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  • Subject area(s): Marketing
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  • Published on: 14th September 2019
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2.1 What is recruitment?

Recruitment is the process of identifying vacancies, identifying suitable candidates and hiring a person for the position.

Recruitment process includes analyzing the requirements of a job, attracting employees to that job, screening& selecting applicants, hiring and integrating the new employee into the organization.

2.2 Recruitment Process

There are two ways to source employees:

1. Internal recruitment: advertising a post, promotion & referrals by management

2. External recruitment: recruitment agencies, print media, headhunting & networking

2.3 Internal Recruitment:

Is done by the HR recruitment planner and what they do is to see if there are employees currently in the business who are able to take on a different position.

Techniques applied for internal recruiting:

• Advertising a post: this is notifying all employees of open vacancies that exist and  are open for anyone to apply for them

• Promotion: The business has identified potential candidate(s) suited for the position and will receive a promotion

• Referrals: Employees are able to decide a suitable candidate and refer such candidates to the HR Department.

2.4 External Recruitment:

Often Organizations are unable to find the suitable candidate for the job from their own employees. They must then open the vacancy to the public labor market. External recruiting creates the opportunity to bring new and fresh skills into the organization.

Techniques applied for external recruiting:

• Recruitment Agencies

• Classifieds

• Headhunting

• Networking

In the olden times the recruitment process for external recruitment consistent of the company advertising in the classified section of newspapers, engage recruitment agencies or post jobs on their online sites. However with the change of times, technology and resources, social media has become another valuable gateway into the recruitment process as now businesses are able to seek for potential employees through social media platforms such as LinkedIn, Branch Out and Many others. Some companies have now used social media as a compartment into their recruitment process.  

Social Recruiting (social media recruitment) is recruiting candidates by using social platforms as talent database or for advertising jobs either through HR vendors or through crowdsourcing where job seekers and others share jobs openings within their online social networks- [Social Recruiting- Wikipedia]

It's been over a decade since social media hit the recruiting industry, and this has been a successful trend to HR Vendors (e.g. LinkedIn) as they are able to make a profit from companies using their sites for advertising vacancies. Also this has been success to organizations as they have a pool of skilled workers available.

Social Recruiting has become a changing nature in the external recruitment process and this is seen a positive due to the change of times and how people have become more technological inclined. Majority of the Youth (ages 18-35) have an active social life and are good with technology about 70% of the youth spend time on their smartphones or devices to go on about their lives. Businesses have risen up to the challenge too of being technological inclined that an unemployed 24 years old is able to spend time looking for a job on the interweb rather than going through classifieds.

2. 5The Pros and cons of using social media for recruitment

Pros Cons

Cost effective – social media hiring is low cost and often free. Time consuming – too much information for companies who

Want to conduct a detailed and robust search. This is where

Recruiters can help.

Lack of control – managing brand outposts is tricky and

Inevitably negative content will slip through the net.

Transparency – how reliable is candidate information online?


Fast – there are many examples of employers using sites such as

LinkedIn to make ‘quick' hires. Discrimination – personal information could lead to employers

Being influenced by factors like race, religious views and age.

Employer branding and retention – there is a plethora of

social media tools online for companies to promote the employer

Brand effectively to prospective hires and current employees. Limited – ultimately the candidate can decide what information

They are willing to share. You only see what you see

 [Nigel Wright-2011]

On the last point of Limited:

One issue for recruiters in particular is that often the best candidates, who advertise themselves online via social media sites, tend to want to be found rather than having to actually apply for jobs. It is the role of recruiters, therefore, to become experts in using social networking technology to ensure that they are effective in finding the right candidates; while at the same time staying ahead of competitors, who are trying to do the same.

The problem which arises is this – if all of these candidates are online waiting to be approached, why do companies need to engage a recruitment consultant to find them? The candidate database in effect becomes public, and some would argue,

The recruiter becomes obsolete. The situation, however, is more complex.

Using social media platform as a key to the recruitment maybe the best idea in this social savvy world, however, the managing of social media is not easy and operates in different manners. Recruiting in a certain way on LinkedIn will not bring in the same results

2.6 Tools that are used in Social Media Recruitment

Tool employees can use in the social media recruitment is Social Media Background Screening. (SMBS)

This is a process whereby employers browse social media profiles of applicants in order to find positive or negative information that may help them in deciding if the candidate is suitable for an open position.

This is a controversial tool because this brings up the question of is the employees privacy being invaded.

