Chapter – 03
Material & Methods
3.1 Definition of Research :
Research has been defined by various authors in different ways. It always begin with a question or problem. Its purpose is to find answers to questions through the application of systematic & scientific method. Thus, research is the systematic approach towards purposeful investigation. This needs formulating hypothesis, collection of data on relevant variables, analyzing and interpreting the results and reaching conclusions either in the form of a solution or certain in generalizations. The definition of research given by different authors are described as under.
“Research is systematic activity directed towards the discovery & development of an organized body of knowledge.”
- Johan West
“Research is careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge”.
– The Advanced Learners Dictionary
“Any Scholarly investigation in search for through facts and for certainties is research”.
– Spar & Swenson
“Systemized effort to gain new knowledge, we call research”.
– Redman and Moral
3.2 Types of Research :
The types of the research divided following category are given as under.
(1) Fundamental or Basic Research :
Fundamental or basic research is primarily intended to find out certain basic principles just like John Robinson Imperfect competition theory, Maslow Hierachy of needs Theory in Motivation, Mayo's Hawthrone experiment relating productivity with work environment.
(2) Applied Research :
Applied research has already stated, is the application of available scientific methods in social science research which helps to contradict alter or modify any exiting theory or theories and helps to formulate policy. Applied research, thus, is more concerned with actual life. It also suggests remedial measures to alleviate social problems.
(3) Descriptive Research :
Descriptive research is usually a fact finding approach generalizing a cross sectional study of the present situation. For example a study on problems of industrial relation in India with an inter disciplinary approach. It is classified under conclusive research.
(4) Historical Research :
Historical research is the past social forces which have shaped the present. For example, to study the present state of Indian labour way we may research on past historical forces.
(5) Exploratory Research :
Exploratory research helps us to investigate any problem with suitable hypothesis. The research on social science is particularly important for clarification of any concept & throwing new light for further research on principles of developing hypothesis and its testing statistical tools.
(6) Experimental Research :
Although experimental research is primarily possible in area of physical science, with the help of hypothesis may also be carried out in social sciences if such research enables us to quantify the finding to apply the statistical & mathematical tools and to measure the result thus quantified. It is also classified under conclusive research. (BHA,2006,p.14-15)
3.3 Selection of Research Subject :
Iastine says ”Formulating a problem is often more essential than its solution".
The selection of Research work is too complicated & carefully work. Because of there has been checked so many questions related to research before beginning of any research work. There has been think about whether the research work has already done ?,Usefulness of research work, the availability of references of work related literature .
When the researcher decided to think Ph.D. in library science . Then the question of selection for subject of thesis arrived. The researcher thought for the factors of theory &, problems occupied in references & implementation of principles of library & information science. The researcher also thought about the availability of research by various research methods.
For the part of study in Ph.D. in library & information science researcher has done debate with his guide & taken guidance of role of e-communication in libraries in Junagadh (Gujarat) & the situation of benefits of e-communication for library professionals of Junagadh in Gujarat. Then the researcher selected the subject “A STUDY OF INFORMATION GATHERING HABITS OF INTERNET USERS JUNAGADH” for writing thesis.
3.4 Problems of Research :
There are no meaning of research without the specification of problems carefully. The subject and scope of research is different matter & specification of research problems carefully are different matter. There has been need imagination for researcher himself as reader at a time of statement of research problem. The readers may be bored, tired & not expertise in the subject, so that the statement of research problem is easy, specified & attractive from the beginning. The statement of research problem must be one or two sentence inclusive meaning of the research. There must be kept attention for pure grammatically language, analysis of related matters of research problem at time of statement of research problem.
Attention of above mentioned matters of research problem, researcher has done debate with his guide & under his guidance, researcher selected problem “A STUDY OF INFORMATION GATHERING HABITS OF INTERNET USERS JUNAGADH”
3.5 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM :
Although the research on various aspects of information gathering habits has been done in the past but very little work has been done on this problem. The problem of the present study is as below.
