At one time, employees were considered just another input into the production of goods and services. What perhaps changed this way of thinking about employees was research, referred to as the Hawthorne Studies, conducted by Elton Mayo from 1924 to 1932 (Dickson, 1973). This study found employees are not motivated solely by money and employee behavior is linked to their attitudes (Dickson, 1973). The Hawthorne Studies began the human relations approach to management, whereby the needs and motivation of employees become the primary focus of managers (Bedeian, 1993).(1)
To be effective in this task, managers need to understand what motivates employees within the context of the roles they perform. Of all the functions a manager is responsible for, motivating employees can be the most complex. David Frederick (2001), a senior lecturer at London Guildhall University's Department of Management and Professional Development notes "Motivation is a topic that generates a lot of debate. Irrespective of the business sector, motivation will always be an issue to be addressed by management". He further states "It is essential for managers to understand the concept of motivation. An understanding of motivation may contribute to a more cooperative working environment and an increase in employee productivity".
Frederick writes that motivation is a personal phenomenon, not a homogenous commodity held by all individuals, and that everyone has different motivators driving their action.(2) Kovach (1987) suggests that if a company knows why its employees come to work on time, stay with the company for their full working lives, and are productive, then the company may be able to ensure that all of their employees behave in that way.(3)
Motivation has been defined in various ways and by different authors. Gareth Jones, Jennifer George and Charles Hill (2000: 427) define motivation as “psychological forces that determine the direction of a person's behaviour , a person's level of effort, and a person's level of persistence in the face of obstacles”. David Myers (1996: 297) defines motivation as “a need or desire that serves to energize behaviour and to direct it towards a goal.”
Frank Hawkins (1993: 132-133) defines it as “what drives or induces a person to behave in a particular fashion the internal force which initiates, directs, sustains and terminates all important activities. It influences the level of performance, the efficiency achieved and the time spent on an activity.” All of the definitions refer to stimuli that trigger the motivational process.
Hawkins identifies also the properties of motivation such as it being an internal process with different roles in influencing behaviours (such as directing, initiating, sustaining or terminating it), and with different degrees of expression at the level of intensity, quality and speed in which the behaviour is carried out.(4)
TYPES OF MOTIVATION
Intrinsic motivation has emerged as an important phenomena for educators—a natural wellspring of learning and achievement that can be systematically catalyzed or undermined by parent and teacher practices (Ryan & Stiller, 1991). Because intrinsic motivation results in high-quality learning and creativity. Sujan (1986) outlines, employees who are motivated intrinsically “enjoy performing job-related tasks, such as influencing customers and learning about the company
Extrinsic motivation is a construct that pertains whenever an activity is done in order to attain some separable outcome. Extrinsic motivation thus contrasts with intrinsic motivation, which refers to doing an activity simply for the enjoyment of the activity itself, rather than its instrumental value.(5)
Although there are many theories of motivation, three of the most commonly known ones, related to workplace motivation are those by Abraham Maslow, Frederick Herzberg, and Douglas McGregor.
Abraham Maslow (1908 - 1970) Maslows Heirachy of Needs:
In the first half of this century, sociologist Abraham Maslow proposed that all humans have universal needs, and those needs could be categorised and predicted. Regarded as the first person to develop a theory of motivation, Maslow sees motivation it terms of 5 differing levels of human needs with those at lower levels needing to be met prior to those at higher levels. This model of motivation has gained a lot of attention, but not complete acceptance. This theory may be applicable to modern management as follows:
• Physiological needs - these are the needs of personal survival and include the needs we have for food, oxygen, water, to be active, to rest, to sleep, to avoid pain, to have accommodation and shelter etc. Work can provide individuals with the ability to earn an income in order to pay for these basic needs of survival.
• Safety and security needs - When the physiological needs are largely taken care of, this second layer of needs comes into play. Individuals become increasingly interested in finding safe circumstances, stability, and protection. There might develop a need for structure, for order and limits, and ways of preventing or reducing fears and anxieties. Such needs manifest themselves in the form of our urges to have a home in a safe neighbourhood, job security, reliable transport, savings in a bank account, a good retirement plan, health insurance, or anything that contributes to the orderliness and predictability of life. Again, work provides individuals with the ability to earn to acquire such things. In addition a feeling of safety may be gained from the security that employment may bring.
