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  • Subject area(s): Marketing
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  • Published on: 14th September 2019
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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

Overview

The content of this chapter include the background of the study, history of the company, problem statement, hypothesis, conceptual framework, objective of the study, significant of the study and some issues related to the study.  This research was mainly about discussing on the effectiveness of advertising especially through television, radio, printed ads, outdoor ads and the Internet in gaining a sustainable event management.  We have targeted youth people between the age of 15 to 24 years old living in Klang Valley area.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In the research study, we have included and elaborated more on the effect that advertising has on sustainable event management.  Sustainable event management continues to grow however, it is not a common practice. There were very few forces or mechanisms driving the widespread adoption and expansion of sustainable event management to become common practice.  Therefore, there was a need to identify the best impact and effectiveness that will help event organizers engage and improve sustainable event management especially by the aid of advertising such as television, radio, outdoor ads, printed ads and Internet.

To fully understand the concept, it is important to first define the term sustainable.  The word sustainable is related to sustainability which is “sustainable development meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987, p. 43).  After understanding the meaning of sustainability, it has been correlated with sustainable event management.

Events are defined as “temporary occurrences, either planned or unplanned”.  The term “special” is added to “event” in order to differ between planned and unplanned occurrences.  Events are also defined as “the occurrences designed to communicate particular messages to target audiences” (Kotler, 2002, p. 576).

The principles of management are the activities that “plan, organize, and control the processes of the basic elements of people, materials, machines, methods, money and markets by providing direction, coordination, and contributing leadership to human efforts in order to achieve objectives of the enterprise.”

On the other hand, event management emphasizes planning, quality, personnel and risk management for the event (Hede, Jago, & Deery, 2002).  It comprised the management of any tasks and activities required in order to execute the event regarding its strategy, planning, implementation and control, based on the principles of event marketing and the methods of project management.

Combine all terms together, sustainable event management is understood as the convergence of sustainability with the project planning process of event management (Katzel, 2007).  A sustainable event that is managed through sustainability awareness, design and decision making are fully integrated with its management logistics, operations, and production.  Sustainable event management has been evolving and rapidly growing globally in event industries.  The practices of sustainable event management have involved in all types of events such as sporting events, festivals, religious celebrations, mega-events, conferences, trade shows and so forth (Sustainable Event Alliance, 2011).  

Promotion is used to communicate the products or services that the company offer to customers.  The activities includes are such as advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, public relations, exhibitions and events, direct marketing and so forth.  Promotion used by any organization must be able to gain attention, must be appealing and attractive, provide consistent message and must be able to provide value and benefits to the consumers.  Promotion was not only to communicate with end consumers, it was also to ensured the internal stakeholders are aware of the value and attributes provided on the products or services (The Chartered Institute of Marketing , 2009).

Advertising has been defined as any paid form of non-personal presentation of ideas, goods and services by an indentified sponsor (American Marketing Association).  The success of any organization in today's competitive era depend on the effectiveness of its advertising strategy (Akhter et al., 2011).  Therefore, in order to have a sustainable event management, every company need to used the most effective advertising media to promote their event.

1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT

Topic of the research study is “The Effectiveness of Promotion through Advertising to Gain Sustainable Event Management Based on Youth in Klang Valley”.  It will look at why, when, where, what, who and how the combination between event and advertising is really in use by Event Management company may affect the performance standards of their tasks effectively and efficiently.

Based on the explanation by Abratt and Grobler (1989), no sports event can sell itself with its own momentum but it takes an imaginative mix of all the communication tools available to extend the impact of the event.

By referring to marketing point of view, there will be more aspects to focus on.  However, this study put main five (5) aspects to focus under advertising which include television, radio, outdoor advertisement, printed advertisement and Internet.

During different phases of organizing events, people will keep on put suitable strategy regarding all those aspects.  Because of these problems, organizing an event is not an easy task and they need to make the strategy flexible enough in order to satisfy their target audience focus on youth in Klang Valley.

