The recent period has witnessed a development in administrative thought as a result of the creation of the so-called revolution of systems through the theory of general systems. This theory has produced a great leap in the field of scientific studies of the Organization which answer many questions related to the behavior of individuals in the administrative field within the organization and the administrative structure that governs the relationship between all these parties as well as the distribution of tasks and responsibility so that everyone knows the role that must be performed.
The organizational structure of any organization is a means or a purposeful tool to help it achieve its objectives efficiently and effectively by assisting in the implementation of plans and decision making, defining the roles of individuals and achieving harmony between different units and activities, avoiding overlap, duplication, bottlenecks and others. The organizational structure has a significant impact on the behavior of individuals and groups in institutions.
The organizational structure represents a picture of the structure of the institution or a diagram that illustrates all the key functions, administrative units, relationships that connect these units to each other, and the lines of authority and responsibility that connect the parts of the institution and the horizontal dimensions of the scope of supervision.
The organization's success in building a successful organizational structure depends on its ability to create an appropriate working environment and its ability to achieve a high degree of adaptability, congruence and compatibility between its organizational structure and objectives, as well as the efficiency of the human element and the efficiency of its material resources.
So the organizational structure is a framework that defines the various internal departments and departments of the institution. Through the organizational structure, the lines of power are determined and flowed between the functions, as well as the various administrative units that work together to achieve the objectives of the institution.
1. Elements of the organizational structure
By extrapolating the definition of the organizational structure, it is clear that certain elements of the organizational structure are needed:
Firstly the existence of the various administrative units of the Organization. Secondly clarity of specialization in the work and the existence of specific tasks. Thirdly scope of supervision, line of authority and responsibility. And finally decision-making sites in terms of centralization and decentralization.
2. Types of organizational structures
In many business organizations there are two types of organizational structures:
Formal organizational structures: organizational structures that reflect the organization's formal organizational structure, in which activities and activities are defined and divided, functional relationships, authority and responsibility.
Informal organizational structures are fictitious organizational charts that arise spontaneously as a result of the natural interaction between the individuals working in the organization. In his study, Alton May proved that working individuals spend part of their time performing social activities that have nothing to do with formal work, It also found that there were principles, standards and rules governing this type of organizational structure.
3. Organizational Structure Models
There are four types of formal organizational structures:
The executive structure: It is derived from the management of modern armies and built on the central authority at the highest level of the organization. In this case there is one superior president who takes the decisions and orders the direct subordinates.
Then the power is organized in a systematic manner from one level to another. The model is clear and simple and the power goes in it in straight lines from top to bottom, and the responsibility is specific and dependent on the system and obeys the orders and instructions issued by the presidents to the subordinates.
Functional structure: Developed by Frederick Taylor when the scientific management was established and that the work must be subject to specialization and division of labor, and that the work can be classified into manual work and mental work, executive work, technical work, consulting work and office work, all of which means that the work must be performed by the specialist And that specialization is the fundamental rule in the performance of business
Advisory structure: This type of organization combines the advantages of executive regulation in terms of integrity of liability, in terms of the standard authority used in business orientation, and the advantages of functional organization in terms of the use of specialization and the use of a class of technical experts who assist the chief executives in matters that have A technical nature that needs to be consulted in terms of performance
. Network Structure: Under this model, there is a small central organization that relies on other organizations to carry out activities such as studies, research, production, distribution, marketing, transport and any other major business on a contractual basis. The essence of this type of organization is a small group of executives, Oversee the work carried out within the organization, and coordinate relations with other organizations that produce, sales, marketing, transport or any other work of the regulatory network
4. Characteristics of good organizational structure
The main objective of the organizational function of the Organization is to facilitate the Department's task in achieving the objectives set. The most important characteristics to be met in any organizational structure are as follows:
Benefit from specialization: The principle of specialization requires the work of each individual to carry out the functions of one job or to be created organizational unit for each job, and that can be operated by this individual and organizational unit for all work time, this principle achieves some advantages, including the speed of completion and the agreement and reduce the cost.
Coordination between the works of the Organization: The coordination between the efforts of departments and departments can eliminate duplication and duplication, and it should be noted that all organizational units work as efficiently as possible simultaneously and continuously.
Attention to important activities of the organization: The activities of the organization vary according to priorities. There are major activities and secondary activities. The good organizational structure gives special attention to the main activities in terms of placing them at an appropriate level of administrative importance.
. Automatic control: The principle of automaticity requires that they do not intend to control one another for the head of one person. For example, a procurement officer in the organization may not receive the goods on arrival at projects; otherwise the organization may be harmed because of lack of effective control or because of manipulation or abuse of power.
. Taking into account environmental conditions: The environmental conditions of the organization affect its organizational structure, and therefore the good organizational structure is concerned with the local conditions and the changes that occur in them. The organization adapts and responds to these changes, such as changes in production, labor force, type of technology used and other environmental elements surrounding the organization.
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