Every restaurant has their own system in managing their business that allows them to do business efficiently. The purpose of the systems that successful procurement performance of a restaurant can be measured by the continuity of supply, the value of stock held, and the quality of relationship with suppliers. The continuity of supply will obtain a high turnover of product which will increase the profit of product sales. This is because the product that is produced has a good quality which satisfies the consumers. The traceability of stock allows the restaurant owner to identify the foods and beverages that have potential in food safety problem. In addition, this action will help in reducing potential public health risk. But restaurateurs need to always remember that the lack of traceability process will leads to delay. They need to ensure that their supply is always sufficient.
Valuation of stocks held and purchases are the main technique for measuring food and beverages. There are a few choice of valuation method that can have significant implications for profit and assets reporting. If the restaurateurs used the wrong method of valuation, it will cause the increasing of cost which the stock may be damaged and need to be replace. FIFO (first-in-first-out), LIFO (last-in-first out), AVERAGE and STANDARD are the four methods that can be used in stock valuation. The use of one of the methods can easier the preparation of a stores reconciliation which can identify any loss from the stores. Other than that, every food business need to have a strong relationship with their suppliers. It is important as restaurateur can gain some benefits such as reduced cost, increase efficiency, minimizes price volatility and consolidate the supply chain.
In operating the foods business it is important for a restaurateur to select the right supplier to obtain a quality supply. Most of the fast food chain including KFC make price negotiation with the manufactures and make delivery arrangement with them in order to get an enough supply. In addition, the food production is controlled to avoid waste. Food production control ensures that the foods are produced forms to a portion and quality standard that has been standardized. It also can ensuring the cost of food production is consistent based on the menu concept which has been set. The operating system in a food business also have a system adoption which is all of the operations have procurement and control systems. The system is required in food preparation and production to take the raw materials and put them through a series of transformations, to convert food into a ready-to-serve form.
The efficiency and effectiveness of a system can be measured both in terms of simple output-input measures and also by service delivery criteria. The measures can be cover by the raw materials efficiency (waste), the ratio of the weight of prepared material compared to the weight of input material, the energy efficiency, the energy input (kWh) per unit of food produced (kg), labour efficiency, the labor input which is staff hours per unit of food (kg), and the service delivery criteria include the delivery of menu items at the time specified by the customer and of a quality and price they demand. As for the KFC, they used the systematic procedure in managing their food preparation and production process.
Food preparation and production system are used to take the raw materials and put them through a series of transformations, to convert food into a ready-to-serve form. This activity includes input, process, and output. As for the input, there are menus shown above the counter. The customers can choose any of the menu that is offered and make an order after choosing their menus. Next, for the process, the customers need to queue while waiting for their turns at the counter. When it comes to their turn the counters worker will take their order and ring up the order. The workers will partially prepare ingredients to complete the order. Then meals were prepared after the payment at the counter. The customers need to wait for a few minutes until their foods are ready to pick. For the output, the meals will be pickup by the customer and then take a seat in the restaurant as the place was a free sitting area. Then, the customers will enjoy the meals that they have purchased.
5.1.1 Catering Policy
The catering policy of KFC specifies its opening hours and the nature of the food that they offered during these hours. Some of KFC outlets may have different operation hours based on their location. Every KFC outlet is allowed to set the best of their specific opening and closing times which is suits with their business. But majority of them operate at either 10.00 am or 10:30 am, or they opened their business for 24-hours. As for example, the operation hours of KFC at Kota Kinabalu in 1Borneo Hypermall is 12-hours of operations, which is starts from 10.00 am to 10.00 pm, while the operation of KFC in Kampung Air is operated for 24-hours. Other than that, there are some different of meals provided by KFC based on its operation hours like breakfast, lunch and dinner
KFC also offered an aâ€™ la carte menu which is a large selection of dishes, independently priced for each dishes, and customers can compose their own meal by choosing it from the menu. The examples of aâ€™ la carte menu is Premium Romano Cheese Sauce, Zinger Burger, Colonel Burger, Cheezy Wedges, Wedges, Whipped Potato, Coleslaw, Colonel Chicken Rice, 2 pieces Chicken, 5 pieces Chicken and more. KFCâ€™s aâ€™ la carte menu will also offers one or more daily special like â€˜KFC Tuesday Treatâ€™ by insert the menu with a description of the specials which is either loose or attached the menu. The staff also can describe about the special day of the menu as way to attract the customers purchasing the meals.