“A STUDY OF INFORMATION GATHERING HABITS OF INTERNET USERS JUNAGADH”
3.6 DEFINATION OF THE TERMS USED:
Information refers to data that they have meaning and value of the recipient. For example, a grade point average is data, but a students name coupled with his or her grade point average is information. The recipient interprets the meaning and draws conclusions and implications from the information.
• A message received and understood
• Knowledge acquired through study or experience or instruction
• Formal accusation of a crime
• Data: a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn; "statistical data"
• (communication theory) a numerical measure of the uncertainty of an outcome; "the signal contained thousands of bits of information".
The action of one that gathers.
• That which is gathered or amassed; a collection or accumulation. An assembly of persons; a meeting.
• The collecting of food that grows wild, such as berries, roots, and grains.
• A gather in cloth.
• A suppurated swelling; a boil or abscess.
• Information gathering
Habits are routines of behavior that are repeated regularly and tend to occur subconsciously, without one's directly thinking consciously about them. Merriam Webster dictionary.
• Something that a person does an often.
• Informal addiction to drugs.
• A long loose garment worn by a member of religious order.
• An established custom; "it was their habit to dine at 7 every evening".
• (psychology) an automatic pattern of behavior in reaction to a specific situation; may be inherited or acquired through frequent repetition; "owls have nocturnal habits"; "she had a habit twirling the ends of her hair"; "long use had hardened him to it".
• A distinctive attire worn by a member of a religious order.
• The general form or mode of growth (especially of a plant or crystal); "a shrub of spreading habit".
• Attire that is typically worn by a horseback rider (especially a woman's attire).
• Put a habit on.
• Substance abuse: excessive use of drugs.
The shared global computing network. A network based on standards including Internet Protocol (IP), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and the Domain Name System (DNS), which enables global communications between all connected computing devices. It provides the platform for web services and the World Wide Web.
Internet is - a computer network consisting of a worldwide network of computer networks that use the TCP/IP network protocols to facilitate data transmission and exchange.5
An International information network linking computers.
• A computer network consisting of a worldwide network of computer
networks that use the TCP/IP network protocols to facilitate data transmission and exchange.
• The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide.7
• Any set of computer networks that communicate using the Internet
Protocol. (An internet.); The Internet, the largest global internet.
• Internets-"Internets" is a Bushism-turned-catchphrase used humorously
to portray the speaker as ignorant about the Internet or about technology in general, or as having a provincial or folksy attitude toward technology. Former United States President George W..Bush.
• Often confused with the World Wide Web, the term Internet actually
refers to the combined collection of academic, commercial, and
government networks connected over international telecommunication backbones and routed using IP addressing.
• Organizations using the Internet in innovative ways. (Technology).
The global computer network. Intranet: A private network within an organization, often protected from Internet traffic by a "firewall" (software that controls access from the outside).
Refers to a public usage, audience, or accessibility or posting.
• A worldwide system of interconnected networks and computers.
• A network of networks that allows the instructor and participants to dialog with each other and exchange documents.
• An international network, consisting of independently managed networks using the TCP/IP protocols and a shared naming system. A successor to the ARPAnet.
• Selling product to consumers through a website over the Internet.10
A relatively loose federation of computer networks that permits data to be widely transferred among computers. A worldwide network of computers that can be accessed via the TPL computer network. The Internet allows local computer users to find and use information resources on computers of other academic institutions, research institutes, private companies, government agencies and individuals.11
A world-wide research network sharing a common addressing scheme and using the TCP/IP software protocol for data transfer between hosts. It is composed of many individual campus, state, national, and regional networks. Numerous organizations including private enterprise now have web sites.
Junagadh is the headquarters of Junagadh district in the Indian state of Gujarat. The city is the 7th largest in Gujarat. The city is located at the foot of the Girnar hills, Literally translated, Junagadh means "Old Fort". After brief struggle between India and Pakistan Junagadh joined India on 9 November 1947. It was a part of Saurashtra state and later Bombay state. In 1960 after Maha Gujarat movement it became part of newly formed Gujarat state.
