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Project Management

1. What does “project methodologies” mean?

Methodologies which contain guiding processes and which are combination of logically related practices to successfully complete a project within a planned time period and budget are called as Project Methodologies. Different project methodologies are available in the market to implement different kinds of projects. Methodology used varies from project to project.

2. Agile, Iterative and Waterfall are a few of the most common methodologies.  

Agile Methodology:

It helps the project teams respond to unforeseeable and uncertain issues by augmenting and iterating the work intonation known as Sprints. It helps in assessing the project throughout the development life cycle without any disturbances. Agile methods such as Rational Unified Process, Scrum, Crystal Clear, Extreme Programming, Adaptive software development, Feature Driven Development and Dynamic Systems Development methods are collectively referred to as agile methodologies.

Agile Manifesto Principles:

• Individuals and interactions: In agile development self-organization and being incentive are important.

• Working Software: Documentation dependency leads to wastage of time and therefore usage of a demo working software helps in better communication with the customer and helps in understanding their requirements.

• Customer Collaboration: Continuous interaction with the customer is very important in order to get project requirements.

Iterative Methodology:

Iterative methodology is breaking down the software development of a large application into smaller parts called as Chunks. Here the designed code is developed and tested repeatedly.

After analyzing the requirements of the customer the program is designed and developed accordingly. During each iteration the program goes through requirements, then tested and implemented. This process is done various number of times for proper outputs.

Waterfall Model:

Waterfall model is also called as traditional model. From the name itself it can be defined as a sequential flow of steps where the progress flows downwards like a waterfall.

Requirements: All the possible requirements are gathered and documented.

Design:  A design is made which specifies hardware and system requirements.

Implementation:  Small programs are developed initially and these programs are called Units. These units are tested and this test is referred as unit testing.

Verification: The whole program is verified and if any issues are detected, these issues will be sorted out.

Maintenance: Some issues pop up in the client environment and to fix these issues new versions are introduced.  Maintenance is done to clear these issues in the client environment.

Usually next phase is started only if the objectives of the previous phase are achieved.

3. What are the pros and cons of these methodologies?  

Pros of Agile:

• Pragmatic approach to software development

• Suits all the environment

• Easy documentation

• Delivers the planned context

• Easily manageable

 Cons of Agile:

• Risk factors include being endured, maintainability, and flexibility

• Strict delivery management

• Knowledge transfer to the newly joined team members is complicated

• Documentation that is generated is minimum

• Wrong paths are often chosen

Pros of Iterative:

• Quick working units can be developed

• Advance results are obtained in early stages

• Progress of the project is measurable

• No complications arise while testing

• Both identification and rectification of risks is easy

Cons of iterative:

• Smaller projects cannot be handled

• Requires many resources

• Need for management concentration

• Risk involves at the end of the project

• Risk analysis takes lot of time

Pros of Waterfall Model:

• Easy usage

• Every phase of it is easily manageable

• Smaller projects can de designed very well

• Organized documentation

• In time development

Cons of Waterfall Model:

• Cannot handle bigger projects easily

• Risk factors are high

• Progress cannot be measured effectively

• Change of requirements is not acceptable

• Proper software model is not introduced until the end of the development phase

4. There many other methodologies.  

• Kanban: Kanban is basically a very slow process with continuous workflow. Managers generally use a board or take notes to analyze the progress rectify the problems. The respective teams improve productivity by understanding where time is wasted

• Lean: It is an expert process which helps in delivering high quality work with less manual effort, budget and time. It ultimately concentrates on customer value and makes continuous efforts in improving the process. It helps in cutting the budgets, meeting the deadlines and achieving good results.

• Extreme Programming:  Involves with short development cycles, recurrent updates and open communication with stakeholders. The main advantage of this technique is that it makes efforts in writing the simplest code possible resulting in the production of desired feature.

• Six Sigma: It helps in process and product quality by decreasing defects and bugs. In Six Sigma usually at the end a project is rated and if the rating is around 99.99966% then it is defect or bug free.

