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  • Subject area(s): Marketing
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  • Published on: 14th September 2019
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Work Schedule (Job Design and Work Measurement Strategy)

Three distinct decisions areas of human resource strategy is labour planning, job design and labour standard. Labour planning is determine staffing policies that deal with employment stability, work schedule and work rules.

Chop Chuan Guan follows the policy of hold employment constant for dealing with stability to maintain its well-trained workforce to keep the hiring and layoff cost to the minimum. They rarely rehire new workers because they want to reduce the time to train new workers and make production efficiency. Training is needed no matter how skilled or unskilled of the new worker to perform their assigned tasks in order to meet specific needs of this shop. When there is high demand, they can hire workers because the cost of hiring temporary workers in Nibong Tebal is cheaper than the cost of hiring permanent employees with benefits. In the short term, it is usually more cost-efficient to hire a temporary worker. Therefore, this policy treated labour cost as a fixed cost.

Chop Chuan Guan work schedule require workers work six days a week, from 830am to 700pm. Only six bakers and one production manager involve in the production of Tau Sa Piah.

Below is the work schedule:  

1. At 10:30am, workers start to take out the ingredients from storage and transfer ingredients to workplace.

2. At 10:45 am, workers start to check ingredients to make sure the ingredients quality. For example ‘best before' dates indicate how long food will remain of good quality.

3. At 11:05am, mixing ingredients based on the right proposition in the recipe.

4. At 11:15 am, making dough and crumb the green bean.

5.  At 12:00 noon, workers start to stir the dough evenly using blender machine.

6.   Workers can have their breaks from 12:25pm to 1:25 pm.

7. At 1:25 pm, make ‘Tau Sa Piah' once the dough is formed. The bakers will then roll the dough according to the specifications of the recipe.

8. At 2:25 pm, take ‘Tau Sa Piah' to stove, wait ‘Tau Sa Piah' cool down before package and discard spoiled ‘Tau Sa Piah' to keep the best quality.

9.  At 2:40pm, product packaging started to protect the ‘Tau Sa Piah' during transit from the manufacturer to the retailer and prevents damage while it sits on retail shelves.

10.  At 3:10 pm, workers place finished product on the rack.

 11.   At 3:20 pm, workers start the cleaning process such as sweep floors, clean all the machine and tables to keep the shop clean.

Job design of Chop Chuan Guan is based on labour specialization. Labour specialization is the division of labour into unique tasks. For example owner of Chop Chuan Guan, Mr Khoo Wei Jie is the principal strategist and business planner. He was the one who prepared the company's business plan. He is the one who decides whether or not to expand business, adding new products or adjust the business plan depending on the financial and personal goals. Mr Khoo monitor the progress of Tau Sa Piah from time to time. Paying employees salary every end of month also one of the responsibilities of Mr Khoo. Besides, business owners of Chop Chuan Guan in charge to hire, train and mentor staff. He is also the cashier in the bakery shop.

General Manager of Chop Chuan Guan perform all duties as assigned by the shop owner, assigning employee responsibilities that under him. One of the duties is resolving customer complaints promptly and giving product information. Establish shop's image with all levels of people is another responsibility of general manager. He also function to repair computer systems and follow-ups concerning product delivery and quality issues.

Besides, sales and marketing manager develops and implements annual sales and marketing strategies to achieve business goals. He also takes corrective measures to ensure objectives falls within the budgets. Design of advertisement material, such as creating logo, brochures, business card, and catalogues is one of responsibilities. He develops product positioning, distribution channel planning, packaging, and pricing strategy to generate the highest possible long-term profit and differentiates Chop Chuan Guan's products in the market. Communicating with customers who don't pay their bills and making repeat calls.

Production manager function as technical support who responsible to repair bakery equipment. Cleanliness and safety in the workplace is the production manager's responsibility. Manager enforce standards regarding food handling practices such as ensure all bakers wear hand glove and mask when processing Tau Sa Piah. Production managers are in charged keeping the bakery clean.

Financial manager responsible to prepare monthly analysis of cost of goods sold and operational expenses against prior year and budget. Financial managers also investigate ways to improve profitability and analysis markets opportunities. Additional duties must be familiar with income statements, maintain and prepare company's financial reports.

There are six bakers in production departments.  Chop Chuan Guan is using flour, butter, milk, sugar, green bean and water to make the ‘Tau Sa Piah'. The baker production duties include measuring and mixing ingredients into dough by hand according to a recipe. They used the two stove machine to bake the ‘Tau Sa Piah'. Bakers is required to master the use of large number of tools in order to produce quality baked items. Another responsibility of them is to clean all the machine and tables to keep the shop clean so that can pass the health department inspections.

Labour standards are the amount of time required to perform a job or part of a job, and they exist, formally or informally for all jobs. Chop Chuan Guan labour standard are set based on time studies that involves timing a sample of a worker's performance and using it to set a standard.

Example: The time study of a work operation in Chop Chuan Guan bakery yielded an average observed time of 10.0 minutes. The analyst rated the observed worker at 90%. This means the worker performed at 90% of normal when the study was made. The bakery uses a 10% allowance factor. Chop Chuan Guan wants to compute the normal time and the standard time for this operation.

Average observed time: 10.0 minutes

Normal time = (Average observed time) x (Performance rating factor)

    = (10.0) (0.90)

    = 9.0 minutes

   Normal time   9.0  9.0

Standard time =   

    1 – Allowance factor   1 – 0.10  0.90

   = 10 minutes

Because the observed worker was rated at 90% (slower than average), the normal time is less than the worker 10.0 minutes average time.

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