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Public is as old as mankind. Public Relations affect almost everyone who has a contact with other human beings. All of us, in one-way or the other practice or experience public relations daily.

Public Relations are an aspect of communication that involves the relation between an organization and its publics. According to Ademulagun Public Relations is relation with the publics.

Public Relations are the planned and sustained effort to establish a mutual understanding between an organization and its publics. According to British Public Relations as an art and social science analysis trend, predicting their consequence, counseling organization, leader and implement planned programme of action which will serve for both the organization and it public interest, the world assemble in Mexico City in August (1987).

Public Relations consist of all form of planned communication in ward and outward between organization and its publics for the purpose of achieving specific objective concerning mutual understanding. The father of Public Relations Frank Jefkins.

The term cult is a Latin word which refers to worship, religion and faith. A cult is a group of people who are adherents of a certain type of worship. In the contemporary context, it generally refers to a fraternal relationship between a group of people who are out to achieve set objectives for members, even though these objectives go against the interest and norms of the larger society (Ikudayisi, 1998). Onyechere (1988) defines these cults as a group of people who share and propagate peculiar beliefs only to members.

A cult could be defined as a group claiming to be members of a faith but which neglects or distorts the message of that faith. Any religious group which deviates from the doctrine of the generally accepted belief of an established faith can thus be seen as a cult. Socially, a cult is a group that breaks away from the conventional consensusto express very different views, real or imagined, possible or impossible, moral or immoral.

Cultism is dated back to 1952, when Wole Soyinka winnerof the 1986 Nobel Peace Prize for Literature-and a groupof friends at the University of Ibadan formed the Pyrites'Confraternity with the motto “Against all Conventions”. The skull and cross bones were their insignia, cultivatinga bohemian style that ridiculed the colonial attitudesmode of dress of the day.This caught on among students and over the next twodecades, the fraternity, a non-violent body, becameestablished in all the tertiary institutions that emerged inpost-independence Nigeria.

In  the mid-1980s, reports had it that some of the cultshave been co-opted by elements in the intelligence andsecurity services serving the military government suchthat they were used as foils to the left-wing studentunions which, along with university teachers, were amongthe only remaining bastions of opposition to military rule.

Cultism includes the activities of secret cults or societiesthat are very rampant in our institutions of learning today.The founding fathers of such societies do not have themind of carrying out evils but as a pressure group thatcan monitor and defend the interest of the immorality ofstudents' populace without violence. But the activities ofthe various cults seen day in our institutions are far fromthe above reasons. They have constituted themselvesinto gangs of “never-do-well” set of people.

Theirmission today is to loot, kill, steal and destroy lives andproperties at will.They have constituted themselves into a big cog inthe wheel of Nigeria's education development. Indeed, thegrowth and maturation of examination malpracticetendencies in our tertiary institutions have beenconsidered as one of the direct fallouts of cultism. Hardlya month passes these days, without reports of deaths ofstudents or staff resulting from cult-related violence.

This has not only created an atmosphere of insecurity in our campuses, it is also diverting attention from the primary purpose of the universities which is education. Ata time when funding of these institutions are inadequate, and the standard of education is said to be falling, cultism and examination malpractices tendencies are clearly a big problem for the concerned authorities.

Taiwo (2004) declared that “what we are all witnessing today in the education sector is a sad reflection of corruption in the society and the low priority placed on standardization and improvement of the intellectual custodians of our time by those in governance”. This is against the fact that most members of these cults are from rich homes and are never serious with their studies; thus prompting their venturing into examination malpractices. Whenever they fail their courses, they react violently through their cult members against the teachers in charge of their failed courses.

They operate at night and conduct initiation of new members at dawn in these institutions coming out with dangerous weapons at the middle of the nights. When Students who are ignorant of their activities fall victim.

1.2 Statementof the Problem

T he basic conditions for sustained academic culture have been eroded in tertiary institution. And it has been negative impact in tertiary Institution which little attention has been given to consequence. Sometimes students are attracted to hostile's classroom, killing with acids, charms, machetes, knives, guns, bus stop e.t.c daylight and gang rapping, loss of life property and harassing of female students.Obada-Obieh (2002)

There is no peace in campus, series of examination malpractice, killing of lectures and course mate stopping of innocent students from studying at late hours in the classrooms. This is no longer news. Looking for good result at all means, all these are bottleneck to the development of teaching and learning in our tertiary institutions.

