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Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Overview

The 14th edition of the Bain Luxury Study, published by Bain & Company for Fondazione Altagamma, the trade association of Italian luxury-goods manufacturers, analyzed recent developments in the global luxury- goods industry.

The overall luxury industry tracked by Bain & Company comprises 10 segments, led by luxury cars, luxury hospitality and personal luxury goods, which together account for 80% of the total market. The industry surpassed €1 trillion in retail sales value in 2015 and delivered healthy growth of 5% year over year (at constant exchange rates), driven primarily by luxury cars (8%), luxury hospitality (7%) and fine arts (6%).

Aided by global currency fluctuations and continued purchases by “borderless consumers,” the personal luxury goods market—the “core of the core” of luxury and the focus of the Bain Luxury Study—ballooned to more than €250 billion in 2015. That represents 13% growth over 2014 at current exchange rates, while real growth (at constant exchange rates) has eased to only 1% to 2%. The slowdown confirms a shift to a “new normal” of lower sales growth in the personal luxury goods market, which we highlighted in previous analyses. The challenge for luxury brands in this environment is to successfully navigate market volatility driven by currency swings and fluctuating tourist flows.

Currency swings affect regional performance

Boosted by a strong US dollar, the Americas emerged as the biggest global region for personal luxury goods purchases. However, in real terms, the US market did not deliver. The “super-dollar” was too expensive for many global tourists and, although local consumption grew, it was barely sufficient to offset the decline in tourism revenue.

Europe posted sound growth, primarily fueled by Chinese and US tourists attracted by a weak euro. The old continent has become “the world's largest in-season outlet.” Our analysis of European tax-free shopping data, conducted in partnership with Global Blue, showed that Chinese tax-free purchases in Europe increased by 64% while tax-free purchases by American tourists in Europe grew by 67%, primarily in the high end of the luxury spectrum. Meanwhile, Russian and Japanese travelers cut their tax-free spending in Europe by 37% and 16%, respectively.

Across Asia, performance varied widely:

• Japan has proven to be a consistent champion in both real and nominal terms, as a sound base of local consumers and the emergence of Chinese tourists looking to capitalize on currency fluctuations are driving sales.

• South Korea shined, with €11 billion in retail sales value, growing at 4% in constant exchange rates despite the negative impact of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in the second half of the year.

• Hong Kong and Macau faded, primarily due to government reforms against graft and the gray market (respectively €7 billion and €1 billion in retail sales value, both declining at 25% in constant exchange rates).

• Local spending in Mainland China continued to contract slightly.

Chinese consumers play a primary role in the growth of luxury spending worldwide. They account for the largest portion of global purchases (31%), followed by Americans (24%) and Europeans (18%). Chinese shoppers continue to spend far more abroad than in Mainland China, which accounts for only 20% of their global purchases. However, the depreciation of the euro boosted the country to the global luxury podium; it is now the third-biggest market in the world, after the US and Japan. The most popular travel destinations for Chinese luxury shoppers shift—typically to Europe, South Korea or Japan—in response to currency fluctuations, which create temporary favorable price gaps.

Wholesale still dominates, but company-owned retail and e-commerce are growing faster

Wholesale is still the dominant selling channel within the personal luxury goods market, capturing 66% of the total market. However, retail continues to gain share, driven by network expansion (600 new directly operated stores opened globally in 2015, a decline from the 750 opened in 2014) and growth in same-store sales (13% at current exchange rates). The wholesale channel's slower performance stems from three factors: the ongoing “retailization” of luxury (converting franchised locations into company-owned stores or joint ventures); the lackluster performance of US department stores across product categories (particularly in leather goods); and the decreasing sales of Asian watch retailers, which are coping with excessive stock and a reduction in the overall store network.

E-commerce grew to a 7% market share in 2015, nearly doubling its penetration since 2012. Specialized e-commerce players are outperforming the market globally, with Chinese e-tailers progressively extending their geographic reach and gaining share on a global basis. The e-commerce sites of European and American retailers (such as department stores) continue to grow, a response to customers' demands for an omnichannel experience. Luxury brands are losing share online overall, with highly variable performance: The largest brands with established direct online and omnichannel platforms are outperforming but the majority of brands still lag, especially European brands.

Luxury globe-trotters have also fueled the performance of airport retail, which posted a 29% growth rate in current exchange rates (18% in constant exchange rates) and now accounts for 6% of the global luxury market.