• Love and belonging needs - When physiological and safety needs are predominantly met an individual begins to seek affiliation with others. This includes the need for friends, a marriage partner, children, affectionate relationships and a sense of community. The meeting of these needs is expressed in our desires to marry, have a family, and be a part of a community or group, It is also a part of what we look for in a career - work can provide opportunities for individuals to gain a sense of belonging and identity through their involvement in organisations, work teams and groups.
• Self-esteem needs - When the three preceeding groups of needs are met individuals begin to look to meeting needs for self-esteem such as the need for the respect of others, status, fame, recognition, attention, appreciation, dignity, confidence, competence, achievement, mastery, independence, and freedom. Esteem needs are often satisfied by recognition from peers and mentors, such as employers. This may include a raise in pay, a bonus, a certificate of completion or a degree from an educational institution. It may also include many other rewards for effort, but such feelings must be confirmed by recognition of those efforts. The work that an individual carries out, the type of organisation they work for and even their job title may provide personal status or self-respect.
• Self-actualisation needs - These are needs that involve the desire to fulfill our potential and to "be all that we can be". These needs involve becoming the most complete, 'fullest' person that you can be. An individual may achieve this higher level need from the fulfilment of his/her career goals or ambitions, or from seeing completion of work tasks that are important to him/her.
Maslows Heirachy of Needs is expressed graphically as:
Source: Data for diagram drawn from A. H. Maslow, 'A Theory of Human Motivation', Psychological Review, 50 (July 1943): 370-396.
Frederick Herzberg - Two Factor Theory
Fredrick Herzburg developed another popular theory of motivation called the Two-factor Theory (or Motivator-Hygiene Theory) to explain the motivations of workers. Herzberg and his associates began their research into motivation during the 1950's, examining the models and assumptions of Maslow and others, and in 1959 he published a book entitled 'The Motivation'. The basic hypotheses of this theory are that there are two types of motivators, one type which results in satisfaction with the job, and the other which merely prevents dissatisfaction. The two types are quite separate and distinct from one another. Factors that result in job satisfaction are termed 'motivators' and those that simply prevent dissatisfaction are termed 'hygienes'.
The factors that lead to job satisfaction (the motivators - sometimes called motivational factors) are:
• Advancement and promotions
• Interesting work
• A sense of achievement
A way to recognize motivational factors is by considering that they are factors where 'it's no big deal if they are not there but it's a big deal if they are'.
The factors which may prevent dissatisfaction (the hygienes - sometimes called maintenance factors) are:
• Pay levels
• Fringe benefits
• Job security
• Working conditions
• Company policy and administration
• Interpersonal relations
A way to recognise hygiene factors is by considering whether they are factors whereby 'it's no big deal if they are there, but it's a big deal if they are not'.
Motivators are those things that allow for psychological growth and development on the job. They are closely related to Maslow's concept of 'self-actualisation', involving a challenge, an opportunity to extend oneself to the fullest, to taste the pleasure of accomplishment, and to be recognised as having done something worthwhile.
Hygienes, if applied effectively, can at best prevent dissatisfaction and if applied poorly, they can result in negative feelings about the job. Hygienes are simply factors that describe the 'conditions of work' rather than the work itself. Herberg's point is that if you want to motivate people, you have to be concerned with the 'job itself' and not simply with the surroundings. As such, he contends that we should focus our attention on the individuals in jobs, not on the things that we surround them with. He maintains that we tend to think that growth and development will occur if we provide good working conditions, status, security, and administration, whereas in fact what stimulates growth (and motivation to grow and develop) are opportunities for achievement, recognition, responsibility and advancement. He felt that a key method for achieving these was 'job enrichment' and 'vertical job loading' whereby jobs are redesigned to make them more interesting and employees are given increased authority and challenge within their jobs (together with more feedback).
Douglas McGregor - Theory X and Y
In 1960 McGregor published his book 'The Human Side of Enterprise' which discussed his theories on behaviour of individuals at work. He formulated two models that are still taught, discussed, and debated today - Theory X and Theory Y. McGregor's assumptions underpinned why he felt managers took the approaches they did towards employees.