Public Relations as problem-solving communication are expected to create strategies to enlightenment for students and awake them on what is needed of in an academic community, especially now that various level of government and general over hand of all Nigeria tertiary institution.

In order to tackle this problem successfully both the students and general public and the government should take the challenges upon themselves.

1.3 Rationale Of The Study

The Research of the study is carried out due to the high rate of moral decadence in which the cultist possessed to the student in tertiary institution. It focuses on the relevance measures in which public relations and any external body could adopt to solve social phenomenon in tertiary institution in Nigeria.

The study gives us insight in the area related to the sources, implication and end results of being cultist in tertiary institution. It tries to portrayed the relationship and effect between the students and the cultism in Nigeria institution.

1.4 Objectives Of Study

The aims of this study include the following:

1. To examine the different causes of cultism in tertiary institution

2. To find out if there were laws that will help Students of MoshoodAbiola Polytechnic resist from joining secret cults.

3. To examine the role Public Relations as strategies tool to reach the audience

4. To study the various challenges the cultists groups have caused on the school activities.

5. To ascertain the extent of adequacy of mobilization and encouragement of students to support the crusade against cultism.

1.5 Research Question

1. Why do students get involve in cultism in tertiary institution?

2. What laws are in place in MoshoodAbiola Polytechnic that prevent the student from joining secret cultism?

3. What roles does the Public Relations play to combat cultism in Nigeria tertiary institution?

4. What are the problems the cultistsgroups caused on campus?

5. What are the tools put in place to mobilize and encouragestudents on cultism in the institution?

1.6 Significance Of Study

This is research is chosen because it we would widen the scope of my knowledge also enlighten the student about the risk of joining cultism, and help to excavate the evolution and the remote cause of cultism on campuses and proffer and enduring solution to it.

Students of MoshoodAbiola Polytechnic will also benefit from this work, by knowing howto resist joining cultism. In addition it will add to the body of knowledge in the field of public relations.

1.7 Scope Of The Study

This research focuses on public relations strategies and the fight against cultism in Nigeria tertiary institutions.

However, due to time, finance and other logistics thework has been narrowed down to MoshoodAbiola Polytechnic located at Abeokuta Ogun State, since it is difficult to study all NigeriaHigher Institutions, therefore, demography factors students in terms of experience, educational background, age, sex e.t.c will beconsidered before distributing the research instrument.

1.8 Definition Of Terms

Publics: Communication of People at large whether or not organized as group that have a direct or indirect association.

Public Relations: The art and social science of analyzing trends, predicting.

Strategies: A plan that is intended to achieve a particular purpose.

Cultism:  This is an association of people that comes together to form a religious body having common belief, mode of worship and activities are done in an isolated and private place.

Institution: Is a social structure in which people co-operate and influences the behavior of people and way they live.

Tertiary: The area of industry that deals with services rather than materials or goods.

Communication: The activity or process of expressing ideas and feelings or of giving information.

Mapoly: The Ogun State Polytechnic was established under the provision of section 3 of the law sited as the Ogun State Polytechnic law No 8of 12 June, 1980 and review as MoshoodAbiola Polytechnic edict, 1999.



2.1 Introduction

The focus of this chapter is to review existing literature relevant to the subject matter of this study. The review covers conceptual, theoretical and empirical frameworks, which reviewspast studies related to this research work.

2.2 Conceptual Framework

2.2.1 Emergence of Public Relations

Public Relations is not new, what is new is the modern method of it. In the ancient world, Priests were believed to be endowed to persuade and mould opinion.  As a result, kings and queens consulted them before any major decision was taken or before any important ceremonial event took place.

They served as a kind of public relations advisers to rulers and they produced all the literature, hymn of praise, lamentation and edicts to govern the people. IfedayoDaramola (2003:251)

Public Relations projects were undertaken in ancient Egypt. In Greece, the ruling class staged special event such as the Olympic Games to attract attention and to develop national spirit and sense of unity. In Rome, oration was used on the floor of the same senate and in the open-air forum when important issues were describe to attract the favour of the public and to win support. The orators were used to influence public opinion.

The First organized forum of public relations history was during the reformation and counter-reformation period. The reformation was a religious revolution of the 17th century, which divided western and eastern Christendom into two camp namely catholic and protestant. The movement stressed the right of individual conscience. The reformation attacked the absolute ecclesiastical authority of the Catholic Church and so separated itself from mainstream. IfedayoDaramola (2003:252)

In a manner similar to insurgence and counter insurgence the Catholic Church lauded a counter-reformation body. Under the auspices of Pope Gregory V11, a committee for the propagation of the faith was established seminars, print catechism and publish religious works in foreign works in foreign countries. Pope Gregory V11 appealed to the opinion of the congregation, which he termed propaganda.