With the growing middle class in markets such as China seeking good quality and good value, and consumers in mature markets looking for bargains, the off-price channel has more than doubled to nearly €26 billion. Markdowns are also increasing in prevalence across more than 35% of the luxury market.

Accessories remain the leading category

Among specific categories of personal luxury goods, accessories remained the leader, capturing 30% of the market and growing by 3% in 2015 (at constant exchange rates). That was faster than the next two largest categories, apparel (which grew 2% at constant exchange rates) and hard luxury (which contracted by 3%). Within accessories, high-end shoes (4%) continued to grow faster than leather goods overall (2%). Jewelry was the star category within hard luxury, growing at 6% in constant exchange rates, while watches were strongly hit by the channel overstocking in Asia and contracted by 6% in constant exchange rates.

Figure 1: The global luxury market exceeded €1 trillion in 2015, posting overall growth of 5%, driven by cars, hospitality and fi ne arts

Figure 2: Currency fl uctuations infl ated the personal luxury goods market to more than €250 billion, while real growth slowed down

Figure 3: The general trend was a depreciation of the euro vis-à-vis most other global currencie

Luxury brands also face a host of tough issues such as rethinking the size of their store footprint and the role of brick-and-mortar shops in a world of growing digitization, as well as fi guring out how to delight local customers even as masses of tourists flock to establishments in mature markets.

1.2. The situation in the market of Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan is becoming an important market for manufacturers of Luxury Brands. Apart from Uzbekistan\'s capital Tashkent where a few designer multi-brand stores and a handful of high street shops dot the city to serve local ruling elites, none of the three other former Soviet \"stans\" offer much immediate opportunity for fashion retailers. The tight-knit, uber-wealthy ruling-family elites from Dushanbe (Tajikistan), Ashgabat (Turkmenistan) and Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) tend to fly to Dubai or Europe for their shopping, although now that Kazakhstan is developing so quickly, some are beginning to take the much shorter flight to Almaty for their spending sprees.

\"Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan are poorly developed in comparison with Kazakhstan and [to a lesser extent] Uzbekistan,\" says Violeta Mordas, a global research analyst at Euromonitor International, a market intelligence firm. This year, Euromonitor estimates Kazakhstan\'s apparel market will be worth $4.8 billion, while Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan\'s apparel markets account for less than $1 billion combined. Even when you throw in Uzbekistan (with twice as many people as Kazakhstan), these four countries barely amount to half of Kazakhstan\'s market size. And in just four years time, Kazakhstan\'s apparel market is projected to nearly double.

At the pinnacle of Kazakhstan\'s consumer market, the number of high-net-worth individuals (HNWIs) is forecast to increase by 81 percent in the coming decade, according to The 2013 Wealth Report by Knight Frank Research. The number of people with (reported) assets of over $30 million will reach 244 by 2022. For comparison, this means upstart Kazakhstan will soon have more than one-third as many uber-wealthy citizens as Austria. Meanwhile, Euromonitor estimates that over the past five years, the number of affluent households in Kazakhstan (those with annual disposable incomes of over $75,000) has already more than doubled from 55,900 in 2007 to 116,800 in 2012.

Thanks to the staggering wealth pouring into the society from Kazakhstan\'s oil, gas and mineral deposits, \"our country can flaunt its success with luxury goods now, but more and more, consumers here are demonstrating a high level of brand knowledge and appreciation for craftsmanship,\" says Aizhan Askat, manager of the Hermès boutique in Almaty which opened in December 2011 on Kabanbai Batyr Street, which forms part of a budding quadrangle of fashion, jewellery and premium brand boutiques huddled in the city centre bordered by Gogol, Furmanov and Bogenbay Batyr Streets.

Askat, who previously headed luxury concierge service Quintessentially\'s Kazakhstan office should know a thing or two about her demographic. \"Although some wealthy Kazakhstanis are still avid seekers trying to just \'collect\' luxury labels, others are creating their own individualistic look by mixing brands together. As consumers get more informed about fashion both offline and online — and more sophisticated too — Kazakhstan\'s market will soon become more dynamic and complex for [late-arriving brands to] operate in,\" she predicts.

