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  • Published on: 14th September 2019
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Chapter 1  The Food,

the Fat,

The Ugly

Chapter One

1.1 Problem Statement

1.1.1 The Dire Trend in Singapore

Anorexia is an eating disorder which kills 1 in 20 people who have it. According to the Singapore General Hospital(SGH) Eating Disorders Programme, this deadly illness is unfortunately on the rise in Singapore (Fig. 1), which saw four times more patients in 2016 compared to 2003. Children as young as nine years old are also affected.

1.1.2 The Effects of Negative Body Image

“Beauty is in the eye of the beholder”, but only one standard of beauty has been propagated widely. Subsequently, over 91% of women are unhappy with their bodies, and up to 90% of teenagers diet regularly. However, improper dieting can cause malnutrition and fatigue, and in serious cases, heart disease and eating disorders.

Fig. 1: Graph illustrating the steady increase in patients with eating disorders admitted into the programme (Self-created)

1.1.3 Death Caused by Extreme Cases of Negative Body Image

The issue of NBI is serious. Pippa McManus (Fig. 2) made headlines when she stepped in front of a train and killed herself at the age of 16. She had considered herself unfit despite weighing barely 25 kg and had been arguing with her family about her “excessive use of the gym”.

Fig. 2: Newspaper Article of Pippa McManus' tragic death

1.2 Root Causes of Negative Body Image(NBI)

1.2.1 Overview of Root Causes

Fig. 3: Overview of the root causes of negative body image (self-created)

The root cause of NBI is the unrealistic beauty expectations(UBE) ingrained into society's mindsets through mainstream media, which creates a dissonance between what women believe to be expected of their own bodies and what they actually look like.

“After repeated exposure to media content, viewers may internalise media portrayals of unrealistic ideals. In this way, the ideal image becomes normative.”

Fig. 4: A quote from XXXX about the negative effects of the media's portrayal of beauty

1.2.1 Mainstream Media as a Cause of NBI

Fig. 5: “The Perfect Body” campaign by Victoria's Secret which received backlash for promoting only the difficult-to-achieve thin-ideal body type as the “perfect body” (Victoria's Secret)

Fig. 6: Barbie dolls, being predominantly fair-skinned and unrealistically skinny, expose children to the narrow ideals of beauty from a young age (Mattel)

1.2.3 Social Media as a Cause of NBI

Social media publicly “challenges” people to meet these expectations (Fig. 7)

Fig. 7: The A4 Waist Challenge. Going viral in China and spreading to other parts of the world, female social media users were “challenged” to subject themselves to unrealistic waist measurements and expectations. (Weibo)  

Retouching of photos before uploading them onto social media further perpetuates unrealistic expectations (Fig. 8).

Fig. 8: “Body Evolution - Model Before & After” showing how Photoshop can alter the appearance of models that consumers see in media [Video] (GlobalDemocracy.com)

1.2.4 Personal Experiences as a Cause of NBI

Bullying and negative labels about appearance: Fat-shaming is prevalent in schools: nearly 85% of adolescents witnessed their overweight classmates fat-shamed in gym class.

1.3 Consequences of Negative Body Image(NBI)

1.3.1 Overview of Consequences of NBI

1.3.2 Psychological and Social Impacts of NBI

Negative body image contributes to Body Dysmorphic Disorder and affects daily activities, possibly resulting in social isolation, depression, and even suicide.

“84% of Singaporean teenage girls want to change how they look… [and] 81% of Singaporean teenage girls are avoiding various activities and withdrawing from society as a result of feeling badly about their looks.”

Fig. X: Statistics quoted from the SingHealth Foundation on Singaporean girls' body image

1.3.2 Physical Impacts of NBI

As mentioned previously, NBI commonly leads to attempts at dieting or the forming of unhealthy eating habits, which, in more severe cases, could lead to eating disorders such as Anorexia and Bulimia.