What the Pope had in mind when he used the propaganda was Public Relations. In other words, he was interested in informing the people, persuading them to reconsider the faith and preserve the unity of the church. The propaganda movement's activities were to establish good understanding or good will for catholic. Daramola (2003:254)

Lvy Ledbetter, lee can be considered as the father of modern Public Relations. His activities in the united states of American dated back to 1906. Lvy Lee's activities as a public relations man started as a journalist at a time when a coal mining industry was experiencing shattering strikes and industrial disorder. Lee offered to restore peace in the industry to the striking coal miners on the contribution that he was allowed to communicate all facts as and when necessary to the public. He was given the chance. Lvy lee was later to issue his famous “Declaration of Principles which he gave to all editors. Lloyd (1980:3)

In Great Britain, the activities Sir Stephen Tallent who was the founder of the Britain institute of public relations between 1926-1931 contributed immensely to the birth and growth of public relations in the United Kingdom. Daramola (2003:25) Hitherto, information dissemination was the exclusive preserve of the British ministry of information during the First World War. The Second World War was later to increase the activities of public relations due to the break through recorded in the area of science and technology as sell modern techniques of information the public. The development continued during the post world war periods.

Colonial government employed public relations practice to persuade people to go into war. Public Relations started as an information office which was an arm of British government. The purpose of information office was to make people go into war. D.C Fletcher was the head of information office. Oriola (2009).

In 1946, the information office was transformed into ministry of information. An army of the ministry of information was public relations department that carry out public relations functions.

2.2.2 Concept Of Public Relations

Relations Society of America (PRSA) (1982) Persist that Public Relations help our complex, pluralistic society to reach decisions and function more effectively by contributing to mutual understanding among groups and institutions. It serves to bring private and public policies into harmony. Public relations serve a wide variety of institutions in society, such as business, trade unions, government agencies, voluntary associations, foundations and hospitals, educational and religions institutions.

To achieve their goals, these institutions must develop effective relationships with many different audience or publics such as employees, members, customers, local communities, shareholders and other institutions and with society at large. The management of institutions needs to understand the attitudes and values of their publics in order to achieve institutional goals. The goals themselves are shaped by the external environment.

Public Relations is a distinctive management function which helps establish and maintain mutual lines of communication, understanding, acceptance and cooperation between an organization and its publics; involves the management of problems or issues; helps management to keep informed on and responsive to public opinion; defines and emphasizes the responsibility of management to serve the public interest; helps management keep abreast of and effectively utilize change, serving as an early warning system to help anticipate trends; and uses research and sound and ethical communication as its principal tools. Harlow (1991).

Taye(2002), quoting News and Carel(2001) says that the first world assemble of public relations association regards public relations as the art and science of analyzing trends, predicting their consequences, counseling organization leaders and implementing planned programmes of action which will serve both the organization's and the publics' interest.

Tejuoso (2003) see public relations as a management function of a continuing and planned character through which public and private organization and institution seeks to win and retain the understanding, sympathy and support of those with whom they are, or may be concerned by evaluating public opinion about themselves; in order to correlate, as far as possible, their own policies and procedure, to achieve by planned and widespread information , more productive cooperation and more efficient fulfillment of their common interest.

Johnstone and Zawawi (2004:6) define public relations as the “ethical and strategic management of communication and relationships in order to build anddevelop coalitions and policy, identify and manage issues and create and direct messages to achieve sound outcomes within a socially responsible framework”.

This activity can be carried out by organizations, groups or individuals as they interact with their various publics or stakeholders to pursue objectives and goals. This view recognizes that communication should not be simply strategic because this implies the potential exploitation of the imbalance of power between the communicator and the recipient.

Meanwhile, Lvy Lee and Edward Louis Bernays (1990) describe Public relations as a management function which tabulates public attitudes, defines the policies, procedures and interest of organization by executing a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance.

Lloyd, (1980: XV) Public Relations practice is the deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and sustained effort to established and maintain a mutual understanding between an organization and its public

Deliberate: An organization's public relations emanates from the objective which the public relations man has projected as result of the research. Such research is follow up of the feedbacks received from publics of the organization in reaction to issues of mutual interest.