Presently Junagadh has population of about 3.2 lakh spread in area of about 5745 hectares. Everyday thousands of visitor tourists visit city for religious, entertainment and educational purpose. In Junagadh city festivals like “Maha Shivratri” and “ Parikrama” organized every year. Junagadh city has Girnar Hills and Junagadh is historical place for religious.
As per provisional reports of Census India, population of Junagadh in 2011 is 320,250; of which male and female are 164,091 and 156,159 respectively. The sex ratio of Junagadh city is 952 per 1000 males.
In education section, total literates in Junagadh city are 259,563 of which 139,317 are males while 120,246 are females. Average literacy rate of Junagadh city is 88.63 percent of which male and female literacy was 93.23 and 83.83 percent.
3.7 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY :
• To know the purpose of using Internet.
• To study the knowledge of users about the Internet Resources.
• To Study the level of their satisfaction with the services
• To find out the Internet facility availability.
• To Study the frequency of Internet use.
• To examine the impact on knowledge gathering by the usage of
• To study the problems faced by Internet users.
3.8 DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY :
The Study is delimited to the Information gathering habits of internet users Junagadh city only.
3.9 PLAN OF THE STUDY :
The Plan of the study is cantered around the following chapters as under.
• The First chapter deals with Introduction, Information Gathering Habits of Internet Users; Information gathering habits of Internet users in Junagadh, scope and significance of the study.
• The second chapter deals with A Brief Review of Related literature work in India and abroad.
• The third chapter deals with statement of the problem, Definition of the terms used, objectives of the study, Delimitations of the study plan of the study Hypotheses, Research Methodology, Research tools and Administration of questionnaire.
• The fourth chapter deals with the Analysis and Interpretation of the data.
• The fifth chapter deals with the conclusions and suggestions.
3.10 HYPOTHESIS :
The following hypothesis has been formulated for testing during the analysis and finding stages:-
• Internet users are college and university students, Businessman and house wives.
• The purpose of using Internet is mainly for academic related study and communication.
• Internet users especially students use Internet at colleges ,others use Internet at working place.
• Mostly College and university students and Businessman regularly use internet.
• More usage of internet leads to more Information gathering among students in comparison to Businessman and house wives.
• Internet users have to face connectivity problem or slow broadband and other problems.
• Internet users who do not have computer at home goes to cyber café only for communication
• More usage of Internet leads to users getting more Information from the Internet
• Internet users are satisfied with services of internet
• Internet users are satisfied with library Internet facility.
• Internet users frequently used Internet everyday for gathering informationor Academic Related study or e mail or pleasure /fun..
• Internet users like college and university students, businessman, housewives internet is time saving, easy to use ,more informative and less expensive.
• Internet users depends more on internet rather than conventional documents.
• Internet users mostly students use Internet for Accessing websites and for academic purpose.
• Internet usage is popular in academic group of society.
• All the internet users prefer e-mail facility. he world wide web next in order to preference.
3.11 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY :
Survey method has been used for the study survey. Survey, as the word, deals with mainly collection of information, analysis and presentation of data relating to the present time. This method is widely reviewed in social and behavioral science. A commonly available example of the survey method is the use of the “opinion poll” by the media during elections. It is also not uncommon today to find advertising groups and media persons conducting enquiries, reading or viewing habits etc. in such studies the organisation commissioning the research selects a group using the survey method on consumer behaviour, product preferences, reading or viewing habits etc. In such studies the organization commissioning the research selects a group from among the population to conduct the survey and to generalise on a broader perspective as also to prepare the ground for marketing their own products. The survey method of research includes the following steps :
• Selection of a sample for study
• Design of the research
• Selection of tools/instruments for collection of data.
• Administration of the tools
• Analysis of the data
• Presentation of the report.