For e.g. if Michael Jameson is a unemployed marketing director who has a good Business profile and his CV ranks him of the cream of the crop however his social media shows that his lifestyle is of a wild nature. Does this mean that what he does personally should affect his professional life?

Agreed this tool is helpful because it is able to eliminate foreseeing problems however, it can be a disadvantage to the employee.  

2.7 Social Recruitment Software

The social recruitment software market (a form of e-recruitment) is often included in the wider talent management software sector. Bersin & Associates valued the wider talent management market at over $2bn in 2007.Social recruitment increasingly sits at an intersection of a number of fast-moving areas including social networking, recruitment and now cloud computing. Additionally, mobile recruiting has become another hot topic, especially with the rise in tablet and smartphone usage. [Social Recruiting- En.Wikipedia]

Figure 1.1

Figure 1.1 is an illustration of the response from 92 companies who use social media recruitment

Block One:  shows that out of 92 companies only 73% people were hired successfully over social media

This show through social media there are jobs available for people, it's all about how you present yourself and look for the job. With such momentum that this is growing we are likely to see that this can be able to decrease the level of unemployment especially for the youth.

Block Two: out of 92 = 42% of the company say that the people employed over social media improved their skills

This improvement can be relatable to the SDA (Skills Development Act) that companies have to follow under BCEA (Basic Condition of Employment Act). SDA Aims to develop the skills of the workforce, improve quality of work, productivity and life. Hence everyone who is employed has upgraded their skills

Block Three: Out of 92= 20% of the companies say it's time efficient

The reason why this process is time efficient is because there isn't a need to go through agencies, pay money for seeking a candidate or going through hundreds of interviews. Social media recruitment allows you to pick the cream out of the crop in minutes.  

Block Four: Out of 92= there was an increase by 31% of referrals

This happens because once a job is listed on social media there will be people within the organization who will inform family or friends about openings and they will be referring everyone to the company.

Block Five: People who give referrals get compensation once the referred person is hired.

2.8 Social platforms that are used in the external recruitment process

Branch Out

Branch out allows you to turn Facebook into LinkedIn. Branch Out overlays employer information on top of users' Facebook interface, which allows recruiters search by company, job title, or even an individual's name! Branch Out then displays relevant candidates based on your search criteria and your connections to those candidates. Because of its use of Facebook's API, Branch Out can claim it allows access to 800 million searchable profiles.


Comprising of 130 different industries, and well over 100,000 recruiters, LinkedIn is by far the largest social platform of professionals. Employers can use LinkedIn in a number of different ways to find employees including: searching by employer (current/past), using In Mail, purchasing advertising, and networking. LinkedIn can also develop and expand a personal network of professionals to whom the employer or recruiter can send a request for a referral of a recommended candidate for a particular job opening.

Facebook Marketplace

You can post a job for free in the Facebook Marketplace. The ad requires basic information such as location, job category, subcategory, title, why you need to fill this position, description and if you want to post your photo with the job posting or another image.

Facebook Pages

A lot of the times, the best candidates are your biggest brand fans; those who follow your social media accounts, and love and engage with your brand. Use your Facebook page to find people both active and interested in your field or that would be interested in your available position.

2.9 However with this use of social media in the recruitment process there are disadvantages.

Social media gives out an impression

On sites like Facebook, which is a tool to reach out to friends, online and offline, you are at your informal best. You post your funny and party pictures or a stupid online friend might post a vulgar or offensive post on your wall. All these send out an impression of yours, as a party animal, or a racist or a womaniser and so on, which in reality, you may not be, but such an account can be detrimental in landing your dream job. In fact, a survey conducted by the portal CareerBuilder in 2014, found that many candidates were passed on by recruiters because employers found their social media profiles to be unsuitable, around 51 percent of employers thought so.

You will have to create a serious social media account: What is the use of sites like Facebook and Twitter when you can't be yourself? If you are using these sites for your job search, then you will have to be serious and only have friends those are sensible. Yet, how can you prevent people from sharing their updates? You will have to be conscious and even your tweets have to be what others want to read. Then what is the fun in being on these sites in the first place?

You can't be your normal self: You may have strong views on many topics, be it homophobia, racism, nepotism, politics and so on. But when you are using social media as tools for generating employment, you won't be able to be you and you will have to be very careful in posting or reacting because your prospective employers may find it offending or unnecessary. That means you will have to restrain yourself, which really is a disadvantage.

