Essay:

Essay details:

  • Subject area(s): Marketing
  • Price: Free download
  • Published on: 14th September 2019
  • File format: Text
  • Number of pages: 2

Text preview of this essay:

This page is a preview - download the full version of this essay above.

Source:

Evaluating consumer response associated with sponsorship of major sporting events in Australia.

Aim:

The aim of the study is to examine key determinants that drive consumer perceptions of the sponsors of sporting events, using the principles of classical conditioning as an underlying framework, relative to their intention of purchasing sponsor's products or services.

Hypotheses:

If the perceived status of all aspects of a sporting event are positive, the result is a positive post event response of a sponsor. Furthermore, the level of exposure and the fit of the sponsor will contribute to the post event response.

Participants:

2000 surveys sent out, 704 respondents with only 696 usable responses.

There were 331 were male and 365 female participants, all residing in Victoria.

Method:

This study used a cross-sectional research design. Participants of the study were presented with a 4 section survey, which were administered by trained interviewers. The survey was pre-tested, and consequently modified, to fit the needs of the study. Section one of the survey required respondents to select one of the two events (AFL or Australian Open) and one of three corresponding sponsors to the aforementioned events. The second section contained 36 items or questions aimed at measuring the dimensions of the event sponsor and sponsorship. The third section consisted of 29 items with the purpose of measuring post event response, degree in which the event's image transferred to the sponsor and the participant's intention to purchase, while the fourth section aimed at collecting demographic data from respondents.

Results/Findings:

The study found a strong level of support for the hypothesis, in which an event's perceived status is associated to the positive post event response to a sponsor. The perceived status of an event promoted image transfer to a sponsor, which is positively associated with intention to purchase.

Conclusion/Limitations:

The researchers concluded that there is indeed a positive response to sponsor's and their brands when they support sporting events due to the image transfer. The positive conditioned response by audiences and sporting events is transferred to the audience's perception of the sponsors supporting the event. The key limitation to the study was large number of items caused by the large scope of the study. Another limitation was the young age of the respondents.

Source:

Classical conditioning and celebrity endorsers: An examination of belongingness and resistance to extinction

Aim:

To better understand the associative learning process and the effectiveness of pairing brands with celebrities, where celebrities are used to condition stimuli in this process.

Hypotheses:

Individuals who are shown a systematic pairing of a brand with a celebrity will develop a more positive attitude toward the brand. Furthermore, perceived fit of a brand and celebrity will contribute to the consumer's attitude to the brand.

Participants:

Two separate groups were used, a control and a test group. There were 43 treatment subjects and 35 control subjects, and the experiment was conducted during the class time of the subjects.

Method:

The study adopted the use of a cross-sectional research design and a two group research design that employed the basic classical conditioning procedures. Each group was exposed to image via a power point. The control group was shown a random assortment of five images which were identical to the test group, but with no systematic pairing of brands, conditioned stimulus, and celebrity, unconditioned stimulus. The test group was subject to five pairings of an image of Jennifer Aniston, chosen due as she was readily identified by the subjects and was considered attractive, and Garra Styling gel. The Garra image always preceded the image of Aniston. Aniston acted as the unconditioned stimulus while the Garra image was the conditioned stimulus. Filler pictures of random celebrities and images were also presented. After the presentation both control and test group were made to answer questions. These questions were used a 7-point semantic differential scale to measure the subjects' attitude towards the brands.

Results/Findings:

It was found that the test group exhibited more favourable opinion toward the conditioned stimulus than the control group. On the 7-point semantic differential scale, the control condition yielded just a 4.15 mean attitude toward Garra Styling Gel, while the treatment condition yielded a mean score of 4.69 toward the product.

Conclusion/Limitations:

The results confirmed that classical conditioning procedures which use celebrities as an unconditioned stimulus can be effective in generating positive attitudes towards a previously neutral brand. The limitations of this study were that only one stimuli were used, to further extend the study researcher may choose to use a variety of stimuli and conditioning combinations. Furthermore, to improve the study further high and low involvement products and stimuli matches should be tested.

Source:

A Comparative Study of the Use of “Iconic” versus “Generic” Advertising Images for Destination Marketing

Aim:

To compare the effectiveness of two different advertising approaches (“generic” versus “iconic,”) in altering a destination's perceived image.

Hypotheses:

Generic advertising is not the most effective marketing strategy, with the most effective defined as it relates to the destination image.

Participants:

There were 307 participants who were all students, 58% of which were women and, from a Southern U.S University. From the 307 participants, there were 241 usable questionnaires. Participants were placed in four test groups composed of 45 to 50 participants and two control groups with 25 and 29 participants.

Method:

The study used a cross-sectional research design. Participants were provided with six-page “magazines” which were all identical with the exception of a stimulus advertisement on page 5, which included two travel related stories and a travel cartoon. Participants had approximately 10 to 15 minutes to read the magazines. When time expired, participants completed a 4-page questionnaire which contained various questions which ultimately required participants to pick a number between 1 to 7 on a scale of interest in visiting location.

Results/Findings:

The study confirmed expectations derived in the hypothesis. Participants exposed to advertisements featuring “iconic” tourist attractions reported a significantly more favourable image toward the destination than participants exposed to a “generic” advertisement.

Conclusion/Limitations:

The study's hypothesis, derived from the fact that classical conditioning theory suggests that iconic advertising would be more effective at creating a more favourable opinion of a destination than generic advertising due to a conditioned response, was proven therefore suggesting that advertisers should use “iconic” marketing to enhance their image. The key limitation of the study was that the experiment focused only on first-time visitors. The complexities of repeat visitor-ship are considerably different from those of first timers, which would therefore alter the effectiveness of the advertising.   

...(download the rest of the essay above)

About this essay:

This essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies.

If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:

Essay Sauce, . Available from:< https://www.essaysauce.com/essays/marketing/2016-4-7-1460005873.php > [Accessed 16.10.19].