Many restaurants that are particularly in fast-food catering use a static menu that remains largely unchanged for long periods of time. These restaurant are usually part of large chains where a consistent and well-known product is a part of their attraction. KFC is included in this aspect as its product are famous and well-known by their customers. The customers will find their product anywhere and anytime as they know where to locate the KFC. Its menu also can be consumed by various levels of society and age as it is suitable for the society, except for those who have health problems.
Planning a kitchen and arranging the work areas to minimize operating costs and maximize productivity is important to KFC. When mistakes happen, the kitchen can be repaired or redesign but it will cause a big problem and more expensive task. Planning a kitchen requires both design and layout components as well as consideration of flow principles. The flow, the movement of people in the kitchen in an operation should be an important consideration in the planning process as well. The kitchen must function efficiently and productively because good kitchen design and layout will increase kitchen productivity and flow resulting. It also decreased operating costs, increased employee morale and also employee safety.
The kitchen planning process will be complex if there are many constraint available. These constraints include the availability of capital finance, availability of space, availability of staff, skill level of staff and restrictions on building services. If a restaurateur did not have an enough capital to design the kitchen, the kitchen will not be in progress. A kitchen must be design based on its space whether it is big or small enough to arrange the equipment in the kitchen. The staff must be trained and have skills to work in the kitchen. This is because they will be divided to do some task like chicken frying and salad preparation. The design of the kitchen must meet the standard that have been set for safety of the workers.
As the quality of food and service depends among other things, upon good communications and transport between these two areas, the distance and ease of access between kitchen and dining areas should be considered. KFC identify its all work centres and the approximate size of a work centre, based on its staff and equipment needs. KFC also arranges their work centres by providing the natural flow of food from raw material to finished produce in order to minimize the risk of contamination. Other than that, the accident will happen anytime in the kitchen. An adequate and properly devise of traffic line and work aisels are indispensable to ensure the efficient of the flow through the kitchen. There are a few areas in a kitchen to transform the raw materials into food before it is ready-to-serve.
As for ventilation, KFC must meet the three requirement which includes maintenance of comfortable working conditions, prevention of condensation and confining cooking smell to the kitchen. This is because the staff and kitchen efficiency will be affected by heating and ventilation, that may enhance their productivity. KFC also need to ensure that the water supplies are working properly to smooth its operation. All of another factors like drainage, flooring, walls, lighting and ceilings should be considered as it is necessary for many kitchen activities. For example, the walls of KFC kitchen must be easy to clean and have an attractive appearance. The lighting must be adequate in order to promote cleanliness. The specialist paint are available to treat kitchen ceilings to reduce moisture.
6.0 Storage and Inventory Management
Basically the inventory of chicken is 15 days. The chicken is kept in a cold storage before it is marinate. The chicken is stored in an organized form in six separate cold storage rooms whose area is around 45 to 50 square feet, having a height around 7 feet. The marination process is done in a separate room in the same cold storage facility where the chicken is washed and mixed with the herbs and spices it needs. The inventory for spices and herbs are stored based on the forecast sales and the lead time given by the procurement department. After the marinate process done, the chicken is re packed into labeled clear storage room again in an organized form. Other than that, the inventory for sauces are stored around 25 to 30 days depends on its expired date. Every 4 days bread and buns are supplied to KFC branches from the factory. This is because the bread is perishable and not long lasting.
7.0 Quality Control
Quality is the sum of all the attributes that make up a product or service and determine to what extent in measures up to the consumerâ€™s expectations. Dilworth (1989) considers quality in terms of quality of design, quality of conformance and quality of performance and services. Quality is the responsibility of KFC that covers all functions including interior design, menu planning, purchasing, storing, production, services, cleaning and maintenance. For food safety and quality, KFC follow the minimum temperature for its product that recommended y World Health Organization. KFC also make reports on supplierâ€™s quality to monitor and ensure the supplier performance are good enough. The main characteristic of KFC restaurant excellence are CHAMPS where C stands for cleanliness for hospitality, A for Accuracy, M for maintenance, P for product quality and S for speed of service.
The systematic process in any business can help business run smoothly and efficiently. All of the restaurant business have their own operational systems in to manage their restaurant effectively without any waste and minimized their cost. Without the operational systems the business will not achieved their target as the system can help them to make forecast to mange their product include marketing, managing inventory, production controls and suppliers. KFC has a good operational system and its chain increases from year to year. They can managed and standardized their product from worldwide, which is show that they have achieved their missions.
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