A manager holding Theory X assumptions would be inclined to believe that that:
• People inherently dislike work
• People must be coerced or controlled to do work to achieve objectives
• People prefer to be directed
A manager holding Theory Y assumptions would be inclined to believe that:
• People view work as being as natural as play and rest
• People will exercise self-direction and control towards achieving objectives they are committed to
• People learn to accept and seek responsibility
• Imagination, creativity, and ingenuity can be used to solve work problems and these abilities are widely distributed in the work force
• In modern organisations, the intellectual potential of the average person are only partially utilised.
Managers holding this view of work and their employees would most likely demonstrate trust in their employees, use explanations and joint problem-solving methods, give staff room to interpret and implement organisational objectives for themselves, act as a facilitator, provide opportunities for growth and job enrichment, allow staff to use their creative abilities and remove restrictions to doing a good job.(6)
It refers to “The relative strength of an individual's identification with and involvement in a particular Organization. “(Mowday Etal 1979, P. 226.) (7)
Organizational commitment can be distinguished by three related factors: 1.) a strong belief in and acceptance of the organization's goals and values, 2.) a willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization, and 3.) a strong desire to maintain membership in the organization (Porter, Steers, Mowday, & Boulian, 1974; Mowday, Steers, & Porter, 1979). According to Mowday, Steers, & Porter (1979), after a thorough examination of prior research pertaining to organizational commitment, it was strongly inferred that prior definitions of the term organizational commitment were 54 not describing the same phenomenon. Organizational commitment can be divided into two facets: attitudinal and behavioral (Mowday, Steers, & Porter, 1979). The concept of commitment is much different than that of satisfaction because commitment entails a broader range of concept as the affective response to the organization as a whole, whereas job satisfaction puts emphasis on a specific task environment, thus making organization commitment much more stable (Mowday, Steers, & Porter, 1979). CATHERINE R. JOHNSON (8)
FORMS OF ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT
On the basis of the idea that organizational commitment comes in distinct forms:
Affective attachment to the organization, perceived costs of leaving it, and a felt obligation to stay. These three forms, labeled affective, Continuance, and normative commitment, respectively, are referred to as components of organizational commitment.
The affective component is defined as employees' emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in the organization. If you're enjoying your work, you're likely to feel good, and be satisfied with your job. In turn, this increased job satisfaction is likely to add to your feeling of affective commitment.
The continuance component is defined as the perception of costs associated with leaving the organization. Allen and Meyer (1990) (Omar N. Solinger, Woody van Olffen, and Robert A. Roe) This type of commitment occurs when you weigh up the pros and cons of leaving your organization. You may feel that you need to stay at your company, because the loss you'd experience by leaving it is greater than the benefit you think you might gain in a new role.
These perceived losses, or "side bets," can be monetary (you'd lose salary and benefits); professional (you might lose seniority or role-related skills that you've spent years acquiring); or social (you'd lose friendships or allies).
