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Consumers are overwhelmed with advertisement on many different moments and at many different places such as on the streets, in the bus, in shops, on radio and television and when using internet. Consumers also become better in identifying and ignoring these advertisements (Petty & Andrews, 2008). As a response, marketers come up with new methods that are not easily identified as persuasive marketing messages (Kaikati & Kaikati, 2004). Marketers use communication methods to get around the resistance of consumers because messages that do not come from commercial sources are accepted more by consumers (Darke & Ritchie, 2007). Research shows that companies advertise more and more through blogs to reach potential customers (Hsu & Lin, 2008). Blogs are not immediately recognized by consumers as communication tools that can contain persuasive messages. Sponsoring on blogs offers a new opportunity for marketers to promote their brand. Sponsored blog posts are an effective marketing tool because they are perceived by consumers as more credible than traditional marketing tools such as radio or television commercials (Akehurst, 2009; Johnson & Kaye, 2004).

Since blogs are consumer-generated and perceived as a credible source by other consumers, the persuasive intent of the sponsored content is not obvious. Consumers only recognize persuasive messages if the sponsored content in the message is clear. According to the theory of persuasion knowledge, individuals learn about persuasion and how to cope with persuasion attempts over time (Friestad & Wright, 1994). Previous studies suggest that if blog posts do not reveal that they are sponsored, then persuasion knowledge will not be activated and consumers may process the persuasive message less critically than a persuasive message in traditional advertising, where the persuasive intent is recognized. This could lead to persuasion without consumers being aware of it (Bambauer-Sachse & Mangold, 2013; Nebenzahl & Jaffe, 1998). A sponsorship disclosure makes consumers aware of the sponsored content in a blog post. A sponsorship disclosure informs the audience when commercial intent is integrated in the editorial content to guarantee fair communication and avoid persuasion without the audience being aware of it (Cain, 2011; Woods, 2008). The primary goal of a sponsorship disclosure is to inform consumers about an advertisement and its persuasive content.

There is a knowledge gap in the existing literature about what the effects are of sponsorship disclosures in blog posts on the activation of persuasion knowledge and on the evaluation of a brand. This study investigates if blogs that reveal being sponsored will be evaluated more critically and if this leads to a less positive brand evaluation. In addition, different positions of sponsorship disclosures in blogs will be studied to see if this also affects the reader's processing of sponsored content and evaluations of the brand. It is possible that consumers react differently on a sponsorship disclosure when this disclosure is placed before or concurrent with the sponsored content or several times in a blog post.

Next to this, previous studies on the possible effects of sponsorship disclosures on brand evaluation show contradictory results. These results seem to indicate that a brand is evaluated more negatively only in certain situations when consumers can resist the persuasive content and activate persuasion knowledge. Activating persuasion knowledge requires cognitive abilities of consumers. This means that in order to resist persuasion attempts such as sponsored blog content, readers should have enough cognitive capacities to protect themselves against and resist persuasion attempts. Therefore, this study will also focus on if consumers evaluate a brand differently under varying circumstances. If consumers do not have enough cognitive abilities to activate persuasion knowledge it is possible that they will evaluate a brand differently than consumers who have enough cognitive abilities to activate persuasion knowledge. Previous studies did not link the influence of sponsorship disclosures and the cognitive abilities of consumers to see what the effects are of sponsorship disclosures in blog posts. However, it is relevant to study the potentially different outcomes of sponsorship disclosures under varying circumstances since it can have implications for brands and legislators.

In the following sections, the concepts of sponsored content and sponsorship disclosures are discussed first. After this, an explanation of persuasion knowledge and the effects of activation of persuasion knowledge are given. This is followed by a discussion of the moderating role of self-control and the research question and hypotheses. After this, the method, results, conclusion and implications of this study are discussed.  

Sponsored content in blogs and regulations

Consumers are every day confronted with more advertisements than they can process (Petty & Andrews, 2008). To defend themselves against these messages, consumers put up defences when they have the feeling someone tries to persuade them or sell something to them (Kaikati & Kaikati, 2004). Therefore, advertisers need to find other ways than advertising in traditional media to persuade consumers or to sell their products (Xie, Boush & Liu, 2015). In order to reach consumers, brands, products and persuasive messages are more and more integrated into for example, editorial content on television, but also in other media (Cain, 2011; Van Reijmersdal, Neijens & Smit, 2007). This is called sponsored content and this can be implemented in different ways. An example is brand placement, in which a product, service or brand is placed or mentioned in a program or on a blog (Hudson & Hudson, 2006). An example of brand placement is a blog post that shows the blogger's weekly activities and the suitcase of Samsonite she used when visiting a friend for two days. In this case, Samsonite sponsored this blog post and paid the blog owner to write about this suitcase. Integrating brands in editorial content is a form of covert advertising (Tomažic, Boras, Jurišic & Lesjak, 2014).