Basically, there are no specific industry standards for evaluation method of event management and advertising should be conducted.  Mostly will assume that the evaluation of an event will be enough only by counting attendees at the events and ensure all physical activities run smoothly.  Although these are important aspects to evaluate, it does not promise if the event went in a positive or negative result. According to ‘Attendtrend' Survey mare by Frost Miller Group and Jacobs Jenner & Kent (2006), 53% of the shows with growing attendance set they spend more on attendee marketing.  

However, as referred to Getz (2005), he said that “marketing communications act as a key factor for an event's success”. Hence, the purpose of this investigation is to study the relationship between said advertising aspects, in order to find out what should be considered when evaluating the sustainable of an event management.  It is also to develop a general understanding of the concept of advertising with a focus on evaluation with event management. 

1.4 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

1.4.1 General Objective

To determine which advertising media have the most effectiveness in gaining sustainable event management.

1.4.2 Specific Objective

1.4.2.1 To identify the effectiveness of advertising in order to gain sustainable event management.

1.4.2.2 To identify whether television could aid in a sustaible event management.

1.4.2.3 To determine whether radio could help in gaining a sustainable event management.

1.4.2.4 To distinguish whether printed advertising could help to gain a sustainable event management.

1.4.2.5 To find whether outdoor advertising could help in gaining sustainable event management.

1.4.2.6 To identify whether advertising through the Internet could aid in gaining sustainable event management.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.5.1 Which advertising media has been the most effective in order to obtain a sustainable event management?

1.5.2 How long does an event advertisement last in consumer minds?

1.6 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

A conceptual framework is a collection of interrelated concepts, definitions and references to relevant literature and theory which could guide the research.  It guided the research which will determine the things that will be measure and relationships to be searched for (Elements of a conceptual framework).  Besides that, it provided understanding of theories and concepts that are significant to the topic the research. The variables available for the research are linked with the conceptal framework.  The relationship between dependent and independent variables were presented in the conceptual framework model as of Figure 1.

A variable is anything that can take on differing or varying values.  The dependent variable (DV) represents the output or effect, and is tested to see if it is the effect.  It depends on or responds to other variables.  It is the result that researchers would want to achieve. In this research, the dependent variable was the sustainable of event management.  Whereas, the independent variables (IV) were the inputs or causes, and were tested in this research, the IV are advertising which were divided into several elements such as television, radio, printed advertising, outdoor advertising and the Internet.  It will influences the DV.

Figure 1 Conceptual Framework Model for the Research Study

Sources:

Adekoya, O. (2011). “Impact of Advertising on Sales Volume of a Product”, a Case Study of Starcomms Plc, Nigeria

Ahasanul, Sabbir, Farzana, Almas. (n.d). Assessing the Impact of Advertisement towards Malay Consumers: an Empirical Study of Fast Food Restaurants in Malaysia

Normaliza. (2013). "Adjective Identification in Television Advertisements", Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol 103 pp. 86-94

Stephanie, L.S. (2011). Sustainable Event Management of Music Festivals:An Event Organizer Perspective

1.7 HYPOTHESIS

The hypothesis is required for the researcher to predict their result at the end of the study.  It consists of null hypothesis (no significant relationship between both IV and DV) and alternate hypothesis (statement is expressing the relationship between both IV and DV).  As for this research study “The Effectiveness of Promotion through Advertising to Gain Sustainable Event Management Based on Youth in Klang Valley”, the development for IV and DV are shown in the previous conceptual framework.

1.7.1 Television

H0 = There is no significant relationship between television advertising and sustainable event management among youth in Klang Valley.

H1 = There is significant relationship between television advertising and sustainable event management among youth in Klang Valley.

1.7.2 Radio

H0 = There is no significant relationship between radio advertising and sustainable event management among youth in Klang Valley.

H1 = There is significant relationship between radio advertising and sustainable event management among youth in Klang Valley.