The severity of these "losses" often increases with age and experience. You're more likely to experience continuance commitment if you're in an established, successful role, or if you've had several promotions within one organization. (https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/three-component-model-commitment.htm)(9)(10)
THEORY OF SIDE BETS
Side bets have been defined by Meyer and Allen (1984) as anything tangible and intangible that can be of value that a person has invested such as time, effort, or money that would be considered insignificant if an individual were to leave an organization. Meyer and Allen (1984) redefined prior definitions of organizational commitment as developed by Becker (1960) as “continuance commitment,” this concept is described as the employees that remain with a company because of fear of loss of benefits, seniority, status, or organization specific skills (Murray, Gregoire, & Downey, 1990). The definition of organizational commitment developed by Porter (1974) was also redefined into the definition of “affective commitment.” The term affective commitment is described as those employees that really want to stay with an employer (Murray, Gregoire, & Downey, 1990). Continuance and affective commitment are considered to be independent of one another; one type of commitment does not guarantee another type of commitment (Meyer & Allen 1984).( CATHERINE R. JOHNSON B.M. Rider University, 1997)(5)
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Hiam (2003), teamwork is also one of the major components that determine the degree of motivation. In most companies and organizations, sales are achieved through teamwork. What determines motivation in a team is the type of task assigned and its expected outcomes. Once members gather together to fulfill a certain task, the bond and relationship among them heavily determines how that task will be accomplished. Team members are supposed to encourage one another and act as an example to others. Managers and supervisors on the other hand are supposed to evaluate and understand each team separately.(16)
Maxwell and Steele (2003) believed that the organization concerned on the look after employees' interest. It is clear, the higher the experience, the more positive the impact on the commitment. Further, an individual's experience with their co-workers had the impact on highly commitment to the organization (Maxwell and Steele, 2003). High level of organizational commitment provide a clear focus for human resource manager on the grounds that commitment is in itself good and positive that should lead to high level of work performance. (NORIZAN ISMAIL 2012)(17)
Ramlall (2004) employee motivation need theories are explained by as “internal factors that energize behavior.” Another definition of employee motivation is defined by Robbins (1993) (as cited in Ramlall, 2004) as: “the willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the effort's ability to satisfy some individual need.” Therefore to engage 11 in the practice of motivating employees, employers must understand the unsatisfied needs of the employee groups. Unsatisfied needs can be defined as “tension that stimulates drives within the individual,” (Ramlall, 2004). In this context this type of tension presents a goal for the worker because the worker carries out ‘search' behavior to satisfy the deficient need, thereby reducing the perceived tension (Ramlall, 2004). (CATHERINE R. JOHNSON B.M. Rider University, 1997)(20)
(Opkara, 2004). Discussed that Organizational commitment is characterized as employees' willingness to contribute to organizational goals. When employees are sure that they will grow ` 25 and learn with their current employers, their level of commitment to stay with that particular organization is higher In order to make employees satisfied and committed to their jobs, there is a need for strong and effective motivational strategies at various levels of the organization. . (NORIZAN ISMAIL 2012)(17)
Wylie (2004), according to which members of management primarily should be able to maintain the level of their own motivation at high levels in order to engage in effective motivation of their subordinates. Accordingly, Wylie (2004) recommends managers to adopt a proactive approach in terms of engaging in self-motivation practices.Furthermore, Wylie (2004) recommends concentrating on specific variations of intangible motivational tools such as celebrations of birthdays and other important dates with the participation of whole team.(13)
(Griffeth & Hom, 1995; Igharia & Greenhaus, 1992). PRIYANKO GUCHAIT Dr. Seonghee Cho, Thesis Advisor AUGUST 2007 Organizational commitment has been considered as one of the most important predictors of turnover and intention to leave. It was found that employees who were more committed to their organizations had lower intention to leave than those with lower organizational commitment )(18)
(Adeyinka et al, 2007).It has the supremacy to magnetize, maintain and motivate individuals towards higher performance. Frederick Taylor and his scientific management associate described monet as the most fundamental factor in motivating the industrial workers to attain greater productivity .(14)
Cohen (2007) proposed a two facet model of commitment so that an overlap can be evaded with projecting aims and outcome variable of behavior. His findings covered the limitations of ambiguous understanding between affective commitment and normative commitment. He defined normative commitment as tendency to predict affective commitment. According to his theory affective commitment is at the top order of the commitment comparing the basic instrumental one.(11)
Bartol and Martin (2008) describe motivation as a power that strengths behavior, gives route to behavior, and triggers the tendency to continue. It is also a procedure that begins through a physiological or psychological need that stimulates a performance set by an objective.(15)
