objectives and values, putting effort in favour of the organization to attain its targets and strong aspiration to sustain membership in the organization (Ismail, 2012).
Organizational commitment can be classified into three namely, affective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment. Affective commitment can be ascribe to be the extent to which individual identifies with, is involved in, and enjoys membership in the company. Employees with affective commitment want to remain with an organization because they have feels a strong emotional attachment to the organization (McMahon, 2007). According to him continuance commitment result when an employee stays with an organization broadly out of need, the employee considers the advantages and disadvantages of leaving the organization. Due to inadequate opportunities or costs involving with leaving, such as lost income, retirement benefits and time vested are the main problems of continuance commitment. Normative commitment occurs when the employee feel a sense of obligation to continue with a particular organization, even he/she is unhappy in his/her duty. The incorporated idea of obligation and commitment allows employees continued membership that is welcomed by the management (Lumley et al, 2011).
2.2 Strategies of motivating employees
Organization motivation is the technique that brings and support goal-directed performance. It strengthens our thinking, encourages our zeal and emotional reactions to work place. Motivation develops intellectual effort that makes us to exploit our intelligence and competence. According to him without motivation even the highest efficient person will refuse to work hard. The following strategists are used for motivation as organizational commitment (Clark, 2003).
Performance related pay is an important device to drive motivation, since employees may use it to get the desired wants. Therefore, pay is a quittance that has a great influence in building employees diligence and commitment. Pay is not only the major boaster, other non-monetary elements such as award, public acknowledgement and comments for good work are also found to be affirmative incentive factors (Latt, 2008).
Recognition is a motivation strategy. The staff member's hard work can be remembered through promotion. Promotion means a rise in a worker position in an organization. It means more duty. Workers want promotion to be given on merit. That is given promotion to the most qualified staff. This recognition is followed by an increment pay in the worker's salary. Overall, in the organization, recognition is seen as a great technique for workers motivation. Because when not promoted, the diligent and competent staff tends to leave their workplace and seek for better employments elsewhere (Ukandu and Ukpere 2011).
Encouraging trust and confidence in senior leaders will also motivate employees. Establish reliable connections with workers from the onset to build reliance (Yazinski, 2009). He affirmed that workers have to be convinced that the board is capable and the company will be prosperous. The management has to be able to influence this confidence and make decisions that buttress it. The corporation cannot say one thing and do another. Also the leaders need to enlist and motivate workers by executing programs that show they have confidence in them, like not been too imperious.
Communication is also another motivation strategy. The leaders in the company must communicate frequently with their employees on issues bordering the organization. Speaking with entails that they care about them.
Encouraging contribution also motivates organizational commitment. The leaders should allow employee express the views and opinions. Managers should give obligations and allow the employee contribute the creativity and skills that will aid in the growth of the organization. The more they feel their voice is being heard, the more they contribute to the cause of the company.
Fig. 1 Hypothesized model of the relationship among perceived Support, organizational commitment, motivation and work outcomes (Woo and Chelladurai 2012).
The fig. 1 above demonstrates the relation between perceived support and organizational commitment. From the studies gathered co-worker support and supervisor support have a decisive impact on organizational commitment, especially among the beginners in the institution. While it had an unfavourable impact on their eager to the company. Studies showed that workers were more productively devoted to the organization when they get backing from workmate, supervisors and the company. Organizational support escalate staff perception for the company´s ambition. Organizational commitment can be categorized into affective, continuance and normative. Commitment has a great impact on employee productivity. Organizational commitment is firmly connected to work effort. The staff is obliged to inform the company if he/she has any intention to leave. Work motivation has a positive impact on organizational commitment. It alleviates support-commitment link. Motivation can be intrinsic and extrinsic. In intrinsic motivation, the workers are inspired because they find the job delightful, and not because of the challenges it would bring to the person. Extrinsic motivation includes money and promotion. The workers believe he/she will be appreciated in monetary or monetary worth.
3 Methodology of System Thinking
The impingement of establishment consignment on employees productive were examined using two system thinking models; the problem structuring method and the implementation and organizational learning method.
In problem structuring method, the problems or challenges to the management were identified. In doing so, the goals of the organization were put in place. The issues identified were weak organizational culture and conflict. Weak organizational culture exist when employees do not agree with the basic values of the company. Conflicts arises when there is no friendly climate among the workers. Members that are boldly resistant are often turned down or seen as a bad influence by the rest of the group (Guest, 1991). Exploratory advice, records, statistical data, past review and shareholders consultation were collected.
The implementation and organizational learning system thinking model is the most beneficial outcomes of system thinking. A report and presentation was prepared to the management team and stakeholders. The report contain the background and development of the systems thinking project, the challenges faced and lessons learnt.
The results of the study was communicated including intervention to all stakeholders. The result here means the challenges faces by the employees such as conflict and weak culture. The reasons for the proposed intervention is to know the importance of organization commitment to employee performance. The use of learning lab process issue to spread out and help bring about learning in the organization.
This study has presented a framework for understanding the importance of system thinking in the human resource management. It can be deduced that organizational commitment on employee productivity is an integral or fundamental concept; which must be embraced by any organization that wishes to actualize its goals. Organization commitment has a significant impact on the employee performance
The organization should make sure that motivational strategies such as staff training, salary and wages enhancement, communication etc. are provided to the employees, because it will boast their confidence. It has been viewed by study that individuals who were greatly devoted to the works are expected to be more productive, have high contentedness level and have less likely to leave than staff members with little commitment. Increase in workers commitment will also help the companies to retain staffs and move ahead to gain world recognition. Finally, success or failure of any firm depends on the personnel.
Clark, R. E. (2003). Fostering the work motivation of individuals and teams. 2 of 13.
Guest, E. A. (1991). Human resources management . M.C. Graw Hill London.
Ismail, N. (2012). Organizational commitment and job satisfaction among staff of higher learning education institutions in kelantan. 10.
Latt, K. A. (2008). Motivating people on the way towards organizational performance.
Lumley, E., Coetzee, M., Tladinyane, R., & Ferreira, N. (2011). Exploring the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of employees in the information technology environment. Southern African Business Review.
McMahon, B. (2007). Organizational commitment, relationship commitment and association with attachment style and focus of control. 3-4.
Owomoyela, S. K., Ola, O. S., & Oyeniyi, K. O. (2013). Investigating the impact of marketing mix elements on consumer loyalty: An emperical study on Nigeria Breweries Plc. Interdisciplinary journal of contemporary research in business, 489-490.
Popoala, G. R. (2007). Commitment and the control on organizational behaviour. Chicago: St Clair Press.
Senge, P. M. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization London: Random House
Ukandu, N. E. & Ukpere, W. I. (2011). Strategies to improve the level of employee motivation in the fast food outlets in Cape Town SouthAfrica. African journal of business management vol.5(28), 11524-11525.
Woo, B. and Chelladurai, P. (2012). Dynamics of perceived support and work attitudes: The case of fitness club employees. Human resouce management research, 2(1): 6-18. USA
Yazinski, S. K. (2009). Strategies for retaining employees and minimizing turnover.
...(download the rest of the essay above)