Marketers can use several techniques to spread a persuasive message online. An example of covert advertising that can be used online is placing content in a blog post (Ferguson, 2008). A blog, derived of the term ‘weblog', is a website of a person on which he or she can publish ideas, opinions and other information. Everyone in the world has access to a blog and can respond to a blog (Smudde, 2005). Also other kinds of blogs exist, such as corporate blogs created by a company (Smudde, 2005). In the present study will be focused on personal blogs.

A blogger can post personal experiences about products or services and these experiences are available to other consumers. Johnson and Kaye (2004) explored to what degree blog users and consumers perceive blogs as credible compared to traditional media such as radio and television and other online sources such as online newspapers and news sites. Credibility was defined as the believability, fairness, accuracy and depth of the content of the medium. The researchers noticed that blogs are viewed as moderately to very credible and blogs provide more depth and thoughtful analyses than traditional media such as radio and television and online sources such as online newspapers and news sites. Blogs are also perceived as a new and better form of journalism (Johnson & Kaye, 2004). Akehurst (2009) emphasized that consumers also have more confidence in this form of communication in comparison with traditional media. Recommendations in a blog post about a company, product or service can therefore be very valuable for a company. If consumers search for information, they can be influenced by a blogger in the consideration and decision to buy a certain product (Hsu, Lin & Chiang, 2013). This study show that blogs have the advantage of increased credibility and acceptance by consumers compared to messages that are sent by a brand, which makes consumers more susceptible to the messages. This makes sponsoring content in blogs a convenient form of advertising for companies and brands.

On a blog, two types of information about a brand can appear: blog advertising or blog sponsoring (Amstrong, 2006; Jarvis, 2006). Blog advertising is advertising about a brand that appears on the blog separately from the blog posts. An example of this are banners. This type of information is created by companies and is seen by consumers as advertising. Blog sponsoring is the case when a blog post contains information about a brand and the blog post is written by the blogger. An example of blog sponsoring is a blog post in which is shown how to make a certain dish and in this post a specific stove is mentioned. Companies can sponsor bloggers in different ways; pay them, give a discount or offer a product for free (Armstrong, 2006; Jarvis, 2006).

Sponsoring content in blogs is a convenient form of advertising for companies, but this is not the case for consumers since they are not always aware of the sponsored content when reading a blog post. However, consumers should be made aware of the sponsored content, but sometimes it is difficult to recognize the sponsorship type because blog posts does not always reveal if or how they are sponsored (Lu, Chang & Chang, 2014). If readers are not aware of the persuasive content, they cannot protect themselves towards this persuasive content and can be influenced without being aware (Kuhn, Hume & Love, 2010). This is seen as a violation of the right of consumers to know when an advertisement is shown to them (Lee, 2008). Therefore, criticism about sponsored content that is not identifiable has resulted in regulations about sponsorship disclosures (Kuhn et al., 2010). The European Audiovisual and Media Policies (Audiovisual and Media Policies, 2012) and the Dutch Advertising code Social Media (Reclamecode Social Media, n.d.) provide a framework with regulations to guarantee conditions of fair competition. Sponsored content should be mentioned by a disclosure stating that the content of the program or a website contains advertising (Audiovisual and Media Policies, 2012), such as: ‘this program contains product placement' or ‘this is a sponsored article'.

To make consumers aware of the sponsored content of a program or blog post, a sponsorship disclosure should be added. The primary goal of a sponsorship disclosure is to inform consumers about an advertisement and its persuasive content. A blogger has to indicate that a blog post or certain content is sponsored. However, there are, contrary to traditional media, no EU regulations that specify how sponsored content in a blog post should be indicated (Meindersma, 2015).

Sponsorship disclosures and activation of persuasion knowledge

By including a sponsorship disclosure, consumers are made aware of the persuasive content of a message and assisted in understanding the advertising and resisting the advertising (Cain, 2011). Research by Boerman, van Reijmersdal and Neijens (2012a) showed that a sponsorship disclosure on television leads to recognition of advertising. The consumers saw the message as a persuasion attempt and this caused the consumers to evaluate the information more critically. If consumers see a sponsorship disclosure, they will be more likely to resist the persuasion intent and have a less positive attitude toward the brand (Boerman et al., 2012a).