Olga Trefilova and Alex Kazakov seem to agree. As the respective publisher and editor-in-chief of Kazakhstan\'s successful edition of Harper\'s Bazaar (established through a local license with Partners Media Group), the pair\'s fashion coverage is often more experimental and adventurous than that of the long-establishedHarper\'s editions in Europe or the US. Even Trefilova\'s choice of dynamic young staff members like society page contributor Danila Okay (who can be seen wearing outfits more creative and style-conscious than many of his peers atHarper\'s editions based in the world\'s major fashion capitals) confirms Almaty\'s newfound status as a stylish city in the making.

1.3. The situation in the UK market

However with this promising market and important timing, Britain's famous luxury department store Harvey Nichols states that it is not a proper time to develop Chinese market because the maturity level of Chinese consumers towards luxury products is less than Western consumers. The spokesman of the Harvey Nichols adds if consumers just simply want to own a brand there is no need to shop at Harvey Nichols. This event can be seen to lure the Chinese consumers' conspicuous consumption attitude to the luxury brand. On the other hand, Britain, the developed mature luxury brand market shows an increasing momentum. The success of brands such as Burberry is going to give a hand to the British luxury industry to increase by 57% by the end of 2015, based on the research from luxury trade body Walpole (2011). The growth future is bright. However, the consumer behaviour mode has been kept changing. Researchers have found that consumers in Britain are becoming saviours who demand accurately, timely, and are more and more discerning, which means consumers are not just motivated by price or show-off issues, they turn to be more concerning about the overall luxury brand equities. The attitude of western consumers is quite conspicuous consumption, which is a signal of new middle-class status and would be embarrassed to make such a display. In the luxury brand management system, the brand equity is an important part in marketing communication mix than other non-luxury brands. This particularly reflects in the gloomy economy situation. Luxury brands that focus on its heritage and brand history value instead of up-to-date fashion performed better than others. For example, travel campaign of Louis Vuitton's and Hermès' sponsorship of a horse competition in Paris serves them to remain within the World's 10 Most Powerful Luxury Brands. Top luxury Brands Companies have been quicker to react and re-centre their brand core positioning. In 129 Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture GUO qi; LI Dandan (2013). Canadian Social Science, 9(6), 127-139 addition in a competitive market where products and services are all very similar, successful brand positioning can have a significant impact on stable sales growth and long-term buying behaviour. The luxury hotel companies are a classic case. Consumers in the 21st century want a hotel with a soul and character; they want personality which can give them unique experience instead of a confined box. Once the uniqueness of a luxury brand is created, then this can be utilized to be leveraged to optimize the profiting potential of the brand.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

This study will seek to examine the elements of luxury goods positioning and branding. This will aim at examining the cultural settings in purchasing these luxury products in the British and Kazakhstani contexts. This literature review will analyse authoritative sources and ground-breaking definitions that relate to core concepts and theories in the area of luxury fashion and branding.

2.1 Positioning Strategies for Luxury Brands

“Brand vision and the culture, personality relationships and presentation are key components of corporate branding that builds brand identity” (So, et al., 2015, p. 98). Luxury fashion and products are branded for various reasons. This is based on a framework of brand identity that creates a relationship between the producer and consumer.

 “Brand positioning identifies ways that a [luxury] brand should choose a relevant way to be identified and differentiated in the consumer's mind with respect to its competitors” (Som & Blanckaert, 2013, p. 94). This implies that brand positioning enables a company to stand out from other entities that provide similar products. This creates a sense of uniqueness that ensures that a company's brand can be distinct and easily identifiable (Adjei, et al., 2012). The main elements of branding in luxury fashion include:

- Brand Image

- Brand Loyalty

- Brand Positioning

- Brand Equity

- Brand Awareness (Franzen & Moriarty, 2015; Kapferer & Bastien, 2012)

Brand image is about the identification of something unique and distinct which represents a particular corporate or product identity. This is something that creates a visual impression and brings to the fore, the philosophy of a particular brand. Brand image makes it easy for brand loyalty to be established and create a connection that causes consumers to buy and connect to the product.

Brand positioning is about what a given brand represents and how it seeks to satisfy the needs of consumers. This leads to brand equity which happens when a company converts potential consumers to actual consumers by way of the brand. Where there is no actual conversion, brand image and brand positioning can lead to brand awareness which might have a favourable long-term implication on the consumer.

Brand value propositioning is fundamentally, the market value created by the brand (Chernev, 2015). This is because every brand is meant to communication the value and solution that a product achieves. Thus, in the context of luxury fashion, brand value proposition is based on the kind of feeling and sensitivity that a luxury fashion product will create for consumers.