• Lean Six Sigma: This method is a combination of Lean and Six Sigma. It is a statistics based process improvement. It defines how work is actually done in a better format comparing past results and it delivers the best content to the clients.

5. Many different roles (jobs) are involved in projects.

Few different roles that are involved in projects:

• Project Manager: Project manager is the person responsible for developing the project with in the given time and budget maintaining quality standards. He manages the work of consultants, allocation and utilization of resources in an effective manner and tries to maintain a friendly and cooperative environment.

• Project Sponsor:  The project sponsor is a person who commissions other parties to deliver the project.

• Project Board: Oversees the project and reacts to any risk factors that are detected. This board is usually required in big projects

• Senior Consultant:  A consultant who takes the responsibilities of managing the supplier side input to the project is called as Senior Consultant.

• Project Team Managers: Involves in administration process, trains the team members, does documentation analysis, takes care of information needs is a Project Team Manager.

• Project Administrator: He is responsible for maintenance of the project plan and updating the project website. He also extends support to Project Manager.

• System Developer:  Works with the project manager, executes development requirements.

• System Administration: Does database management, back up, disaster management, and testing

• Program manager: Contributes to strategy, controls budget and monitors issues.

• Testing expert: Tests the final project and identifies the bugs.

6. Project management triangle – List and explain the 3 components.

Project Management Triangle: The Project Management Triangle is used by managers to inspect and understand the risks that arise while executing the project. The three main components of Project Management Triangle are as follows:

• Time: Time plays an important role in any project. If the project cannot be completed within the given deadline it results in unfavorable conditions. Task completion in time depends on factors such as manual power, expertise and understanding.

• Cost: Budget required should be estimated before the project is handled. No proper estimation of budget leads to complications in the end. If there is delay in project the organization then has to hire extra people to complete the work in time which results in over budget.

• Scope: It deals with the result of the project that is handled. It contains the record of deliverables which is to be tackled by the project team. A project manager will know how to manage both scope of the project and changes in scope that will effect time and cost.

7. List at least 5 certifications that can be earned in project management.  

Below are the list of few certifications that can be earned in Project Management:

• Project Management Professional (PMP): Here one should exhibit all the knowledge and skill they possess in managing the Project Management triangle constraints (Time, Cost and Scope). Here both test and experience are counted as the primary quality. The certificate holder should have a four year degree with three years of project management experience, 4500 hours of project handling and 35 hours of project management education

• Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM): CAPM is the stepping stone to PMP. It is a step by step process to reach PMP. It needs a high school diploma and a project experience of 1500 hours or project management education of 23 hours.

• CompTIA Project+: This is an entry level certification with both PMI and CPMA credentials. It requires participation in small and medium sized projects for one year.

• Certified Project Manager (CPM): It is a globally accepted certification. It primarily focuses on communicational skills, financing, marketing, human resource management, risk management and quality management. One should have a Bachelor's degree or above, a minimum work experience of four years and should pass the CPM exam to get the certification.

• Professional in Project Management (PPM): It is helpful to people who worked in risk and crisis management. The candidate should have some project management experience in order to pass the exam.

8. Give your final recommendations on which methodology the CIO should implement.  

There's an overwhelming choice of different project management methodologies. Knowing which ones will work best for you can be as challenging as the project itself. Project management has never been simple. Project management (PM) methodologies are blueprints, step-by-step instructions that guide our team on how to build a successful project.

Agile was developed for projects requiring significant flexibility and speed and is comprised of “sprints” – short delivery cycles. Agile may be best-suited for projects requiring less control and real-time communication within self-motivated team settings. Agile is highly iterative, allowing for rapid adjustments throughout a project.

While there is no “best” methodology that works for all business types, sizes or industries, there are ways to determine which methodology to use and how to effectively apply it. When evaluating methodologies, these are only a few of the many factors that should be carefully considered such as Organizational strategic goals and core values, Key business drivers, Constraints, Stakeholders, Risks, Complexity, Project size and cost. Hence considering all the above conditions I suggest agile project methodology as suitable implementation since it helps our organization in the way making unorganized running projects into a suitable manner.

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