Hakanen et al. (2008) set out to test the motivational and health impairment processes as proposed in the Job Demands-Resources (JDR) model, and to examine the extent home resources and home demands may influence both processes over a certain period. The study found that job resources impact on future work engagement ultimately leads to organizational commitment, as compared to job demands which foretell burnout within a certain period that eventually lead to predicted prediction of future depression. (Organizational Commitment: Evidence from Jordan Ali Abbaas Albdour1 and Ikhlas I. Altarawneh2) (22)
Martin (2008) analyzed the dimensions and antecedents of the employee's commitment and found links of economic and relational antecedents of the job with the dimensions of organizational commitment. The findings suggested that affective commitment was determined mainly by participation, flexibility and information exchange. (12)
Thomas (2009) the main challenge of motivation in workplaces is identifying what motivates each individual employee taking into account his or her individual differences. In other words, individual differences have been specified by Thomas (2009) as the major obstruction for management in engaging in employee motivation in an effective manner.)(13)
(Shadare et al, 2009). Employee performance fundamentally depend on many factors like performance appraisals, employee motivation, employee satisfaction, compensation, training and development, job security, organizational structure and others, but the area of study is focused only on employee motivation as this factor highly influence the performance of employees. Employee motivation is one of the policies of managers to increase effectual job management amongst employees in organizations (15)
Kalimullah (2010) suggested, a motivated employee has his/her goals aligned with those of the organization and directs his/her efforts in that direction. In addition, these organizations are more successful, as their employees continuously look for ways to improve their work. Getting the employees to reach their full potential at work under stressful conditions is a tough challenge, but this can be achieved by motivating them(23)
Lockley (2012) offering training and development programs that effectively contributes to personal and professional growth of individuals is another effective employee motivation strategy. At the same time, Lockley (2012) warns that in order for motivational aspects of training and development initiatives to be increased, ideally they need to be devised and implemented by a third party with relevant competency and experience.(13)
Llopis (2012) draws attention to the increasing relevance of the work-life balance problem for modern employees and stresses its negative impact on the level of employee motivation. Specifically, Llopis (2012) reasons that unless employees achieve an adequate level of work-life balance in personal level, management investment on the level of employee motivation can be wasted.(13)
GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare Ltd. (GSKCH) is an Indian associate of GlaxoSmithKline plc, U.K.
GSKCH is one of the largest players in the Health Food Drinks industry in India. The Company, with its manufacturing plants located in Nabha, Rajahmundry and Sonepat, has a total workforce of over 2700 people, each driven by a spirit of enterprise. GSKCH has a strong marketing and distribution network in India comprising over 1800 wholesalers and direct coverage of over 4,00,000 retail outlets. GlaxoSmithKline's Consumer Healthcare business is based on scientific innovation. The company has dedicated consumer healthcare R&D canters and takes research as seriously as marketing excellence, offering cutting-edge capability in both. Its flagship product, Horlicks, is a highly respected brand which is over 100 years old in India.
The Company also manufactures and markets Boost, Viva, Maltova, Biscuits and in addition promotes and distributes a number of products in diverse categories, including prominent brands such as Eno, Crocin and Iodex.
This research is based on lower level employees of GSK as they are the basic unit of every organization. In an organization, every project is decided by the top management and it is assigned to the lower level by the managers and eventually performed by the lower level employees. They are the ones who implement ideas practically and hence are very important part of an organization that need to be looked upon so as to increase their efficiency in order to get productive results which will help organization achieve its goals and objectives
Performance of employees and successful fulfilling of all objectives of the company depends on many factors.One of this factors is motivation.But what does it mean motivation ? It is difficult enough to define it because it is something that can`t be seen and exactly measured.We can just observe it in the changes of human behavior.
Factors that affect work motivation and leads to commitment include individual differences, job characteristics, and organizational practices. Individual differences are the personal needs, values, and attitudes, interests and abilities that people bring to their jobs. Job characteristics are the aspects of the position that determine its limitations and challenges. Organizational practices are the rules, human resources policies, managerial practices, and rewards systems of an organization. Supervisors must consider how these factors interact to affect employee job performance and their Commitment toward organisation.
This outlines research objectives of the study and the methodology used to meet these objectives.This consist of the scope of the study,research, purpose,hypothesis, sampling,data collection,data entry and data analysis which is the methodology of the study.
SCOPE THE STUDY
This study of the research covers GSK LOWER LEVEL EMPLOYEES ON PERMANENT BASIS IN NABHA.
RESEARCH PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVE
This study will identify the current motivating factors and organizational commitment of permanent employees working in gsk company at lower level . Purpose is to 1) collect participants' motivation; 2) collect participants' organizational commitment levels; 3) examine the similarities and differences in the participants' motivation and commitment; 4) determine the overall employee motivations and commitment.