1.4 Current Measures and Unaddressed Gaps

1.4.1 Overview of Current Measures and Unaddressed Gaps (Fig. X)

Fig. X: Overview of the current measures and unaddressed gaps related to NBI (self-created)

1.4.2 Non-Governmental Organisations

Project Skin Deep by Association of Women for Action and Research (AWARE) in Singapore is aimed at empowering teenagers through an awareness of body image issues by providing a platform to allow teenagers to share their personal stories (Fig. 13).

Fig. 13: Encouraging teenagers to share their personal experiences involving body image (AWARE)

These success stories of combating negative body image encourage readers who may be struggling with similar problems (Fig. 14).

Fig. 14: An example of an experience of combating negative body image by Isabelle Anna (AWARE)

Unaddressed Gaps of Project Skin Deep

Not sustainable as this is on a voluntary basis.

Lack credibility, merely personal anecdotes;

Not targeting the root cause of the problem: unrealistic societal expectations.

1.4.3 Corporations

Dove, a prominent personal care product brand, is famous for its “Dove Campaign for Real Beauty” (Fig. 15). Its viral video, “You're more beautiful than you think” (Fig. 16), aims to spread the message that you are closer to the societal expectations of appearance than you think.

Fig. 15: “WomenGetTold” is a Dove Real Beauty campaign exposing statements and clichés, masked as advice, that dictate how women should look if they want to be accepted.

Unaddressed Gaps of Dove's Beauty Campaign:

Consumer skepticism: Consumers may believe these beauty campaigns to be mere branding strategies, with their primary focus not on raising self-esteem.

Not targeting the root cause of UBE: Instead, these videos exacerbate the situation by portraying beauty expectations as one that should be met

1.5 Desired Outcomes

Considering this, our group aims to:

Raise awareness on the unrealistic societal expectations of female body ideals in society(UBE), and

Promote positive body image in adolescent girls

Jimmy Kimmel,

Gimme a Show~!

Chapter Two

2.1 Introduction to Case Study: Jimmy Kimmel Live! Show

Fig. 17: The Jimmy Kimmel Live! Show (Jimmy Kimmel Live) Jimmy Kimmel Live! (Fig. 17) is an Emmy-winning American talk show which enjoys widespread popularity (Fig. 18), with an average weekly viewership of 2.6 million. Its success in influencing its viewers comes from its attractiveness and its diverse range of viewpoints.

Fig. 18: Success of the Jimmy Kimmel Live! Show as evidenced by its number of subscribers and views on YouTube (YouTube)

2.2 Learning Points

2.2.1 Learning Points 1 and 2: Using Appropriate Perspectives To Evoke Certain Responses, and Unorthodox Delivery of Message

The show engages with different parties in their segments such that people of different backgrounds contribute varying perspectives to the show.

Pedestrians: engaging everyday people conveys authenticity to make the video relatable and attractive.

Celebrities Read Mean Tweets (Fig. X): Celebrities' personal responses, combined with their existing appeal, enhances viewers' understanding of the effects of cyberbullying

Fig. X: Screengrab of a Mean Tweets video featuring President Barack Obama as the celebrity reading out mean comments (YouTube / Jimmy Kimmel Live)

Children (Fig. 5): Children express honest viewpoints, exposing existing social stigma and discriminations and pushing the audience to reflect on their own biases

Fig. 5: Screengrab of an episode in which children talk to Hillary Clinton (YouTube / Jimmy Kimmel Live)

Strategies Employed

Learning Point 1

Learning Point 2

Engaging everyday perspectives to make it relatable

Engaging different perspectives to evoke specific responses: Featuring the viewpoints of different groups of people provoking audiences to reevaluate their own perspectives

Unorthodox delivery: Opinions are delivered in an unorthodox format to generate interest and promote greater acceptance of the intended message

Engaging celebrities that audiences already side with so they are more inclined to accept the messages

Honest viewpoints from children expose underlying social bias

2.2.3 Learning Point 3: Use of Humour to Engage Audiences

The show employs the use of humour through:

Jokes

Youtube challenges

Censorship parodies (Fig. 6), and

Pranks

The lighthearted tone makes the show fun to watch and has contributed to its success.