Consumers learn how to deal with persuasion attempt of marketers during their life. Friestad and Wright (1994) explain that over time consumers develop personal knowledge about the tactics that marketers use in their persuasion attempts. This knowledge helps consumers to identify where, when and how they are being influenced. This knowledge is called persuasion knowledge. Persuasion knowledge helps consumers respond to persuasion attempts. Consumers only use their persuasion knowledge when they are aware of the fact that a message contains persuasive intent (Nebenzahl & Jaffe, 1998). A sponsorship disclosure indicates persuasive intent in a message and can activate persuasion knowledge.

There are two types of persuasion knowledge (Rozendaal, Lapierre, Van Reijmersdal & Buijzen, 2011). A cognitive dimension of persuasion knowledge, conceptual persuasion knowledge, and an affective dimension of persuasion knowledge, attitudinal persuasion knowledge. Conceptual persuasion knowledge includes the recognition of the persuasive intent of a message, the recognition of the source and the underlying persuasive intent of marketers (Boerman, Van Reijmersdal and Neijens, 2012b). This is the first type of persuasion knowledge. The second type of persuasion knowledge is attitudinal persuasion knowledge (Boerman et al., 2012b). If attitudinal persuasion knowledge is activated, consumers become more critical towards content that contains persuasive messages. Consumers also may dislike the content more (Rozendaal et al., 2011).

Effects of persuasion knowledge on brand evaluation

Several studies show an effect of activating persuasion knowledge on the evaluation of the sponsored content and the brand (Bambauer-Sachse & Mangold, 2013; MacKenzie & Lutz, 1989; Wei, Fischer & Main, 2008; Wood & Quinn, 2003). Boerman et al. (2012b) studied how sponsorship disclosures in television programs influence the use of conceptual and attitudinal persuasion knowledge and the effect of the sponsorship disclosure. The results of their study show that a sponsorship disclosure in a television program can activate conceptual and attitudinal persuasion knowledge. Viewers who recognized the sponsored content as advertising (conceptual persuasion knowledge), activated attitudinal persuasion knowledge. Viewers who saw the sponsorship disclosure thought of the content as more biased and less honest, credible, trustworthy and convincing. When viewers were not exposed to a sponsorship disclosure, there was no effect on conceptual or attitudinal persuasion knowledge and the content was evaluated less critically compared to when viewers where exposed to a sponsorship disclosure (Boerman et al., 2012b).

Wei et al. (2008) analysed the effects of consumers' persuasion knowledge on their evaluation of a brand mentioned in a radio show. They found that when persuasion knowledge was activated, consumers evaluated the brand more negatively than when persuasion knowledge was not available. These results imply that sponsorship disclosures can activate conceptual and attitudinal persuasion knowledge.

The effects of activating persuasion knowledge on the evaluation of the brand can be explained by schemata in the brain. Specific words such as sponsored, advertising or product placement can work as heuristics or cues that activate schemata in the brain that are related with advertising. Most of the consumers are sceptical towards advertising, so most of the schemata in the brain about advertising will be negative (Obermiller & Spangenberg, 2000). If the activated schemata in the brain are negative, the sponsored content and the brand may also be evaluated more negatively. Research also shows that if consumers have critical attitudes towards advertising, this can lead to a more negative evaluation of a certain advertisement or brand (MacKenzie & Lutz, 1989). Next to that, Wood & Quinn (2003) showed that a warning about the persuasive intent of a message leads to less favourable attitudes towards the message and the brand.

All these studies focused on disclosing persuasive intent in television programs. None of the studies focused on if sponsorship disclosures in blog posts also can activate persuasion knowledge. To address the knowledge gap, it is relevant that this is investigated in this study. A sponsorship disclosure in a blog post emphasizes the sponsored content and it is possible that this will activate consumers' conceptual persuasion knowledge. If consumers' conceptual persuasion knowledge is activated, this can result in activating attitudinal persuasion knowledge. If attitudinal persuasion knowledge is activated, the sponsored content of a blog post is possibly processed more critically and this can result in a more negative attitude towards the brand. Therefore, the following hypotheses are created:

Hypothesis 1: A blog post that contains a sponsorship disclosure activates more conceptual and attitudinal persuasion knowledge than a blog post that does not contain a sponsorship disclosure.