Brand positioning in luxury fashion is based on Design and Style Versus Tradition and Heritage (Okonkwo, 2013). This is done by presenting a unique design and fashion identity that comes with the products of a specific production house. Also, traditions and a heritage creates some kind of corporate identity that consumers can identify with. This weaves into the unique nature and processes that a firm utilises to provide luxury fashion to different consumers on the market.

Most companies focus on building a strong brand, maintaining quality control and opening a flagship store in high-end parts of major cities (Kent & Brown, 2015). Flagship stores lay the foundation for star architecture strategies for branding (Kapferer & Bastien, 2012). This is because such shops are able to present the different brands for consumers and enable products to be displayed to clients and connect with the brand equity aspirations of a given luxury fashion brand. Flagship shops lead to clustering which causes flagship shops to be opened in certain parts of cities.

2.2 Shopping Behaviour in Buying Luxury Brands

There are numerous views on luxury brands and how consumers think and formulate ideas in the purchase of these expensive products. This can be viewed from the perspective of the realities in purchasing choices and in other mental images that consumers form in their minds in the purchasing process.

Basically, “… the role of luxury is to create social stratification… social stratification has a time dimension” (Kapferer & Bastien, 2012, p. 23). This means that luxury fashion is based on what is in vogue and what is ostentatious. This spans within a certain timeline. And it is based on what people consider to be a good design and a respected product at a particular point in time. Therefore, shopping behaviour is based on what consumers with the potential resources to make purchases consider to be most appropriate and most durable at a given point in time.

Another element that plays a major role in luxury fashion is about the durability of an object of luxury fashion (Kapferer & Bastien, 2012). This is because durability increases the value of the product and the product continues to appreciate in worth over time (Kapferer & Bastien, 2012). Therefore, it shapes the decision to buy a given luxury product as opposed to other forms of fashion which might be less durable.

The discussion on durability also gives impetus to the need to focus on something that differentiates a luxury fashion product from a mass-produced item (Crewe, 2015). This is because mass produced items are often cheaper and are not of the same quality as luxury fashion. Hence, they are to be differentiated from luxury fashion.

A luxury fashion producer demonstrates the genuine understanding of the customer's lifestyle, dreams and ambitions to convince customers that their brands are life enriching (So, et al., 2015). Therefore, luxury fashion purchase choices are influenced by the ability of the product to generate and reflect the kind of perception they have concerning the presentation of some things that are already in the subconscious minds of consumers. This is called the double-coincidence of intent on the path of the producer and the consumer (So, et al., 2015). This is the desire to work and create some kind of connection between the designers and the consumer buying the product.

“Variables like fashion, lifestyle, perceived social/emotional value, perceived utilitarian value and perceived economic value significantly influence the buying behaviours of consumers to pay for luxury fashion brands” (Chatterjee, et al., 2014, p. 214). This includes an embodiment of many qualities that consumers look at in purchasing luxury fashion.

There are issues like fashion and lifestyle. This is because luxury fashion is considered appropriate and acceptable if it is fashionable and in vogue. Also, it must reflect the kind of lifestyle the consumer wants or expects. Furthermore, there are major perceived emotional and social values that must be connected to the products. This way, the consumers are able to meet a social class and social status that goes with the product.

Utilitarian value shows the level of satisfaction that a consumer gets from a particular fashion product. This includes the perceived economic worth and what people think a given luxury fashion product. These are based on notional views of costs and what a particular article of fashion is worth. Society places price on the product and this sends a kind of wave to the consumer and defines the totality of the worth of a given product. This helps to formulate a conception of value and worth that each product must go with.

There are several motivating factors that get consumers to make decisions and choices in buying luxury fashion. This includes:

1. Affectional – need to love and be loved

2. Ego-bolstering – build our self esteem

3. Ego-defensive – protect our weak ego and reputation (Strähle, 2015, p. 246)

Affectional elements in luxury fashion is about finding a way of expressing the level of love a person has for a loved one. Thus, the concept of ostentation plays a role in this process and defines the way and manner in which luxury fashion is used as a basis of self-expression.

Ego is important because luxury fashion boosts self-esteem and self-confidence. This is because the reputation of an individual is enhanced and improved significantly when they have luxury products. On the other hand, where a person has a bad or weak reputation, wearing luxury fashion provides a high level of ego boost and improves the level of reputation a person has at a particular point in time.