Fig. 6: Screengrab of a “This Week In Unnecessary Censorship” video where specific words are censored from news broadcasts and speeches to insinuate unintended meaning (YouTube / Jimmy Kimmel Live)

Strategy Employed

Learning Point 3

Use of Humour: Jokes, pranks, parodies

Use of humour engages audiences by drawing and retaining attention

2.2.4 Learning Point 4: Audience Participation and Engagement

The programme engages the viewers by

Drawing content from viewers by issuing YouTube Challenges (Fig. 7), and

Engaging home viewers by using the Wall of America (Fig. 8)

These interactive segments provide viewers the exciting opportunity to appear on the show and empower them to create their own content.

Fig. 2.13: Screengrab of an episode involving the use of the Wall of America, engaging home viewers on the show (YouTube / Jimmy Kimmel Live)

Strategies Employed

Learning Point 4

Viewer Interaction: Content drawn from uploaded YouTube Challenges, home viewers

Interactive aspects engage participants by involving them

2.3 Overview of our Proposed Strategies

Chapter Three

3.1 Overview

3.1.1 Body Image and Self-Esteem

Poor body image will result in a low self-esteem and can cause anxiety, stress, and even lead to depression. Raising one's self-esteem will also improve one's body image. Hence, the solutions described in this chapter will look at how to raise awareness on the problems of poor self-esteem.

3.1.2 Why “Raising Awareness”?

When there is a lack of awareness on an important issue, it is commonly understated and underrepresented. As a result, there is not enough effort to solve it. An increase in awareness unites people in fighting for a cause and brings hope to sufferers. This is the first step in resolving the issue of poor body image.

3.2 Solution #1: Make-up Vending Machine

3.2.1 Overview of Solution:

3.2.3 Selling Makeup

A majority of women around the world relies heavily on makeup, more than 44% of whom “feel unattractive without any makeup on”. However, “people with lower self-esteem are more likely to wear makeup”.

Research shows that there are psychological benefits for women who stop using makeup, as they feel empowered by this breaking mainstream beauty expectation, leading to improved self-esteem. Thus, this solution aims to raise self-esteem by raising awareness on the impact of makeup on a woman's body image, and encouraging women to reduce their reliance on makeup and appreciate their natural beauty. (Fig. X)

Fig. X: Flowchart showing how the Makeup Vending Machine can raise women's self-esteem

3.2.1 Using Vending Machines

Vending machines(VM) are gradually increasing in popularity in Singapore, valued for their convenience and freedom of choice for the consumers. Additionally, displaying products in a vending machine draws more attention compared to when they are hidden within a store. This means that using a vending machine to convey our message would be effective, as it would draw attention.

Fig. X: Picture of a vending machine selling books in Singapore (Little Day Out)

3.2.2 Interactive Digital Interface

According to the Fascination Principle by Jesse Gernigin, relatable materials meet less resistance and are “easier to use, employ and remember”. The Makeup Vending Machine engages its users through its interactive interface, thus it will be the medium through which our message is spread.

Fig. X: Sample of the digital interface utilised on the vending machine (self-created)

3.2.5 Publicity Strategies

Placement of Vending Machine: In busy neighbourhoods/heartland shopping malls (e.g. Junction 8) to draw the attention of passers-by

Design of Vending Machine: The vending machine will be painted pink in color for it to be eye-catching (Fig. X)

Playing of Short Educational Video:

Benefits of using video as the medium: The brain processes visual information 60,000 times faster than text, thus, messages are better understood through videos than writing. In a survey, 80% of respondents felt that “(videos) convey more powerful messages than written communication”. Therefore, screening a video instead of displaying text would be more effective and convincing.