1.7.3 Outdoor Advertisement

H0 = There is no significant relationship between outdoor advertisement and sustainable event management among youth in Klang Valley.

H1 = There is significant relationship between outdoor advertisement and sustainable event management among youth in Klang Valley.

1.7.4 Printed Advertisement

H0 = There is no significant relationship between printed advertisement and sustainable event management among youth in Klang Valley.

H1 = There is significant relationship between printed advertisement and sustainable event management among youth in Klang Valley.

1.7.5 Internet

H0 = There is no significant relationship between Internet advertisement and sustainable event management among youth in Klang Valley.

H1 = There is significant relationship between Internet advertisement and sustainable event management among youth in Klang Valley.

1.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.8.1 For the Company

Others researchers might have been done the same study previously, but this study will be a slightly different.  This study will particularly provide finding on the events and focus on youth in Klang Valley.  The company surely will know what kind of advertising they should focus on.

Regarding to that point, this study will help the company to understand what the best they need to do for their advertising expenses in order to attract more audience.  In simple words, if they know the prediction on advertising expenses to sustain the event management, the next event will be better than the previous one and able to grab the profit opportunity.  

Other than that, the company may know any relevant suggestion that their audience wants from such kind of events.  This study also will improve researchers and company knowledge on event management and the advertising aspects that need to be considered.

1.8.2 For Researchers

This study may assist many parties because it is slightly different from other research whereby it will discuss on the effectiveness of advertising in order to gain a sustainable event management by focusing on five vital elements which is television, radio, printed ads, outdoor ads and the Internet.  With the knowledge from this study, perhaps any parties would be able to predict which elements might help them to gain a workable event.  

Besides that, the understanding of the effectiveness of each elements with event management could help event organizations to apply the current marketing strategies into new plans on upcoming events.  It is hoped that this study will provide valuable information and direction for market and event planning to marketers in a variety of fields by understanding the relationship between sustainable event management with promotion.

1.9 SCOPE OF STUDY

This scope of this research study will focus on the advertising aspects which are television, radio, outdoor advertisement, printed advertisement and Internet in related with sustainable event management among youth in Klang Valley.  It will answer the questions such as, “Whether any of these advertising components are able to ensure the sustainable event management among youth in Klang Valley?”  Here, we investigated the relationship between all of these advertising components in regards of event management with focus on youth in Klang Valley.

In term of duration for the research study, we were given almost four (4) months to conduct the research and come out with the findings that may answers the relationship between IV and DV in this study.

Basically, there are a lot of other components that may relate to the sustainable event management.  We need to carry out the study with focus to avoid confusion between other components that are not stated as IV in this study.  It is also quite possible to put the other components into consideration for further research study.  It can be the suggestion for the other researchers to focus on.

1.10 LIMITATIONS

1.10.1 Time Constraint

We might be able to get more information if the period given for the research report presentation can be done in longer period of time.  Besides, we are still student which also need to focus on the internship programs on the same time.

1.10.2 Cost

As we are currently students, we do not have stable income flow every month.  Cost that need to be considered for this research study are include the cost to prepare the hard copy for the questionnaires, simple gifts for respondents and transportation during the research progress.

1.10.3 Respondent Participation

Respondents are selected target audiences from the event venue which some of them might refuse to give good cooperation for the research study.  Besides that, we also got the attendees' e-mail to participated in answering the questionnaires by using google form because some of them reluctant to answered the questionnaires on the spot.  Basically, they might choose to ignore spending their time to give their suggestions or opinions.

1.10.4 Private and Confidential (P&C) Information

This limitation is refer to the company as some information is P&C which we as intern students should not know.  However, the company able to help us to carry out this research study at any events that they can cooperate with.

1.11 DEFINITION OF TERMS

This section provides definitions for terms used in the study that are unusual, have specific meaning and acronyms.  The following definitions are included to add consistency and understanding of these phrases and ideas used throughout the study.