There is a significant relationship between employee motivation and organizational commitment.
There is no significant relationship between employee motivation and organizational commitment
MODE OF DATA COLLETION
Primary data-The data were gathered through direct personal interviews.
Secondary data-It were gathered from books and jouranals of management of human resource.
QUESTIONNAIRE INSTRUMENT :-
Questionaire of CATHERINE R. JOHNSON B.M. Rider University, 1997.He has developed his own questionnaire after doing all the validity and reliability testing with help of SPSS and also after conducting the pilot testing.
The survey questionnaire instrument was comprised of three sections: 1.) twelve motivational factors from kovach (1995),EXAMPLE:-
• A feeling of being involved
• Good working conditions
• Supervisor's help with personal problems INTRINSIC
• Interesting work
• Job security
• Promotion or career development
• Good Wages EXNTRINSIC
• Tactful discipline
• Monetary incentives
2.) nine questions from the reduced OCQ from Mowday, Steers, and Porter (1979),. The questionnaire developed to collect information to answer the research objectives. The questions were designed to be answered in a five-point Likert scale format for the motivation and organizational commitment scale,. The first section of the survey consisted of the following twelve items used as motivational factors:. These questions were answered in a 5- point Likert scale ranging from 1=Very Unimportant to 5=Very Important. This was used to understand the motivational set of workers. The second section of the survey was comprised of the shortened OCQ from Mowday, Steers, and Porter (1979). This segment of the survey was used to measure workers' commitment to their current organization These questions were answered in a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1=Strongly Disagree to 5=Strongly Agree.
The sample for this study was a convenience sample consisting of 50 employees.
The hypotheses were tested using various data analysis tools provided by SPSS STATISTICAL PACKAG FOR SOCIAL SCIENCE . These hypothesis were tested to find various relation between dependent and independent variables.Descriptive statstics ,correlation,multiple regression,were used to test the hypothesis and to found out results.
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION was analysed under 12 motivational factores which are intrinsic and extrinsic.
1.A FEELING OF BEING INVOLVED
ANALYSIS:-It was seen that out of 50 respondents many were quite feel important of being involved in the organization because they came to know about the company strategies,growth and others feel that it is not important for them to be involved because they are concerned for their own role,work,career progression and development.
2.JOB SECURITY IN THE ORGANISTION
ANALYSIS:-It was seen that majority of respondents felt a job security in the organization should be very important that increased there motivation level,gain marketable skills and work hard to achieve top position.Some felt that it is not important because they like to face more risk ,it seems to be more interesting to survive in ups and down then secured job.
3. SUPERVISOR'S HELP WITH PERSONAL PROBLEMS
ANALYSIS :-As 34% employees are neutral with the statement that they are satisfied if they get supervisor help or not in the organization.As 16-20% felt that it is important because long term success of company depends upon the employee skills and they need guidance but somehow some employes want to work independently without interruptions.
4. GOOD WAGS
ANALYSIS:-Majority of employees wanted a good wages to be highly motivated.As it is source of income for them with that they increase there standard of living.4-8% felt that it is not important to them to get good wages they just want the status or recognition in the organization.
5. INTERSTING WORK
ANALYSIS:-As it was seen that many respondents felt important to have an interesting work in the organization.Work must be according to the capability of the employee otherwise employees feel boredom which leads to absenteeism.2%-8% are fine with the routine work because they don't want any complex task,work that may leads to stressful job.
ANALYSIS:-Most of the respondents is of the opinion that there should be tactful discipline in the organization. Discipline ensures smooth functioning and helps in creating a healthy business environment. In absence of discipline, there will be chaos, confusion, corruption and disobedience .6%-16% respondents felt that Being disciplined is likely to raise a number of issues for the employee, one of which is the fairness of the process.
7. PROMOTION OR CAREER DEVELOPMENT
ANALYSIS:- It was seen that 48% respondents felt that there should be a career development opportunities or promotion.New opportunities encourages them to come forward and grab them this leads to increase their satisfactional level as well they are ready to become risk takers . Only 2% said it was very unimportant to them,they are used to with the routine work and satisfied.
