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  • Subject area(s): Marketing
  • Price: Free download
  • Published on: 14th September 2019
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  • Number of pages: 2

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Literature Review

This chapter introduces the concept of celebrity endorsement, providing a definition. Sequentially it talks about celebrity as spokesperson of companies and also draws out the positives and negatives of celebrity endorsements. Furthermore it also discusses the different models on effectiveness of celebrity endorsement strategy along with talking about the impact of multiple celebrity endorsement. Lastly it provides an Indian perspective on celebrity endorsement in India.


• McCracken (1989) provides a clear definition describing celebrity endorser as “any individual who enjoys public recognition and who uses this recognition on behalf of a consumer good by appearing with it in an advertisement (p.310).” He further explained celebrity endorsement as a “ubiquitous feature of modern marketing.”

• • Friedman and Friedman (1979) describe celebrity endorser as an individual who is known to public for his or her achievements in areas other than that of product class endorsed.

Celebrity endorsements are an omnipresent feature of present day marketing (Meenaghan and O‟Mahony, 1998). The billions of dollars spent on celebrity endorsement contracts illustrates the importance celebrities play in the advertising industry (Kambitsis et al., 2002). According to research conducted by Stephens and

Rice (1998) in USA showed that celebrity endorsed advertising increased from 15% to 25% between 1979 and1997 for all advertising. The use of celebrities in advertisements is not a recent phenomenon (Kaikati, 1987). Celebrities have been endorsing products since the mid nineteenth century. For instance one of the early examples involves Queen Victoria associating with Cadbury Cocoa (Sherman, 1985). With the emergence of cinema and later television more and more celebrities from different background were used commercial-based commercials used celebrities. On the contrary from a UK perspective, a report in Marketing indicated that advertising which used celebrities was a key to gaining national headlines (Erdogan, 1999). ly in television commercials and print advertisements. Agrawal and Kamakura (1995) cited that approximately 20% of all television commercials in USA feature famous people. Shimp (1997) further justifies Agrawal and Kamakura point, through his research findings that around 25% of all US

Friedman and Friedman (1979) describe celebrity endorser as an individual who is known to public for his or her achievements in areas other than that of product class endorsed. These celebrities act as roles models for a large group of people in terms of their qualities such as trustworthiness, attractiveness and likeability. Marketers exploit these qualities in a celebrity to influence the consumers purchase decision, thus making the advertisement believable to the consumers. Erdogan (1999) cites that celebrities can be used to communicate and reinforce companies marketing communications and positioning effectively. Today, use of celebrities as part of marketing communications strategy is fairly common practice for major firms in supporting corporate and brand imagery (Erdogan, 1999).


Population:- The entire set of relevant units of analysis, or data, is called the population. It is the aggregate of all cases conform to some designated set of specification. And for my research my population was the entire lady above the age of 30 years to under the age of 55.

Parameter:- A particular value of population such as the median income or level of formal education knows s parameter. In my research I kept educational background, media exposure, and influential factors as the parameter.

Sampling Unit:- A single member of sampling population is referred as sampling unit.

Sampling Technique:- I am using probability sampling for my research.

Probability sampling: - probability sampling is that for each sampling unit of a population, one can specify the probability that the same probability of being included in the sample.

• Simple Random Sampling: - It is the basic probability sampling design, and it is incorporated into all the more elaborate probability sampling design. Simple random sampling is a procedure that gives each of the total sampling units of the population an equal and unknown nonzero probability of being selected.

 Questionnaire:- The foundation of all questionnaire. The questionnaire must translate the research objective into specific questions; answers to such question will provide the data for hypothesis testing. The questing must motivate the respondent to provide the information being sought. The major considerations involved in formulating questions are their content, structure, format and sequence. Find my questionnaire attached at the end of the project.

Sample Size:- It is the size of the subset of population whom I  am going to include in my research. My sample size was 50.

Analysis of Survey

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