The survey method is essentially different from the historical method in that instead of examining documents of evidence from the past it searches out data from objects and conditions of the present in order to compare and contrast or to generalise about the total population. Such a method while it will depend on research design is also cross-sectional as against the longitudinal approach adopted by historical method. In some cases the relationships observed among data may be causal. The most common tools used for this method would be interviews, observations, questionnaires checklists, opinion forms etc. The results of such a survey are typically presented using measures of central tendency and variability.
A survey means examining of situation to ascertain needed facts. Line defines a user survey as “a systematic collection of data concerning Internet. For social phenomenon a survey method is an effective and sensitive instrument for collecting relevant data. Since information centres are social institutions, the survey method has been adopted with success as a basis for many investigations in services and users. The accurate data and quantifiable facts generated by the investigations can be used for making policy decisions or for implementing longrange plans.
The survey method is used for gathering information habits of internet users.
3.12 RESEARCH TOOLS :
For collecting data one may use various devices. The selection of suitable tools is of vital importance for successful research. The major research tools can be classified broadly in to the following categories:
A Inquiry forms
• Check List
• Rating Scale
• Score Card
• Attitude Squale
D Psychological Tests
The investigator has used questionnaire as a research tool in the present study.
CONSTRUCTION OF QUESTIONNAIRE :
• Définition of Questionnaire :
Questionnaire is a method in social research, in which information is obtained with the help of a questionnaire which is prepared by exclusively for the purpose. In this method the investigator does not go to any respondent for the collection of information. He simply mails the questionnaire and collects the required information on the basis of replies received by him.
“According to Brogardus” A questionnaire is list of questions sent to a number of persons for them to answer. It secures standardized results that can be tabulated and treated statistically.”
• Advantage of Questionnaire :
For the study on gaining benefits of e-communication of library professionals of special library of Gujarat interview method, observation method are not sufficient. Researcher can check every factors related with research carefully by using questionnaire method. so that researcher used questionnaire method for data collection.
The questionnaire have been mailed and replies are expected to be received without the help of interviewer or investigator, hence the question of getting the bias introduced does not arise. When the informants are spread all over the country or in inaccessible it is not possible to use either interview method except questionnaire method. Uniformity in information can be attained through this method. It provides sufficient time to the respondent to think and send his replies. It reduces the respondent – researcher interaction thereby curbing any influence the researcher may personally exercise on the respondent. The information which is collected with the help of questionnaires is very reliable & dependable. Every respondent is ensured that the information provide by him will not be made public & opinion expressed by him will kept secret.
The Questionnaire has been prepared keeping in view and suggestions given by students, Research scholars, Businessman and other Professionals of Gujarat .Even though the investigator interviewed some students, Business man, Research Scholar. It was desirable to use Questionnaire technique, keeping in a view of the time factor and financial limitation first of all questionnaire was prepared and sent to students, Research Scholars ,Business man, professionals of Junagadh forpresetting .Necessary modifications done in the Questionnaire according to the valuable suggestions from the Research scholars Professional and business man.Finally a comprehensive Questionnaire was prepared to study Information gathering habits of internet users of Junagadh.
The Questionnaire covers information on the following aspects.
• Main purpose of using Internet
• Knowledge of users about internet resources.
• Internet Facility availability.
• College, university and Businessman Regularly use Internet.
• Biggest problem of using the internet.
• Frequency of Internet use.
• Preference for the internet
The Investigator has used Questionnaires as a research tool in the present study.
3.13 SAMPLING :
The Investigator has taken Random sampling method for gathering Data.State of the study as below
• Business man
• House wives
• Research scholars
• Blue Collar
3.14 ADMINISTRATION OF QUESTIONNAIRE:
The present research project followed stratified random sampling technique for gathering of data. The Final questionnaire was administrated to all Businessmen, research scholar's professionals, Housewives and students. All have responded the questionnaire. The size and analysis of the sample is shown on the following table.
Table no 3.14
SIZE AND ANALYSIS OF THE SAMPLE
Questionnaire Administrated to All Respondents.
500 No. of People Responded
...(download the rest of the essay above)