Hypothesis 2: A higher level of conceptual and attitudinal persuasion knowledge leads to a more negative brand evaluation compared to a lower level of persuasion knowledge.

Position of sponsorship disclosures

As discussed in the previous section, some studies demonstrated that disclosing the persuasive intent of a message can result in less positive brand attitudes compared to when no disclosure is shown (Bambauer-Sachse & Mangold, 2013; Boerman et al., 2012b; MacKenzie & Lutz, 1989; Wei et al., 2008; Wood & Quinn, 2003). The moment at which a sponsorship disclosure is given in a blog post can also be of importance on if persuasion knowledge is activated and on how consumers evaluate a brand (Boerman, van Reijmersdal & Neijens, 2014). There are also, contrary to traditional media, no guidelines about at which position a sponsorship disclosures should be placed in blog post. However, there are, based on research, guidelines for sponsorship disclosures in television programs (Audiovisual and Media Policies, 2012). This also shows the relevance to study position of sponsorship disclosures in blog posts.

Campbell, Mohr and Verlegh (2013) investigated the position of a sponsorship disclosure in a blog post on brand attitude. Their experiment had four conditions: control (no brand placement), brand placement without disclosure, brand placement with disclosure before the placement and brand placement with disclosure after the placement). In the control condition, the blog contained entertainment news. In the product placement conditions, the item included news about a new Samsung smartphone. Disclosure before and after the placement was manipulated with the following text, “Some news-items on this website are sponsored by firms,” shown either before or after the blog. The results of the experiment showed that exposure to a brand placement in a blog post resulted in higher levels of brand recall and a more positive attitude toward the brand. However, brand recall and brand attitude were affected differently by the position of the disclosure in the blog post. With regard to brand recall, disclosures lead to correction both when presented before and after the placement. With regard to brand attitudes, disclosures lead to a correction when presented after the placement, but not when presented before the placement. A disclosure after the brand placement resulted in less positive brand attitudes.

The study of Campbell et al. (2013) is the only study that focused on the position of sponsorship disclosures in blog posts. However, there are studies that looked at the best position of sponsorship disclosures in television context. These studies also provide more insight on what the effects are of different positions of sponsorship disclosures on consumers' activation of persuasion knowledge. Boerman et al. (2014) did a study in which they investigated whether the position of sponsorship disclosures in television programs affected the processing of the sponsored content. Their results differed from the results of Campbell et al. (2013). In the study of Boerman et al. (2014) the effect of a sponsorship disclosures displayed before, concurrent with, and after the sponsored content in a program content were investigated. The results showed that a sponsorship disclosure increases the recognition of advertising and this lead to critical processing of the sponsored content, but only when the disclosure was displayed before or concurrent with the sponsored content. There were no effects found for a sponsorship disclosure at the end of the program with sponsored content. These findings imply the importance of the position of a disclosure.

A theory that can explain the effects of the position of sponsorship disclosures in blog posts is priming theory. Bennett, Pecotich & Putrevu (1999) explained that a sponsorship disclosure when shown before the sponsored content could function as a prime. The disclosure primes the sponsored content and consumers will be able to recognize this as advertising. According to priming theory, the activation of a concept can affect information processing and judgements (Roskos-Ewoldsen, Roskos-Ewoldsen & Carpentier, 2009). The sponsorship disclosure before the sponsored content works as prime and focus the attention on the sponsored content. The focused attention could then lead to the recognition of the persuasive content in the blog post as being sponsored. This activates persuasion knowledge and could change the way viewers process the content (Bennett et al. 1999). This means that consumers who are exposed to a sponsorship disclosure before the sponsored content will activate conceptual and attitudinal persuasion knowledge and this leads to a more critical processing of the content which can lead to a less positive brand attitude.

However, the effect of priming is time bound and can fade quickly (Roskos-Ewoldson et al., 2009). This means that the priming effect of a sponsorship disclosure displayed before the sponsored content could fade. This has as implication that consumers do not remember that the blog post contains sponsored content and they will not activate persuasion knowledge. Therefore, a disclosure that is shown concurrent with sponsored content can have a larger effect on the recognition of the content that is sponsored because it not only primes the sponsored content, but the prime will also not have faded yet (Boerman et al., 2014). This means that consumers are pointed to the sponsored content at the same time the sponsored content is shown. The implication is that consumers are aware of the sponsored content and will activate persuasion knowledge. An example of a disclosure that is shown concurrent with the sponsored content is disclosure at the same time as a picture of the product that is sponsored in the blog post. If a sponsorship disclosure is shown at the end of the blog post, this disclosure is not working as a prime. Based on priming theory, a sponsorship disclosure that is shown concurrent with the sponsored content in a blog post will affect the recognition of advertising most, followed by a disclosure that is shown before the sponsored content. A sponsorship disclosure that is shown after the sponsored content at the end of the blog post is less likely to be effective (Boerman et al., 2014).