8. GOOD WORKING CONDITIONS
Analysis:-Majority of the respondents is of the opinion that to work there should be a good working condition provided for efficiency and effectiveness.They feel important as well as they show interest to perform their activities in a planned manner.6%-8% felt that working condition doesn't affect there work they are happy whatever the organization provides.
9.MANAGEMENT/SUPERVISOR LOYALTY TO EMPLOYEES
ANALYSIS:-It was seen that 32% to 42% said that management should be loyal towards each every employees because they work according to there directions if they are distrustful employees feel detached from the organization. Few said it is unimportant they just concerned about their own performance and salary is mean to everything.
10. GRATITUDE FOR A JOB WELL DONE
Analysis:-Percentage 24-40 which means work sould be appreciated if it is excellent.It is a like a award that made a goodwill among the fellow employees.
11. MONETARY INCENTIVES FOR A JOB WELL DONE
ANALYSIS:-Most of the respondents felt that to be highly motivated moncentary incentives should be given. Employess gives their best upto the high level and try to achieve better position. Interstingly no respondent claimed that they don't want these incentives.
12. PUBLIC CELEBRATION FOR A JOB WELL DONE
ANALYSIS:-No have given a extreme answer because firstly it leads to wastage of time and money.
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT FACTORS
1.I WOULD ACCEPT ALMOST ANY JOB TO KEEP WORKING FOR THIS ORGANIZATION.
ANALYSIS:-It was seen that majority of the respondents are agree to perform any job because they are highly satisfied with the working condition of the organization.
2. I FIND THAT MY VALUES AND ORGANIZATION'S VALUES ARE VERY SIMILAR.
ANALYSIS:-It was found that many respondents agree that there values are matched with organsation values they have the chance to well grow in organization and meet their own goals.Some found that there is no match they felt trapped in the organization they are working just because they ar not gtting jon anywhere else.
3. I AM PROUD TO TELL OTHERS THAT I AM PART OF THIS ORGANIZATION.
ANALYSIS:-70% respondents agree that they are proud that they are the part of this organization ,taking pride in work is one of the greatest motivator when it comes to ensuring that they are working hard and feel committed towards the organization. Only 4% strongly disagree stand because they felt that they are bias and not being equally treated.
4. THIS ORGANIZATION REALLY INSPIRES THE VERY BEST IN ME IN THE WAY OF JOB PERFORMANCE.
ANALYSIS:-22%-38% respondents felt that their organization inspires them for to work with best ability ,to perform a particular task and ensures them taking of the responsibility if any mistake occurs.and 6%-14% are really demotivated.
5. I AM EXTREMELY GLAD THAT I CHOOSE THIS ORGANIZATION TO WORK FOR OVER OTHERS I WAS CONSIDERING AT THE TIME I JOINED.
ANALYSIS:-4%-16% is of opinion that they are not happy with organization they are working as they felt they are not getting much opportunities ,their basic necessities are not fulfilled.and 32%-36% are higly satisfied that they choose a correct organization because they felt that organization make feel their a important part of the organsation.
6.I REALLY CARE ABOUT THE FATE OF THIS ORGANIZATION.
ANALYSIS:- 28%-36% respondents agree or strongly agree that they took part or interested in fates of the organization because for them enjoyment is also important and 12% neutral stand.10%-14% really don't care about the fates organised in the organization ,they have other important work to do.
7. FOR ME, THIS IS THE BEST OF ALL POSSIBLE ORGANIZATIONS FOR WHICH TO WORK.
ANALYSIS:-Some said that this the best organization as compared to other,felt a great place to work in which they trust the people, have pride. and 10%-14% is opinion that they can find better organization.
8. I KNOW WHAT IS EXPECTED OF ME AT MY JOB.
ANALYSIS:- Majority of respondents said that they are clear that what organization wanted from them.Few respondents arenot clear about the organization expectation they are confused about their role,goal and objectives.
9. I AM ABLE TO DO WHAT I DO BEST EVERY DAY.
ANALYSIS:-30%-32% have the confidence that whatever they do is the best they have the freedom to do their work as a team and individually also and they feel their strengths and weaknesses .20% stand neutral.