Benefits of storytelling: According to research, a good story engages people and stimulates many parts of the brain, thus allowing for better internalisation of the message. A message framed within a story would be more relatable and better internalised compared to just stating facts.

Bite-sized videos: Bite-sized videos are convenient to watch and easy to digest

Flow of said video (1min):

Fig. X: Flow of the short educational video to be screened on the vending machine (Self-created)

Overall Concept of The Makeup Vending Machine:

Fig. X: Diagram of The Makeup Vending Machine (self-created)

3.2.6 Evaluation of Solution

Our solution is feasible as it parallels the successful “2 Euro T-Shirt” Social Experiment, a video of which garnered an impressive 7.7 million views on Youtube, raising awareness on the unethicality of the fashion industry. The experiment also used vending machines and videos to raise awareness and instigate change in society.

Fig. 34: In the 2 Euro T-Shirt social experiment, shoppers choose to donate instead of buying the t-shirts after learning about unethical practices in its production.

3.2.7 Possible Extension

Extension: One Month Without Makeup Challenge? Evaluate success with One Month Without Plastic Lifestyle

Utilise social media- post as a “day 1 to one month challenge”

Publicize the challenge through the VM- the video (how can i get involved)

Research on forming habits

4.4 #HilleryTailor Quotes on Twitter

4.4.1 Benefits of Humour

The appropriate and effective use of humour engages the audience and assists in the retention of information. According to a senior thesis from Yale University, humour helps to “(organize) ambiguous information in a coherent, meaningful way” and “systematically activates the brain's dopamine reward system”, which improves motivation and improves long-term memory.

Therefore it is shown that the application of humour in our proposed solution can help bring across the importance of having a positive body image more strongly, and hence help increase the long term retention of information, aiding us in sustainably raising awareness of the importance of body image in teenage girls.

4.4.3 Use of Social Media and Twitter

Social media usage has been increasing significantly in the past few years. In 2017, 77% of the Singaporean population used social media, which is 22% more than last year. Additionally, more than 70% of Twitter users are youth between the ages of 15 and 25 (Fig. X), which is the also the age group most affected by negative body image, thus ensuring that our message reaches the most appropriate target audience.

Fig. X: More than 70% of Twitter users are youth between the ages of 15 and 25

4.4.2 Hashtags

Hashtags are shown to be effective in creating a trend on social media by increasing outreach and gaining recognition. They also allow for short and easy-to-understand messages to be conveyed to the masses, making information easily digestible and clearly communicated.

4.4.4 Bite-sized Information

(Need substantiation again on bite-sized/why twitter quotes are eye catching)

Using catchy one-liner jokes on Twitter, we aim to create a trend of positive body image to help social media users retain long term information of positive body image. We propose the creation of a made-up feminist character called Hillery Tailor, who periodically posts empowering quotes on Twitter for her followers. (Fig. X)

Fig X. A sample of a humourous Twitter post of a #HilleryTailor joke

Hey,

Love Thou Body,

Night and Day.

Start this from the Young,

Stay strong and have fun!

Chapter 4

4.1 Overview of Chapter 4

Researchers found the rejection of the concept of the "thin and beautiful" ideal woman to positively influence self-image. As such, Chapter 4 aims to promote positive body image after creating an awareness of UBE (Chapter 3). The target audience is also narrowed to adolescent girls between the ages of 13 and 18 (secondary and tertiary school students) to facilitate more effective and targeted implementation of solutions.

4.2 Solution #1: “Love Your Body” Carnival

4.2.1 Overview of Solution

According to experts, carnivals foster a feeling of community pride among the participants. Therefore, carnivals at school level would create a sense of inclusion in the school community, which is essential to the generation of a greater self-esteem. Hence, we propose a self-esteem-themed carnival called “Love Your Body Day”, in conjunction with the Ministry of Education, Singapore (MOE) and People's Association (PA). Student groups such as classes or Co-Curricular Activity (CCA) groups will set up their own services booths related to this theme of healthy living, both physical and psychological. Holding the festival at the PA Community Centres (CCs) will involve students and schools from the cluster, and also allow the public to get involved.