In purchasing luxury fashion products, there are some things consumers normal do in order to verify the best and most appropriate product including:

- Product information

- Product reviews

- Price comparisons

- Consulting family and friends (Diab, 2015, p. 357)

A person who seeks to buy luxury fashion products will have to seek product information. This is to be done through the presentation of major details of the product. This is often done by checking trends and processes online and the evaluation of different reviews by other consumers. There is also the comparison of prices to ensure that prices of luxury products, which have extremely different fluctuations across brands and designers. Also, it is evident that people prefer to consult with trusted associates like families and friends to gather information about high end luxury fashion products (Diab, 2015).

There is also the tilt towards counterfeit risk perception based on personal integrity of shop or outlet, reputation and moral judgement (Gardetti & Muthu, 2014, p. 107). This is because there is the need to check a product to ensure that it is not faux. This means that it will have to come from a shop that is authorised and a buyer must understand and appreciate that a product is a true reflection of the designer's original work and it has gone through a standardised production process. This helps to assure and guarantee that the products are from a specific source and is truly what the sellers are presenting it to be.

In recent time though, luxury fashion has been linked to ethical production and corporate social responsibility (Shaw, et al., 2016). This is because, luxury fashion is viewed in a way that promotes the best interest of the wider society. Luxury fashion is expected to be produced in ways that does not infringe on the human rights of people. This is due to the fact that things like human trafficking and slavery causes ostentation to be tainted with a degree of distrust and other reputational issues. Therefore, consumers will want to ensure that the ethical matters are taken seriously and the supply chain is one that does not abuse or misuse various stakeholders and their actions in contribution to the manufacturing of a given product by a particular designer or supplier.

2.3 Luxury Fashion – London (Britain) and Almaty (Kazakhstan)

There are different countries and jurisdictions that has different patterns in consuming luxury fashion products (Gardetti & Muthu, 2014). This is because luxury fashions have unique markets and they have different features that causes the demand and supply of luxury products to occur. Each country has its own elites and rich people who have different actions and pattern of thought that inform the way the buy and consume luxury fashion products.

Kazakhstan discovered oil and national wealth is expected to increase each year by 6% until 2020 so it is expected that demand for luxury fashion will improve (Chodha, 2016). This new trend implies that Kazakhstan is going to increasingly become rich and there might be major tastes that will develop that will cause the demand for luxury fashion will change significantly to meet the changes in lifestyle and procedures.

In Kazakhstan, post-Soviet and traditional clothes that are remade in the local sphere form a market for luxury fashion (Chodha, 2016). This forms the main framework for luxury fashion that has existed for several years. This is because under Soviet and Russian influence, the luxury fashion industry in Kazakhstan has been under a high degree of modification after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The presence of modern luxury fashion is in the form of multi-branded boutiques that sells a wide array of foreign and international brands (Chodha, 2016).

Luxury fashion is for elites in the nearby regions of Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan who come to Almaty to purchase luxury products (Young, 2013). This luxury fashion becomes a symbol of status and separates between the rich and powerful and the poor and commoner.

London luxury fashion is global in outlook – shoppers from around the world and space and art blend to promote high quality fashion (Crewe, 2015). This is marked by a demand trend and pattern that is much higher in scope. There are many flagship shop common in the UK since 1970s (Nobbs, et al., 2012). These shops are common and popular in certain high-end sections of the country and this allows for luxury fashion to exist with a high degree of diversity.

2.4 Gaps in Research

Branding is generic and some writers believe that these generic processes create links in ordinary fashion as well as luxury fashion. Other scholars argue that branding in luxury fashion must express specific tastes and desires before consumers' needs can be meet for high-end products.

Luxury shopping behaviour is influenced by many mental elements and images. This includes ostentation which gives a notional value and worth to normal products which are seen as being of a higher worth. Some authorities on the other hand state that luxury fashion is influenced by certain realities including time, durability and authenticity of products. This is alongside some rather new and emerging trends like corporate social responsibility and ethical sourcing of luxury fashion.

Product information is gathered by shoppers of luxury products from different sources. This includes product review and product comparisons. Others identify that ego and affection play the main role in shaping the demand for luxury fashion products in most situations and contexts. Also, counterfeit detection risks is viewed as important. As well as ethical practices of manufacturers and designers. This plays major roles in decision-making and choices of consumers.

Kazakhstan is viewed as a country emerging from the Cold War and it is opening up to international world-class luxury fashion. However, in London, there is a lot of diversity in luxury fashion and it has many international connotations.