CORREALATIONS B/W EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND ORG. COMMITMENT
Factor any job values proud inspire
choice fate of org. best org. expect at job best person
job involved 0.66301 0.36612 0.5055 0.3855 0.14098 0.4978 0.2133 0.38062 0.34727
Job security 0.27164 0.36453 0.2214 0.315 0.08471 0.1928 0.2079 0.35091 0.38229
sup. Help 0.0433 0.34556 0.0188 0.5395 -0.0185 0.4996 -0.013 0.21652 0.21266
good wages 0.2123 0.33024 0.02089 0.2466 0.1815 0.51398 0.46641
Intersting work 0.24002 0.21501 0.3049 0.1535 -0.071 0.2895 -0.025 0.09869 0.11305
discipline 0.08591 0.57679 0.2797 0.5423 0.05229 0.4675 0.103 0.3757 0.43136
promotion 0.10306 0.14451 0.2431 0.3152 -0.1099 0.3433 0.147 0.32392 0.41484
0.08395 0.26772 0.3547 0.3256 -0.0057 0.2898 0.3388 0.34245 0.59048
Mgmt loyalty 0.01815 0.17193 0.1048 0.2838 0.25629 0.1843 0.2904 0.23996 0.23995
gratitude 0.17301 0.35983 0.2527 0.3449 -0.0132 0.2991 0.183 0.44455 0.4811
mon. incentives 0.34184 0.22072 0.2707 0.1789 0.18392 0.192 0.2932 0.46426 0.36864
0.1645 0.28913 0.3743 0.1335 0.17778 0.111 0.2315 0.50845 0.2789
oc 0.917551 1
Correlation measure strength and the direction in the linear relationship between the two variables. it is range between +1 to -1.which indicated a perfect relationship which is highly negative as well as highly positive. And the 0 relationship shows that the data is no correlation. In the table N shows that these the respondent and population size in the data. High correlation mean the relationship is more strong toward the strong relationship. And shows significance level in the data as well. in the table( r=0.917) motivation is strongly relate with the organizational commitment it is highly significant and more positive.
REGRESSION OF EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND ORGANIZATION COMMITMENT
Multiple R 0.917551
R Square 0.841901
Adjusted R Square 0.838537
Standard Error 2.564088
df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 1645.486 1645.486 250.2812 1.88E-20
Residual 47 309.0038 6.574549
Total 48 1954.49
Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
Intercept -3.53359 2.157432 -1.63787 0.108127 -7.87379 0.8066 -7.87379 0.8066
60 0.413795 0.026156 15.82028 1.88E-20 0.361176 0.466414 0.361176 0.466414
INTERPRETATION: Linear regression is the next step after correlation. It used how the value is predict and one value is based on the other variables. The variables which the data is predicted is called dependent variables some time called outcome variables. the first tables show the model summary having R and R square which show the simple regression. R square indicated that how much the variables which is independent.e.g its shows whether performance is significant or not. the value of the P is always less than p<0.0005.
There is a some degree of negative correlation (-0.01849) between organization choice and supervisor help. This means that in that organization which they have choose they are not getting proper supervisors help.
There is negative correlation( -0.1099) between organization choice and promotion.This means that they are not getting the career development in that organization.
There is high degree of positive correlation (0.32562) between working condition and inspires.this means that they are impressed from the working condition they have been provided that's why they are stick to the organization.
There is positive correlation between management loyalty , best organization,expectation at job. This means that they are clear about there roles and management is having trust on there staff.
There is high degree of positive correlation (0.50845) between (intrinsic factor) public celebration and (affective commitment) expectation at job. This means that whatever is expected at job they fulfilled got best results and celebrate it publically.
There is positive correlation between public celebration and proud.this means that in they proud to be a part of organization and expressed it publically.
Overall there is high degree of positive correlation at ( r=0.917)as above shown In graph between intrinsic and extrinsic factors with affective and continuos commitment. THE VALUE OF PEARSON CORREALTION CAN RANGE FROM -1.00 TO 1.00.THE INTERPREATION OF THESE VALUES HAS BEEN ON A RATING SCALE AS COMPOSED BY COHEN (1988)
R =.50-to -1.0 large
R= .30 to .49 medium
R=.10 to -.29 small
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