1.11.1 Sustainable Event Management

The convergence of sustainability with the project planning process of event management (Katzel, 2007).  A sustainable event that is managed through sustainability awareness, design and decision making are fully integrated with its management logistics, operations, and production.  

1.11.2 Promotion

It is a communication tools that deliver the message about the company and also the products and services that the company offer to the society.  The activities includes are such as advertising, sales promotion, branding, public relations, sales management, exhibitions and corporate identity (The Chartered Institute of Marketing , 2009).

1.11.3 Advertising

Any paid form of non-personal communication about an organization, good, service, or idea by an identified sponsor.  Advertising could be in a form of television, radio, newspaper, magazine, Internet, and outdoor/transit (Kenneth E. Clow; Donald Baack, 2007).

1.11.4 Television

Television has the biggest impact on audiences and persuade them to start the purchasing processes.  It influence consumers' taste and perception is pervasive.  It also can reach a large audience in a cost-efficient manner. Besides that, its sound and moving images could create a strong impact (Ramalingam et al., 2006).  Hence, it is clearly said that Television Media ensures reach and impact as desired by the advertisers.

1.11.5 Radio

Radio has only audio capabilities to deliver message however it provides constant and flexible coverage to a wide range of audiences with the possibility for you to choose the time, day and station to reach your target audience.  It is low cost and the ability to target specific local audiences said Kenneth E. Clow; Donald Baack (2007).

1.11.6 Printed Advertising

Print media advertising is a form of advertising that uses physically printed media, such as magazines and newspapers, to reach consumers, business customers and prospects. Advertisers also use digital media, such as banner ads, mobile advertising, and advertising in social media, to reach the same target audiences (Kenneth E. Clow; Donald Baack, 2007).

1.11.7 Outdoor Advertising

Outdoor advertising is a very effective medium for reminding customers about a product or service. Signage includes billboards, service stations, signs in farmer's markets, shelf talkers and POPs (point of purchase materials) in supermarkets, etc. Billboards is the most common form of outdoor advertising because it have good reach and frequency and have been shown to increase purchase rates. It is one of the lowest in cost.

1.11.8 The Internet

Internet is the fastest growing advertising media to which most consumers turn for initial or additional information. Like print advertising it offers the possibility of visual messages but, in addition, it has audio and video capabilities and has the unique feature of being interactive. Its main disadvantages are that it requires a certain level of technological skills from consumers and is only available to those who have Internet access, limiting its reach.

1.11.9 Youth

Youth is a period of transition from the dependence of childhood to adulthood's independence.  Youth is often shown as a person between the age where he/she may leave compulsory education, and the age at which he/she finds his/her first employment.  It refer to those persons between the ages of 15 and 24 years old (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2014).

1.12 SUMMARY

Event management includes planning, quality, personnel and risk management for the event (Hede, Jago, & Deery, 2002).  It is the management of tasks and activities required in order to execute the event regarding its strategy, planning, implementation and control, based on the principles of event marketing and the methods of project management.

Whereas, marketing is a business philosophy and an organizational culture, and also act as a strategies in order to achieve the organizations' goals.  It is more than just a set of techniques for generating sales or a means of fulfilling corporate aims and objectives (Blythe & Megicks 2010, 4).  Marketing have its element which is product, promotion, price and place.  The tools can be used to develop both long-term strategies and short-term strategic programmes (Palmer, 2004) and it can be integrated with event management in order to have sustainability.

Promotion is a part of marketing and it will be the centre of focus for this research.  Promotion is used to communicate with its current or potential customers about its products or services.  It is the central of success for a firm because without it potential customers would not know about the existence and benefits of the product or service.

As a conclusion for chapter one, by gathering information and studying about how promotion especially advertising through television, radio, printed ads, outdoor ads, and the Internet have resulted into a sustainable event management.  It have helped us to understand more on its impact and effectiveness.  

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