This literature review has provided several perspectives on luxury shopping behaviour. The areas covered in the review includes ostentation and realities like time, durability and authenticity. Product information from different sources, product reviews and product comparison as well as counterfeit detection shape shopping behaviour. The next chapter will apply these key concepts in the formulation of data collection tools and the application of these ideas for the interpretation of findings in the study. 

Chapter 3: Methodology; design and implementation

3.1 Purpose of the Research

This chapter will present how the author finds answers to  our research questions, the author will explain the origin  of secondary data and how the samples will be selected.

Figure 9 is the schematic presentation of the methodology

In the chapter of Research Purpose and Objectives, the purpose of this research has been briefly explained. Generally, there are three common types of purposes for academic research: explore, describe, or explain (Yin, 2003). According to the definition of the exploratory aim that is to explore what is occurring, to seek new insight and to bring out questions about effect relationships (Saunders, 2003), this research can be ranged as an exploratory research as it involves all of the three purposes discussed above to gain a deeper understanding and to answer the research questions.

3.2 Research Approach

Because of the limitation of time and space as well as the occupation of the author is a university student, it is difficult to collect effective information just from primary questionnaire and interview. As it involves the consumers of Kazakhstan and Britain, and consumers who are financially can afford the luxury goods, so the author decides to use the secondary data as the object of analysis and study. However, the way to go through the research with case study is qualitative, and the origins of the secondary data are quantitative

3.3 Research Strategy

There is no absolutely right or wrong strategy, only more suitable strategy in consideration with the objective and approach of research. The author finds that the most suitable strategy is to conduct differently relevant case studies. Since it is not limited in one method, thus the author can have the opportunities to use different methods that depend on the case circumstances and special situations. According to Eriksson and WiedersheimPaul (2001), the advantage to use a qualitative case study approach is that it accepts the fact that there are many different opinions of the study's purpose.

3.4. Data and Sample Selections

. This research will use secondary data in the past literature that is relevant to the author's topic. This data will reflect both the Kazakh and British consumers' decision making behaviour of the luxury brands. Since the consumer behaviour keeps changing with the development of economic environment, so in order to make this research's result to be more effective, the author will only utilize data collected from past ten years documentation, which specifically, the second data is valid from 2010-2016. The process of using case studies to collect data is a very complex way, because that all these sources complement each other. And this way has its own advantages and disadvantages.

The advantages with multiple case studies are that the depth and the broad of the information are not limited to the time and the space resources, and it is efficient and easy to get hold of (Denscombe, 2000). But the disadvantage of having case study analysis is that it's difficult to coherent those different orientation studies to the objectives of this research. The author must be very careful to tell the data valid or not.

3.5. Data Analysis

The research is based on the following strategies:

• Based on the theoretical proposition

• Thinking about rival explanations

• Conducting a case description

Under the guide of the three strategies, the author will be able to treat the evidence fairly, to use tools to make manipulations more effective and efficient and to produce analytic conclusions. Since there is no similar cross-cultural study on luxury brand purchasing between Kazakh and British consumers, the author will analyze Kazakh and British consumers' data separately.

After that, the data of these two countries will be compared for a cross-cultural research. The analysing stage can be summarized as two steps: within-case and cross-case analysis.

These two process stages will involve validity and reliability method. Validity is about to explain the ability to measure what actually plan to be measured. Reliability means that other researchers who use the same approach should be able to come up with the similar results (Erikson & Wiedersheim-Paul, 2001).

The data goes to test the hypotheses based on the literature. These can be state as the following:

Table 1

Evidence in Extant Research in Kazakh Consumer Shopping Behaviour

Authors Main findings

Young, R., People in their 20s and 30s, they have no idea about Soviet times. They are more open to experiment and try new brands. They are less brand-brainwashed; less attached to things and more mobile, compulsive, more global,

Oleg Ni The average check buying clothes in Kazakhstan on average from $ 150 to $ 500 per person, and it is growing every year. This is the main indicator of readiness to take on Kazakhstan market not only products for mass market, but luxury brands

Proposition 1: Positioning for luxury brands will raise brand awareness or reputation. Proposition 2: The effect of the brand differentiation on consumer choice-making is culturally dependent. Proposition 3: Brand positioning will increase overall brand loyal attitude towards luxury brands, but the level of the loyalty is different, especially the British consumers, since they are more brands loyal. 

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