Fig. X: Examples of the carnival booths run by students of various schools at the CCs (My Little Carnival)

4.2.3 Engaging Students

According to Dr. Dweck, research has shown that connectivity between neurons can change with experience. Experiences of active involvement enhances people's identification with a social cause, inducing a behavioral change. Involving students in the organising of the festival will allow them to feel a greater understanding and ownership of the cause. (Fig. X)

Fig. X: Flowchart illustrating the benefits of having students organize their own booths for the festival

4.2.4 Self-Promoted Publicity and Educational Posters

Furthermore, this campaign has a greater room of freedom for students to design and customise their booths, which provides students with an opportunity to learn by doing, in turn strengthening the learning. For example, students from a class have to research on healthy lifestyles in order to set up a café to promote healthy eating (Fig. X), and learn to advocate for what they have learnt through the designing of the menu and the advertising of the idea.

Fig. X: Menu for a healthy eating café featuring healthy, nutritious food items at an affordable price (self-created)

As part of their publicity for their class booths, they can also put up posters (Fig. X) to provide more information promoting healthy eating. Through this process, they will cultivate healthy habits and maintain a positive body image.

Fig. X: Samples of posters promoting proper dieting and having a positive body image

4.2.4 Fundraising During the Carnival

Research shows that “Philanthropy varies positively with emotional stability” and “Giving...has been found to build confidence”. The act of giving reinforces one's altruistic self-image and enhances self-esteem, further aligning with our desired outcome. Apart from setting up booths, the money raised during the carnival will be donated to AWARE Singapore.

4.2.6 Goal-Setting to Enhance Motivation

Additionally, setting goals in the form of fundraising targets “(boosts) productivity and (increases) motivation”. Hence, a target can be set for the funds raised from this festival, so that students could be better engaged in the festival, and the idea of a social environment of positive body image could be further facilitated.

4.2.5 Feasibility

The Ministry of Education (MOE) could be a potential supporter for this carnival. Historically, the MOE has shown willingness to support such programs tackling matters of significance and relevance to students' wellbeing. It is likely that MOE would be a source of support in the implementation of our proposal, thus making it feasible.

4.2.6 Evaluation

This solution is feasible because...

The solution would encourage students to think positively about their bodies, identify themselves with the cause. The active engagement in this social campaign of the promotion of a changing mindset will help them to deeply internalise these positive attitudes, making this change sustainable.

4.5 Evaluation of Solutions

The proposed solutions are comprehensive, as they involve a variety of messages and delivery techniques. They also have a wide coverage, as their influence extend to people under the target audience's sphere of influence. They also address the unaddressed gaps of the existing measures brought up in Chapter One. Overall, the solutions address the root cause of unrealistic social expectations of beauty in society and lead to the desired outcome of promoting a healthy body image in adolescent girls.

Chapter 5: Overall Evaluation

5.1 Evaluation of Overall Approach

Our solutions provide an effective and holistic two-pronged approach. Chapter 3 targets the broad general public while chapter 4 focuses specifically on adolescents, who are most affected by body-shaming and issues of poor body image. Our solutions are feasible as they are either supported by similar experiments conducted outside, and have garnered positive reviews through our surveys. Through these measures, we hope to  improve girls' and women's body image and create a ripple effect which would make our solution more impactful.

5.1.1 Limitations of Project

For individuals suffering from eating disorders, the building up of a healthy body image takes a lot of time and likely requires professional medical and psychological help, which we as students are unable to provide. While our campaign can create a more accepting and positive environment, it does not specifically target people who require professional counselling or intervention.

(Targeting boys and men?)