Based on the discussed literature it can be concluded that the position of sponsorship disclosures can lead to different levels of persuasion knowledge and different evaluations of a brand (Boerman et al., 2014; Campbell et al., 2013). However, the studies about the best position of sponsorship disclosures show different results regarding the best position for a sponsorship disclosure and only one study (Campbell et al., 2013) focused on positioning of sponsorship disclosures in blog posts. In the present study position of sponsorship disclosures in blogs posts will be investigated further to discover what the best position for sponsorship disclosures is to activate persuasion knowledge. The findings can contribute to the literature regarding the best position of sponsorship disclosures in blog posts.

The following hypothesis regarding the position of sponsorship disclosures in blog post is, based on priming theory, formulated:

Hypothesis 3: A sponsorship disclosure concurrent with the sponsored content in a blog post activates more conceptual and attitudinal persuasion knowledge than a sponsorship disclosure before the sponsored content in a blog post.

It is relevant to study the role of the position of a sponsorship disclosures on the consumers' evaluation of a brand. Previous studies show mixed results concerning the effect of position of sponsorship disclosures on the activation of persuasion knowledge and the evaluation of a brand. It is important for advertisers and legislators to know when sponsorship disclosures are most effective and thus may alter the outcomes of their brand placements. There are also no guidelines about at which position a sponsorship disclosures should be placed in blog post. The findings of this study could help legislators in the development of guidelines.

The moderating role of self-control in the persuasion process

Previous studies about the effects of disclosures in television programmes and disclosures in blog posts show contradictory results on the possible effects of sponsorship disclosures on consumers' evaluation of a brand. These results seem to indicate that the effects only appear in certain situations when persuasion knowledge is activated. The discussed studies show that there is an effect of the position of a sponsorship disclosure on the activation of persuasion knowledge. It is possible that there are other factors, next to position of sponsorship disclosures, that can influence the activation of persuasion knowledge. A possible factor could be that persuasive knowledge is only activated when consumers have the cognitive abilities to do so. This means that in order to resist persuasion attempts such as sponsored blog content, readers should have enough cognitive capacities to protect themselves against and resist persuasion attempts.

If consumers want to resist persuasion attempts, they need to have the desire and the willpower to do so. Often resistance to persuasion is a reaction that consumers have when they are motivated to protect themselves against persuasion. This suggests that resistance to persuasion is a goal-directed action and that it requires resources for self-control (Burkley, 2008; Baumeister, Bratslavsky, Muraven & Tice, 1998). Self-control can be seen as ‘the active inhibition of unwanted responses that might interfere with the achievement of desired goals' (Baumeister & Vohs, 2005). Self-control is, however, a limited resource. For an individual that exerts self-control for a goal, it may be more difficult to exert self-control some time later. If an individual exerted self-control for a specific goal, this leads to a loss of self-control strength on another non-related task. Individuals with depleted self-control resources, seem to become more passive and no longer work hard to achieve their goals (Baumeister et al., 1998).

If consumers' self-control resources are depleted, they should engage in behaviour that replenishes their self-control resources. A few studies suggest the use of entertaining media can replenish depleted psychological resources (Reinecke, Hartmann & Eden, 2014; Reinecke, Klatt & Krämer, 2011). A study by Hofmann, Vohs and Baumeister (2012) also showed evidence for the link between depletion of self-control resources and entertaining media use. The results of their study demonstrate the likelihood of giving in to desires increased with how many times individuals had to employ self-control that day. Moreover, the results show that among different desires, entertaining media use was the desire that was the most difficult to control in daily life. This means that individuals of whom self-control resources were depleted, were more likely to give in to desires to use entertaining media than give in to other desires (Hofmann et al., 2012).

If consumers are depleted and use entertaining media, it is likely that they will see persuasive messages. Blogs are also an entertaining medium that individuals may use to replenish depleted self-control resources. However, consumers who use media when their self-control resources are depleted, might not have enough resources to protect themselves against and resist persuasion attempts. They do not have enough resources to activate persuasion knowledge. If this is the case, then it can be questioned if sponsorship disclosures in blog posts will activate persuasion knowledge. Consequently, consumers with depleted self-control resources can evaluate a brand differently than consumers with no depleted self-control resources.

