In this paper, I have decided to focus on Cambodia, a least developed country, yet fast growing economy country. The rapid growth of universal trade has unleashed a deluge of interest for data about business sectors all through the world. Organizations venturing into new and foreign markets need data about the economic situation and market demand. Managers trying to grow and differentiate operations required research data to create valid and potent strategies in these business sectors. The key theme of this paper is to show the possible challenges that might be faced by the marketing researchers while conducting market research in a different region and environment. On one hand they confront the difficulties of planning and controlling exploration activity spread over endless land regions. On the other hand they confront the difficulties of accomplishing similarity and identicalness in testing, instrument outline, information accumulation techniques, examination of the information and translation of the outcomes. Tending to these difficulties sufficiently guarantees that advertising research directed in a multicountry environment is of the most astounding conceivable quality and is satisfactory to assist administration choices or test hypothesis.
Considering the infrastructure
The first risk to be considered should be the infrastructure. Unlike Australia and the other First World country, Cambodia sits in the list of being one of the Third World countries. It is known as one of the poorest nation among the world. Infrastructure plays a vital role and a major concept, connected to almost every component of the economy and human's everyday life. Basically, infrastructure facilities cover telecommunications, water, energy, transport, and etc. Lack of these important facilities not only hold back but also slow down the progress of development, furthermore the growth of economic of a country. Furthermore, lack of infrastructure additionally influences the capacity of researchers to carry out research due to the expanding utility cost and power cut. Poor networks and telecommunications limit the capacity to correspond with field teams.
In general, Cambodia has fewer and slower advanced infrastructure when competed to its neighbouring countries such as Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam. Take the road transport in Cambodia, as an example the roads and highway that are covered with blacktop and in safe and travelable condition are barely 20% only. In Cambodia, the volumes of passengers are fairly high with a total of 65% while cargo transportation with 70%. Other than increasing the cost, this may also increase the travel time, especially to reach into certain rural area. According to a research carried out by World Bank (2005), by contrast, it is safe to say that Cambodia is still among the weakest in the ASEAN with low infrastructure access and stock (See Table 1.1).
Table 1.1: Infrastructure Access and Stocks
Water supply Access Sanitation Access Electricity Access Telephone Access 1 Internet Access 2
Malaysia 93 - 97 62 34.4
Thailand 93 98 84 50 11.1
Philippines 86 83 79 31 4.4
China 76 39 99 42 6.3
Indonesia 78 55 55 13 3.8
Vietnam 49 25 81 9 4.3
Cambodia 44 22 17 4 0.2
Lao PDR 58 30 41 3 0.3
Source: ADB, JBIC, WB. (2005). Connecting East Asia: A New Framework for Infrastructure.
1) Telephone subscribers per 100 inhabitant
2) Number of user per 100 inhabitants
While conducting interview telephone is very common in the United States, it is not and far less prevalent in developing countries. Researchers should deliberate a nation's literacy rate while design survey research. At the very least, researchers in charge ought to examine by going through all the questions outlined and ensure zero error without changing the meaning of the text during the translation.
Cultural Considerations in Marketing Research
The second risk that should be considered is the cultural difference in certain region. When researchers are carrying out research at certain region, the culture of the locale being looked into will affect how marketers lead the exploration, these includes what is solicited, and the structure or length of the information received. The enthusiasm and capacity of respondents to spend time in the process are impacted by component such as culture and education, the economic situations, and the sections being concentrated on. Moreover, social and individual inclinations, which differ from nation to nation, likewise affect research strategies. For example, businesses in the United State frequently jump at the chance to create research that accumulates number they can sort and control. In Japan, for instance, analysts gather data on points of interest, for example, shipments and retail sales, and consolidate them with soft data from interviews, discussions, and individual experiences.
On the other hand, at the point when creating overview questions, it is essential to be delicate to social contrasts that can affect what is adequate and what is definitely not. A researcher ought to consider the locale traditions and their culture as essential viewpoints to watch and pay attention on while doing research in a rural area. It requires significant investment (such as time) to know how individuals live in the region, their method of living and shared values.
For instance, questions about age or wage will be acknowledged diversely in various nations. In areas, for example, Asia and the Middle East, it is viewed as inappropriate behaviour to make inquiries about representatives, execution, standards, and financing. In some cases, the arrangement is just to reframe the inquiry in a less touchy organization. Instead of ask, "How old would you say you are?" ask, "In what year would you say you were conceived?"
Besides, cultural elements regularly impact how individuals react to investigate. While Americans are utilized to statistical surveying and tend to locate this moderately unthreatening, buyers in different nations might expect that the information will be accounted for to the legislature, and might in this way not give exact reactions. In a few societies, feedback or encounter are viewed as impolite, so shoppers may not react sincerely when they loathe an item. Innovation, for example, scanner information is not as broadly accessible outside the United States. Geography and local customs might make it hard to meet needed respondents; for instance, in a few nations, ladies may not be permitted to converse with strangers
Market researchers, while conducting research, should be aware of the language barrier too. As a foreigner, geographically and culturally speaking, it is difficult to correspond with field officers and the locale. More unfortunate, if the locale and the field officers don't share the same language or typical dialect, the research will be hold behind, wasting effort, time, and money.
Competition and Cost
The third risk is cost due to competition. According to International Monetary Fund – IMF (2015), Cambodia's financial has been one of the quickest growing amongst Asia's emerging economies within these few years. In order to stand against the competitors, budget will have to be adjusted thoroughly, and of course rising in cost is unavoidable.
The expense of running marketing research in developing markets can fluctuate drastically as gathering data and processing them can be very expensive. The entire cost of carrying out a market research is unpredictable, especially when an organization is absence of expertise to carry out a research to gather primary data. At the point when there is no local competency to run the marketing research, all the outline must be done at the region, however with foreign natives who are momentarily positioned in the developing business sector. Other than wages costs, every single living expense would be a portion of the expense of the research. Further, once the research is outlined, research team must be transferred to the region and extensive time spent training interviewers so that they can complete and achieve their goal on the fieldwork.
Whenever a market is growing, there will be opportunity for businesses, meaning competitions will pop out. Moreover, Honomichl (2013) claimed that there are emerging market economies, for instance, IMRB international (a market research company based in India), that equipped with powerful marketing research sector, which is very skilful and good in collecting high quality research with ease in multi-country (IMF Survey, 2015). In other words, keeping costs down is very important. Costs have always been pressing factors for investors who want every single penny to be spent worthy. They require and expect outcomes to be produced smoothly, without spending too much extras on a task. In order to overcome this situation, Market Research Company could decide to streamlining processes, or establishing long-term partnerships with other companies. Although it involves a bunch of strategic preparation, it might be the most rational and efficient way.
Change is happening for all intents and purposes all parts of business and individual life. Organizations are both being pounded by change and going about as change operators to realize change in business sectors all through the world. Consumers confront a considerably more unpredictable utilization environment and have more options than any other time in recent memory. These progressions are being played out at various rates in various parts of the world. Against this background, advertising research firms are being tested to direct research that is of the most astounding credible quality, as fast as it could be done, in numerous various settings. The issues that faced by researchers are complicated and relate with where and how research will be directed, who the respondents will be, and the instruments and strategies that will be applied.
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