5.2 Expansion of Solutions

5.2.1 Involving Parents and Teachers

As adults who are most connected to a student's life, parents and teachers play vital roles in guiding the growth of a child, but are many times working independently of each other. Over 70% of teachers and parents fail to inform the other party when something is affecting or troubling the child. Our campaign can further work to bring teacher and parent efforts together by organizing parent-teacher conferences and promoting parent-teacher conversations to ensure communication and continuity in their efforts to improve a child's body image.

5.2.2 Improving Self-Esteem From Other Angles

Aside from poor body image, academic and social competition among students also lowers one's self-esteem and can cause anxiety or depression. Broadening our focus from improving one's body image to raising self-esteem in general can allow us to tackle this issue in a more holistic manner and improve one's self-esteem from multiple angles.

5.2.3 Expanding the Target Audience to Include Men and Boys

5.3 Conclusion

Combining efforts in school, at home and in the society at large is, in the long-term, the most effective way to create a kinder, more accepting environment for people of all sizes.

Cui's Comments to Chapter 5

Hi okay so I think the  chapter is generally very well. But the limitation part could be change so first one is that just saying that we are unable to provide sufficient help to the people diagnosed with eating disorder. I think it's possible to make it sound more light although inherently this social campaign does not change does not constitute a sufficient replacement to the kind of assistant that mental health and medical institutes can provide for those suffering from the anoxia syndromes. It is also true that because of our campaign focuses on a greater target audience of the general public as well as those whose in schools, in the long run this campaign would have a greater impact over the society. and the rationale behind this is that although we acknowledge the inherent limitation of us in solving the problem for those who is already suffering from depression coma this measures more proactive and more influential so in the long run that would be result of having not such atmosphere of comparing one's own buddy to the existing beauty standards and this kind of environment change could be helpful to reduce those future cases. Not this measures more future-oriented and in the long run it would have a greater impact on our society than just solving the syndrome of the root causes of the problem. So in this way I believe that the limitation could be I can also explained and let to show how our solution is a reasonable and Justified.

So there's another limitation that I'm thinking weather is necessary to talk about and that is the one that is also mentioned in the document on EMB and that is the fact that the problem could be constantly evolving and I'll solution might needs to be constantly adapted to the changing circumstances so in this way you can speak and say that the limitation is that because it's a societal fashion and in the future right now so to ensure sustainability solutions to the problems so these least nicely to the extension part of chapter 5.

Ultimately I think the point about talking about limitations is not to actually talk about limitations but to show that how this proposal is good so Speak help that I think that the first limitation that you mention could also be linked to a form of extension and that is given a change societal environment that is more friendly to those people where is not the ideal body size even those who are currently suffering from eating disorder could a more friendly environment after they leave their medical facilities and this in a way helps the rehabilitation of those who currently suffering from eating disorder kind of physical impact depression and eating disorder could leave a person is going to mate leave  So big they one by so even if those depression and an eating disorder would make them I'm healthy and not look not attractive that would still be in a more friendly environment to people who are not of the standard body size so in a way of this campaign is not the most helpful in changing the psychological syndrome it wouldn't know a compliment the reintegration into society.

Ben s to the point on combining efforts between parents this campaign and and and different aspects of campaign, I'm not very sure whether you need to be very clear in the conclusion paragraph all do you need to just say how we need a holistic approach as a draw as a form of light not say much but if direction to what the project could actually do Stop near light there's another thing that I'm a bit need to do a survey regarding the Solutions in chapter 3 and 4 to show that it is actually going to work as part of the evaluation in chapter 5 .

By the way it seems that all trapped us have such as far as of VARK criteria so this can be talked about as well. Visual elements

Auditory elements

Reading/ Writing elements

Kinesthetic elements

``VARK: ensure that in your various educational material, at various points, various VARK elements are covered

OR

Choose some other educational model and show that your lesson suggestions fulfill it.

*Remember to customise further to suit your target audiences.''

Hey thanks good job.

ZH Solution (⅓ done)

Learning points:

(thought of a day kinda of posters?)