This emphasizes the fact that there is nothing accidental about a public relations programme. Rather, it is done quite willingly, because the management agreed with the proposition of the Public relations man to tackle the problem on hand decisively, deliberately.

The objective may be to let the publics of the organization know that management is taking urgent steps to correct anomalies identified and reported by customers about goods or services.

 Planned:  If an objective is to achieve the projected purposes and have the desire impact, it must be properly planned. For example, the public relations man must convey a meeting at which heads of the different department will brainstorm over the propositions of the public relations man who must be ready with answers to clarify certain things regarding a particular issues.

 Sustained Effort: as psychology have noted through experiments, the human memory is short. Consequently, with different signals competing for people's attention from the print and electronic media, an organization is obliged to design messages which it must get across to its publics at regular intervals.

This is to keep the publics abreast of developments in that organization and thus infuse, in the publics, a sense of belonging which in turn will reinforce loyalty to the organization, and engender interest in the goods or service an organization produce, or offers.

 Mutual Understanding: The concept of mutual understanding in public relations is made manifest by the principle of two-way communication. The Public Relation man is the channel for this two- communication. He gather publics opinion about his organizations' and provide provides these as feedback to management. Lloyd, (1980: XV) Public Relations practice is the deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and sustained effort to established and maintain a mutual understanding between an organization and its public.

The Communication Advertising and Marketing (CAM) foundation describes Public Relation as a management function which exists to establish and maintain better mutual understanding between an establishment and its publics (1982:1)

Sam Black (1989:20) asserts that Public Relations involve:

Everything that is calculated to improve mutual understanding between an organization and all with whom it comes into contact, both within and outside the organization.

Advice on the presentation of the ‘public image' of an organization.

Action to discover and eliminate rumors or other sources of misunderstanding.

Action to broaden the sphere of influence of an organization by appropriate publicity, advertising, exhibitions, visual aids or films.

Everything directed towards improving communication between people or organization.

Basically Public Relation is an act that can be seen to involved artistic skills, language, writing, and public speaking. It is a social science using social scientific instrument to understand and predict human behavior Nwosu(1968).

2.2.3Public Relations Strategies

Generally, the public relations strategies for tertiary institution should be fashioned out of the fashioned out of the corporate objectives of such institution from where public relations derive its objectives.

 Press release: It serves as the data bank of an institutions.It informs the external publics of the institutions about events that is about to take place or taken place, through press to the media (Newspaper, Magazine, Television Station, Radio Station)

 Articles/letter to the editors: Lauder the image of the institutions by contribution of articles different newspaper title and letter to the editor to clarify issues that affect the institutions. Article must be balanced, fair, truthful and interesting. The aims and objectives of the articles are as varied as the needs and situations of the institutions.

 Media Relation: Public relations should court, maintains mutual relationship with journalist through letters, personal calls on point of interest as a practice measure in order to effectively manage the reputation of the institution.

 Interviews: it is veritable tools of getting the support and understanding of the student for their popular and unpopular policies and decision.

 Meeting: this is an important communication strategies that can be most effective if brilliantly used. The institution should initiated meeting all component part of its institutions. However, meeting will be very useful with all classes of the institution executive in order to state specifically the position of the institution with a view to solicitor their support.

 Facility visit: are organized for the media to provide first hand people tend to believe in what they see more than they hear. This is the strength of the facility visit that renders it an effective to the institution.

 Sponsorship: by providing entertaining radio and television programmes to the publicity

 Internet: Is a media technology that has greatly enhanced the concept of a global village. Due to the power of internet, it makes institutions to be know (resumptions date, sales of Post UTME, date of Post UTME)   

2.2.4 Public Relations Campaign Planning

Generally, the public relations planning model planning models in public relations therefore, to achieve the corporation objectives of tertiary institution, any of the models for planning of public relations activities is very much appropriate.

However, Franks Jefkins six point model is used here to explain public relations planning for accomplishing the objectives of higher institutions. In his model, frank Jerfkins(1998) outline a six point for public relations activities in the following order:

 Appreciation of situation

 Definition of objectives

 Definition of publics

 Selection of the media and techniques

 Planning of a budget

 Assessment of result

Appreciation of Situation: Although public relation activities are meant to place the organization in good stead before its public in order for the organization to be able to achieve its corporation aims, different events occur at different stages in the life of an organization, which thus put organization indifferent times. The situations in which different tertiary institutions operate these days differ depending on how events unfold.

