What is photography? Photography is defined as the art or practice of taking and processing photos. Johann Zahn created the first camera in 1685; however, a man named Nicéphore Niépce took the first photograph or better known as the earliest surviving photograph in 1826 or 1827. He took a photo of his estate from an upstairs window, with and exposure time only lasting 8 hours! Lastly, physicist James Clark Maxwell shot the first colored photo in 1861.
Once photography took off, photos were being taken left and right. People would stand for hours due to long exposure time (which is why no one is ever smiling), just to get one photo. Parents would disguise themselves as chairs to get their children to sit for long periods of times, and there was a moment in time where they would photograph dead children because they wouldn't have to worry about the child fussing or moving.
We can see as time evolved that the camera has significantly evolved too.
Before the 1900's only around 80 million photographs were shot until a company by the name of Kodak came about. Kodak became very famous in film cameras; they created the camera Brownie in 1900. This camera was cheap enough for people to purchase without emptying their wallets. It is said to have retailed at $1. There have been many various models of the Brownie, and each one has been more successful than the last. The camera evolved from a box to having a flash, and finally to being an autographic (which I have in my own personal collection). Because of the Brownie being invented, it has been estimated that in 1930 over a billion photographs had been taken.
However, this wouldn't last for long. In 1975 an engineer named Steve Sasson invented the first digital camera. He worked at Kodak, and shared his ideas with coworkers as well as the founders but they didn't believe that it would overrun the already evolving film cameras. Sasson tried to express to them that as technology evolved that the quality of images would evolve but they still weren't having it. After 3 more years of working on the camera, the company finally allowed Sasson to build a prototype but he was not allowed to talk about it publicly to anyone outside of Kodak. Because of the wait, companies like Nikon and Cannon began taking over the marketing with digital cameras. The only comeback Kodak made was in 2007 but it was too late, Kodak 3 years later filed for bankruptcy.
Today, there are many different camera companies with many different cameras.
The most known companies are Nikon, Canon, Sony, Olympus, Panasonic, Samsung, and Pen Tax. The most popular cameras today are the small point and shoot cameras as well as DSLR cameras, which are described as a single-lens reflex camera with a digital imaging sensor. These cameras have amazing shutter speeds, lighting, aperture, and exposure times, as well as good filming capabilities (which we will get into later). A new camera is rising in sales though; it's called a mirror less camera. They're small and compact, yet have amazing capabilities and interchangeable lenses just like DSLR's. Mirror less cameras are different because they don't have a movable mirror in their optical path.
Since the first camera the camera has evolved in many different ways, from subjects to having to stand completely still because of hours of long exposure time to subjects being able to move as much as they want. From having to have so much light just to capture a photo, to now being able to capture a photo in the pitch dark. There have been countless advancements and it feels as if the photography business is just now getting started.
How do you take a good/professional photo?
This can be a very difficult process to explain, for there are so many different photographers who will tell you different things. What I have found most productive is light, focus, composition, and creativity. Photography cannot be photography without light. It is essential in any photo; it's really what makes a photo good. Focus: helps guide the viewer to what you want the photo to be about! Composition: rule of thirds, a good simple rule that explains that most people are attracted to a photo by the placement of objects on an imaginary grid. Creativity: when the photographer is allowed to put in their own touch of things, uses Photoshop, and has a say in what they want the photo to convey. These 4 things are what make a photo good.
How can we make a photo good in the camera without going through the hassle of using Photoshop or Lightroom? Well the answer is ISO, aperture, shutter speed, and white balance. Now I don't expect many people to know these terms, so I will elaborate. ISO stands for, in proper terms the International Standards Organization, but really it means light sensitivity. When shooting photos a low ISO, for example 100, has a low sensitivity to light and will make your photos darker. A high ISO like 400 will have high sensitivity to light and will normally white out photos unless used at appropriate times. Always find the happy medium. Next we have aperture, aperture is how wide the lens is open. It effects the sharpness of a photo, do we want nice bokeh (circled blur), nice blur, everything in focus, it just depends what the photographer wants to do. The aperture f/22 is used to make everything in a photo sharp, this is normally good for landscapes, however there needs to be little light because the shutter has to be open for a longer amount of time. For a nice blur you can use a low aperture. Now time for shutter speed, shutter speed is really important it's what keeps everything together in my opinion. It's what helps keeps things in focus, helps blur, and helps freeze motion and more. Did you know that when you use a really slow shutter speed it takes away all movement in a photo? Because of that you'll have a large amount in focus. Now did you know that if you use a high shutter speed you can freeze frame stuff like running etc.? If you want a little in focus you use a low shutter speed. Lastly, white balance. What balance is the coloring a photo has, it can be any red, yellow, green, or blue tint. The best way to use white balance is not to bother with it, put it on auto, unless you want something specific.
Now, it's obvious that different lenses for cameras also help with different things. There's landscape lenses, portrait lenses, wedding lenses, sports lenses, etc. But I won't go into that, because it will make this paper that much more confusing. Now for basic photographers you just need to know the basics, photography is a lot of learning by yourself or from example as in YouTube videos. It's a lot of trial and error.
Photography in Social Media and Marketing
Did you know that the total amount of photographs present on Facebook is 10,000 times greater than the total number of photographs that can be found in the US Library of Congress? Plus, the US Library of Congress is a documentation of US history since the very beginning.
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