Celebrity   (guest speakers, celebrity endorsement)

Audience participation and empowerment (use of hashtags)

Using appropriate perspectives to evoke responses, Effective delivery of intended message (social experiment)

3.5 Evaluation

Given that the social campaign through education can reach out to students aged 7-25, we can thus raise awareness in depth and breadth. Furthermore, with 95% of people with eating disorders aged aged 12-25, the solution is likely to be effective as it would be targeting the bulk of those affected.

.

3.4 Complementing Posters via Social Experiment

Bibliography

 "10 Advantages of Social Media Marketing for Your Business." Blue Fountain Media. Accessed October 13, 2017. https://www.bluefountainmedia.com/blog/advantages-of-social-media-marketing/.

 "Eating Disorders: Shattering Pervasive Myths [Infographic]." My Southern Health. February 06, 2017. Accessed October 13, 2017. http://www.mysouthernhealth.com/infographic-what-parents-need-to-know-about-eating-disorders/.

 "Impact of Celebrity Endorsement on Consumer Buying Behavior." Guided Selling. July 22, 2017. Accessed October 13, 2017. https://www.guided-selling.org/impact-of-celebrity-endorsement-on-consumer-buying-behavior/.

Zhihong:

There is not a single sentence on how this is feasible

There is not a single sentence on how this is sustainable

There is not a single sentence on how this is from the learning points of the case studies

It is totally unclear what the campaign is all about, because the words are empty, vague, abstract. No concrete descriptions of the campaign.

Kerwin's solution (missing pictures and footnotes)

Benefits of playing video games

According to Mihály Csíkszentmihályi, a Distinguished Professor of Psychology and Management at Claremont Graduate University,  the concept of flow refers to the mental state often reported by gamers during which they are performing an activity that leaves them fully immersed without feeling self-conscious.  Flow experiences have been linked to positive outcomes such as greater self-esteem and a sense of achievement.

https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/media-spotlight/201402/are-there-benefits-in-playing-video-games

Ian Bogost, an American academic and video game designer, suggests that a player learns by going through the motions of the game, also known as “Procedural Rhetoric”, which is an effective tool for changing mindsets

https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjly66C8enWAhVL5iYKHd8WBQgQFggoMAA&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.forbes.com%2Fsites%2Fjordanshapiro%2F2014%2F06%2F26%2Fthe-hidden-moral-messages-in-video-games%2F&usg=AOvVaw03m1GeyBgMJAH385apyS6V

https://mitpress.mit.edu/sites/default/files/titles/content/9780262514880_sch_0001.pdf

Self esteem and sense of achievement

Richard E. Cytowic, a professor of neurology at George Washington University, suggests that the endeavour of an achievement generates a sense of pride and inward esteem. Previous research about

https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-fallible-mind/201201/the-key-self-esteem-accomplishment

Solution

As such, we propose for the creation of a game that would increase the self esteem of adolescents by sending subliminal messages of positive body image. Adolescents would be represented by a character in the game who would be put through numerous tasks and quests, such as but not limited to the examples below

Creating and dressing up your own avatar

Helping NPCs (non-player characters) who are facing body image problems

Getting asked questions on body imaging in the game

Through the completion of these tasks in the game, the adolescents get to benefits in the following two ways,

Explicitly

Straightforward messages of the importance of positive body image with the NPCs in the game

Building of self-esteem through the creation and dressing up of one's own avatar in the game

Implicitly

Adolescents can have greater self esteem by not feeling self-conscious when fully immersed in the game

Completion of in game tasks would also provide the adolescents with a sense of achievement, helping to build self esteem

The subliminal but repetitive nature of messaging in the game helps reinforce the importance of positive body image

Kerwin:

There is not a single sentence on how this is feasible

There is not a single sentence on how this is sustainable

There is not a single sentence on how this is from the learning points of the case studies

There is not a single sentence on how this addresses the UGs.

It is totally unclear what the campaign is all about, because the words are empty, vague, abstract. No concrete descriptions of the campaign.

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