In appreciating the situation, The Public Relations man should take cognizance of the prevailing problems and take a holistic look at the situation that brought the problem. Itself and the after effect it may have on the institution.

For example, complaints by student (harassment by cultist student) which may brew into a crisis situation, because preventive Public Relations is much desirable than remedial. It is important that the Public Relations look at the issues before it becomes a subject for union discussion and eventual labour dispute.

Appreciation situation involves tactical monitoring of trends within and around the campuses of the institution making use of formal and informal research techniques relevant to public relations practice.

Consequently, on any potential or real problems situation different questions should be asked to enable the public man have a clearer picture and appreciate the situation of the organization at any point in time.

Where are now? What are the yearnings students? How are the communities viewing us? Where exactly are we now? Are the any misunderstanding? Question like these and many more help to shed more light on the dark areas of the institution's operation and thus presenting the situation in as clearer picture as possible.  

Defining The Objective :Specific public relations campaign objective for higher institutions can be one combination of some of the following:

1. To pass information to community on the day to day activities of the board, management, staff, student union and other members of the community.

2. To fight against cultism in tertiary institution

3. To correct misconception of management activities by staff, students and other members of the community.

Defining The Publics: Public relations programme are designed for different publics to the institution, for effectiveness of specific campaigns a clear understanding of the “specific public” being targeted is essential for the success of campaign.

Therefore, for every programme, a list of target public should be made. This will help fashion special message after the target publics taking note of their characteristics, such as who they are? What are their values? What communication strategy is best for them? Can there be any misconception of language? And course to enhance the feedback mechanism.

Selection Of Media And Techniques: Public relations media for tertiary institution, particularly in the Nigeria context are quite different similar yet significantly different from the conventional public relation media.

Basically, Public relations media serve as the instrument of communication used by an organization to disseminate information to the different publics and also provide feedback needed for further actions on the part of management, before selecting media, Public relations must have deep knowledge of the characteristic of both the Publics and media. This will enable the Public relations executives to put the right peg in the right holes as far as the publics and the media are concerned.

 A better knowledge of the media will also help in the design of messages so that the desired response can be received from those for the message is meant. Examples of media that can be used are: Radio, Television, Newspaper, and Magazine.

2.2.5 Public Relations For Tertiary Institutions

The volatility of Nigeria's has drawn attention of all segments of people to happenings therein. Recent occurrences in our citadels of learning have brought to the fore, a lot of thing hitherto unassociated with higher institutions in Nigeria thus putting question marks on the integrity of these institutions and creating for them a mirage of image problems Adefolakan(2001)

The present picture that all of us can see of our ivory tower is one of fast depreciating academics values, that has drastically reduced the standard of education in the ultimate institution that all over the world dictates the quality of socio-economic, political, cultural and technological position of the state.

The current state of higher institutions and higher education in Nigeria is the combined responsibility of the governments of these institution; lectures therein; parent, students themselves and the larger society Mojaye (2005).

Inconsistent policies on tertiary education which government make from time to time have great impact on the present situation of Ivory Towers.

Apparently, in reaction to government policies, a lot of lectures in Nigeria tertiary institution have found to be involved in so many atrocities that have injured and significantly weakened the pillars upon which sound and quality education were built by the nation's founding fathers

Not only have the students learned that ‘'it is not enough to know book, you must also know you way'', they have also devised several means of collaborating with lectures and non-teaching staff to perpetrate quantum of atrocities that negate the basic philosophy of tertiary education.

Therefore, the nation's education system, which was once noted to be very high quality even beyond the shores of Nigeria, began to dwindle. The purpose for which most students attend higher institution today is to obtain certificate and not necessary acquire meaningful education.

It is for this reasons that student got involved in a lot of examination misconduct and allied vices. The crises in higher education in Nigeria reached the peak with the coming of daring confraternities that have constituted very big menace to education development of Nigeria.

The presence of cultism in our citadel of learning has done a lot of havoc to the nation's educational systems just as it has negative impacted on her socio-economic and political systems. Hundreds of promising Nigerians have been killed through violent cult clashes; a great disturbance has been done to the nation's socio-economic order. No thanks to nefarious activities of cultist.

Unfortunately, the political activities aligned of Nigeria seems to have aligned with the activities of cult group as it now common phenomenon for politician engaged the services of different cult groups for the purpose of knowledge are nation's intellectual banks and foundation of knowledge are being gradually transformed into whited Sepulchers.