Protecting Image

Some companies may face challenges striking the right balance between conducting a successful recruitment exercise on social media and protecting the brand image. For example, when a firm posts a job opening on social media, it may receive numerous applications and choose to contact one or two prospective candidates. Applicants who aren't contacted could react angrily and post damaging information about the firm on numerous social networks. Talented job seekers may also ignore job openings posted by companies with poor social media profiles. Such firms can, however, hire reputation management specialists to help build a positive image.

 Figure 1.2

This figure indicates the Don'ts those candidates (future employees) shouldn't attempt online because it won't get them employed.

Candidates or Employees do not post any of the following:

1. Partying, Drinking, Smoking and Nudes Pictures

2. Sharing of private intellect work or secrets

3. Negative things about past, present or future jobs

4. No racism comments

Make sure your profile is clean

2.10 Selection Process

Selection tool that a business needs to do to choose and test the best candidates is basically Interview them that is the most common method. Could try Psychometric testing by assessing the skills personality of candidates and honest test. Aptitude testing candidates by assessing their skills and measuring mentality ability. In-tray exercise is the activity based around the candidates will be doing. And lastly is the presentation tool where businesses are looking for different skills as well the ideas of the candidates.

2.11 Selection Process Steps

1.  Preliminary Interview: The purpose of preliminary interviews is basically to eliminate unqualified applications based on information supplied in application forms. The basic objective is to reject misfits. On the other hands preliminary interviews is often called a courtesy interview and is a good public relations exercise.

2.  Selection Tests: Jobseekers who past the preliminary interviews are called for tests. There are various types of tests conducted depending upon the jobs and the company. These tests can be Aptitude Tests, Personality Tests, and Ability Tests and are conducted to judge how well an individual can perform tasks related to the job. Besides this there are some other tests also like Interest Tests (activity preferences), Graphology Test (Handwriting), Medical Tests, Psychometric Tests etc.

3.  Employment Interview: The next step in selection is employment interview. Here interview is a formal and in-depth conversation between applicant's acceptability. It is considered to be an excellent selection device. Interviews can be One-to-One, Panel Interview, or Sequential Interviews. Besides there can be Structured and Unstructured interviews, Behavioral Interviews, Stress Interviews.

4.  Reference & Background Checks: Reference checks and background checks are conducted to verify the information provided by the candidates. Reference checks can be through formal letters, telephone conversations. However it is merely a formality and selections decisions are seldom affected by it.

5.  Selection Decision: After obtaining all the information, the most critical step is the selection decision is to be made. The final decision has to be made out of applicants who have passed preliminary interviews, tests, final interviews and reference checks. The views of line managers are considered generally because it is the line manager who is responsible for the performance of the new employee.

6.  Physical Examination: After the selection decision is made, the candidate is required to undergo a physical fitness test. A job offer is often contingent upon the candidate passing the physical examination.

7.  Job Offer: The next step in selection process is job offer to those applicants who have crossed all the previous hurdles. It is made by way of letter of appointment.

8. Final selection

At this step, the candidate is given the appointment letter to join the organization on a particular date. The appointment letter specifies the post, title, salary and terms of employment. Generally, initial appointment is on probation and after specific time period it becomes permanent.

9. Placement:

This is a final step. A suitable job is allocated to the appointed candidate so that they can get the whole idea about the nature of the job. They can get adjusted to the job and perform well in future with all capacities and strengths.

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

3.1 Qualitative Research

Is primarily exploratory research. It is used to gain an understanding of underlying reasons, opinions and motivations. It provides insights into the problem or helps to develop ideas or hypotheses for potential qualitative research [ Research]

3.2 Five Types of Qualitative Research.

3.3 Quantitative Research

Methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques [ Quantitative Research]

3.4 Four Types of Quantitative Research

3.5 Primary research

Is new research carried out to answer specific issues or questions? It can involve questionnaire, surveys or interviews. [ research]

How will I use it?

The questionnaires that I have typed serve as a primary research; the data I will collect will be used for the ORT.

3.6 Secondary research

Makes use of information previously researched for other purpose and publicly available [ research]

How will I use it?

The literature review serves as a secondary research as I have sourced from multiple places. To come up with a constructed document.

3.7 Mixed research

Mixed methods research is a methodology for conducting research that involves collecting, analyzing, and integrating (or mixing) quantitative and qualitative research (and data) in a single study or a longitudinal program of inquiry. The purpose of this form of research is that both qualitative and quantitative research, in combination, provides a better understanding of a research problem or issue than either research approach alone.

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