Self-control also has a motivational aspect. A study by Muraven and Slessareva (2003) showed that depletion and motivation together determine how much self-control an individual can exert. Individuals with depleted self-control resources can compensate for their lack of self-control resources if they are sufficiently motivated (Muraven & Slessareva, 2003). Based on the motivational aspect of self-control, it is possible that the frequency with which a sponsorship disclosure is shown can have an impact on depleted individuals in exerting self-control. A repetition of the sponsorship disclosure can make consumers with depleted self-control resources more aware of the sponsored content. Including one sponsorship disclosure may not be enough to activate persuasion knowledge, but two sponsorship disclosures may point consumers more to the persuasive intent of the message and this may result in consumers being more critical towards the message.

This expectation can also be explained by priming theory. Seeing a prime twice leads to a better prime (Ratcliff & McKoon, 1988). It is possible that if consumers see a sponsorship disclosure before and concurrent with the sponsored content in a blog post, this will work as a better prime and individuals will be more motivated to activate persuasion knowledge and resist the persuasive intent of a message. The current literature does not mention if it is better to show sponsorship disclosures only one time or several times in a blog post. This study will investigate if the frequency of showing sponsorship disclosures also has an influence on activating persuasion knowledge, and if this eventually can result in less positive brand attitudes. This will especially be interesting with regard to consumers with depleted self-control resources, since showing one sponsorship disclosure in a blog post may not be enough for them to activate persuasion knowledge and to resist the persuasive intent of messages.  

Self-control seems to be involved in the process of consumers to deal with persuasive messages. Therefore, the relevance to study the effects of sponsorship disclosures in blog posts on consumers' brand evaluations in relation with self-control becomes apparent, since this will provide insight into the possible moderating role of self-control on the relation between sponsorship disclosures and persuasion knowledge. Consumers may evaluate a brand differently in a state of self-control depletion than if they have enough self-control resources to resist to persuasion. This present study will add to knowledge about disclosure effects. In addition, insight in the possible moderating effect can inform legislators and advertisers better about the possible moderating effects of sponsorship disclosures on a consumers' brand evaluation through persuasion knowledge. Figure 1 shows a model of the relationship between position of sponsorship disclosures, persuasion knowledge, self-control and brand evaluation. The following research question for this study is formulated:

Is there an effect of position of sponsorship disclosures on consumers' evaluation of a brand through persuasion knowledge and is this effect moderated by the level of self-control of consumers?

Based on previous research about the possible effects of position of sponsorship disclosures through persuasion knowledge on brand evaluations and the possible moderating role of self-control, the following hypotheses are formulated to measure the interaction between self-control, persuasion knowledge and position of sponsorship disclosures:  

Hypothesis 4: The effect of position of sponsorship disclosures on consumers' activation of persuasion knowledge is different for consumers of whom their self-control resources are depleted compared to consumers of whom their self-control resources are not depleted.

The expected different effects stated in hypothesis 4, between consumers of whom their self-control resources are not depleted and consumers of whom their self-control resources, are:

Hypothesis 4a: Consumers with no depleted self-control resources, do activate a higher level of persuasion knowledge when they see a sponsorship disclosure compared to when no sponsorship disclosure is shown in a blog post.

Hypothesis 4b: Consumers with depleted self-control resources, do not activate a higher level of persuasion knowledge when they see a sponsorship disclosure compared to when no sponsorship disclosure is shown in a blog post.

Hypothesis 4c: Consumers with no depleted self-control resources, do activate a higher level of persuasion knowledge when they see a sponsorship disclosure that is shown concurrent with the sponsored content compared to when they see a sponsorship disclosure that is shown before the sponsored content.

Hypothesis 4d: Consumers with depleted self-control resources, do not activate a higher level of persuasion knowledge when they see a sponsorship disclosure that is shown concurrent with the sponsored content compared to when they see a sponsorship disclosure that is shown before the sponsored content.

Hypothesis 4e: Consumers with no depleted self-control resources, do not activate a higher level of persuasive knowledge when they see two sponsorship disclosures compared to when they see one sponsorship disclosure in a blog post.

Hypothesis 4f: Consumers with depleted self-control resources, do activate a higher level of persuasion knowledge when they see two sponsorship disclosures compared to when they see one sponsorship disclosure in a blog post.

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