The issues that brought tertiary education to its current unimpressive state have also created unimpressive images for the tertiary institutions, situation which managers of ivory tower have been battling with for over decades ago.

Public relations activities in tertiary institution before now had to contend with and contain student's agitation which usually came in form of protests against shortage of or unavailability of water supply, power outage, increase in tuition fees and other matters, bordering on insensitivity on the part of government.

Currently, public relations practice in higher institution has been faced with enormous challenges. The focus of public relation has been directed lately towards getting the institution out of the woods and consequently repositions them to brazen up for the task of extinguishing the extraneous factors that have rotten system Adefolakan (2001)

This is believed will further helps to bring back lost glories of institutions and finally restore favourable image for them. Events in the recent past have thrown a lot of responsibilities on public relation as far as higher institution for tertiary education is concerned.

Public relations in tertiary institution have faced a lot challenges in recent time. Chief executive of higher institution of learning have had tough times coping with their institutions' buttered image as a result of series of ugly development that had arisen mostly from neglect of fundamental approaches to public relations in our ivory towers Adefolakan (2001)

 It is now evident that tertiary institutions in Nigeria are seeing the need of employ public relation services and strategies to tackle their image deficiencies but it is also true that most manager of these institution often rebuff practitioner's counsel in favor of the use of contemporary public relations approaches for solving most of the problems that plague the sector Nwosu (2002).

2.2.6 Public Relations As A Management Function In Tertiary Institutions

The dynamic nature of education and educational institution has made it somehow to have stereo-type public relations for educational institutions especially in NigeriaNkwocha (2004).  However the following would serve as the basic for articulating function of public relations in tertiary institutions

1. To serve as communication link between the institution and its internal and external publics.

2. To embark on all activities and programs that would greatly reduce student's agitation and crises.

3. To secure the understanding and support of major donors and philanthropist for the institution.

4. To secure the confidence and support of government.

5. To design programmes that would bring the institution alumni to support its cause at all times

6. To undertake community relations activities that will create lasting friendship between the institution and the host communities.

7. To foster mutual and beneficial relationship between the management of the institution and its workers, workers union and their leaderships.

8. To embark on students' relations activities that engenders symbiotic relationship between the students' union leaders and the management.

9. To guide the proprietors and management in building for the institution good image that attracts public's goodwill.

10 To monitors trends in education as they may affect performance and fortunes of tertiary institutions.

11. To undertake periodic research, counsel management and put potential plans in place to solve potential and situational occurrence.

2.2.7 Role Of Public Relations Officer In Higher Institutions

Operators and managers of higher institutions have since realized the importance of public relations in the day to day running of the institutions. They have come to realized that the institutions cannot survive without the support of its crucial publics (internal and external), and in order for them to function properly there is need to align their policies, goals and objectives with the interest of larger society Nkwocha (2004).

According to Lattimore et al (2004:328) “Public schools as well as higher education institutions have found that public relations is increasingly important to them as they seek funds, deal with crises, or face many of the special situations revolving around education.

This is in tandem with the viewpoint of Biagi (2003:219) universities, colleges and schools often hire public relations people to promote these educational institutions and to handle press attention from the consequences of decisions that educators make.

Hence, not surprisingly, most institutions now have a public relations unit situated in the office of the Chief Executive. Ken and Greenhall (1987:45), while defining public relations practice within higher education system aver that public relations practice is the process of organized two-way communication between an institution and its audiences; its objective is to build a level of mutual understanding and respect which allows the institution's goal to be more readily met.

These authors who focused mainly on public relations practice in English Colleges, Polytechnics and Universities contend that whatever the colleges does is affected in some way by public relations. “Every letter that goes out (or remains unanswered), each public speech, the appearance of buildings, the attitudes of porters, drivers, and receptionist, the actions of principals, academics and administrators; they all add to or detract from the goodwill that exists between a college and or more of its audience”, they affirm.

Jubril (1997:22) opines that, public relations reduces industrial crises and students unrest, helps raise the quality of learning, and the acceptance of certificates, safeguards the tenure of chief academic officers, enhances the employment of graduates, raises the profile of graduates/alumni and attracts funding for the institutions, thus ensuring sustenance. Ideally, institutional public relations should achieve the following:

The implementation of the institution's policy, goals and objectives. Assist the news media in coverage of the institution. Reporting to the employees and students on the institution's activities.Increasing the internal cohesion of the institution.Increasing the institution's sensitivity to its publics.Mobilization of support for the institution itself.

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