I would like to express my deepest appreciation to all those who provided me the possibility to complete this report on “Assess the Halal Food Industry”.
Successful completion of this report requires helps from several persons. I have also taken help from different people in the preparation of this report. Therefore, I would like to show my deep gratitude to those who had helped me in this report.
I would like to convey my sincere gratitude to my “Introduction to Halal Food Industry” subject lecturer, Ms. Azlina whose contribution in stimulating suggestions and encouragement, helped me to coordinate my assessment especially in writing this report. Without her kind direction and proper guidance, this report would have been a little success. In every phase of the report, her supervision and guidance shaped this report to be completed perfectly.
I would also like to thank my course mates and parents who tried their best to give their support for me by giving me encouragement to keep up with this task. I have no valuable words to express my thanks, but my heart is full of the favours received from every person.
Table of Contents
1.0 Source 4
1.1 Land Animals 4
1.1.1 Aquatic Animals 4
1.2 Drinks 4
2.0 Variety 5
2.1 The Benefits of Halal Certificate 5
2.2 Slaughtering 5
3.0 Variations 6
4.0 Availability 7
5.0 Specification 8
6.0 Uses 8
Nowadays, food is one of the most popular topics that have always been discussed among the masses. People all over the world are now more conscious about foods, health, and nutrition. The people are also concerned about the ingredient sources which have been used in the production of food products. There are a few of ingredient sources that have been used in the production of food products. These ingredients are either permissible (halal) or prohibited (haram).
In Islam, eating is considered as a matter of worship of God, like ritual prayers. All Muslims are required to follow the rules based on Islamic Shari'ah. So, what is halal and haram in Islam? The word “haram” means forbidden or prohibited by Islamic law. (Wikipedia,2017). The prohibited foods and ingredients are known as haram, meaning for forbidden in Arabic. For example, alcohol, blood by-product, pork by-product and other haram food which are explicitly prohibited in the Qur'an, Sunnah and the consensus of the Muslim jurist (Ijma'). Besides, eating of haram ingredients and using it as an adulterant or additives in food products are also forbidden. While the word “halal” literally means permissible and in translation it is usually used as lawful. The antonym to halal is haram. It is well known in the meat trade that Muslims consume halal meat. In order to make meat halal, an animal or poultry must be slaughtered in a ritual way, called Zibah or Zabihah. It requires animals to be alive and healthy at the time of slaughter, since carrion is forbidden and, jugular vein, carotid artery and windpipe must be severed by a razor-sharp knife by a single swipe. It is to incur as less pain as possible to the animals. The person who is conducting the slaughtering process must recite Tasmiya or Shahada. The reason why these verses need to be recited because according to Qur'an, the person has to thank God for the food that they are about to consume as the God made the food lawful.
In this report, it will discuss about the particular halal food industry, which includes the source, variety, variation, availability, specification and uses of halal food.
Animals can be divided into two categories:
1.1 Land Animals
According to the Islamic law, all land animals are lawful as food, except the animals that are not slaughtered according to Shari'ah law. Besides, pigs and dogs are also prohibited to eat as the Muslims jurists consider dogs to be ritually unclean, while pork is forbidden to eat, because its essence is considered impure, which is based on the verse of the Qu'ran where it is described as “Rijs”. The Muslims are also forbidden to consume creatures that are considered as filthy by the public, such as flies, lice, and other similar animals. Not only that, they are not allowed to consume animals with long pointed teeth or tusks. This is because the teeth or tusks are used to kill prey such as tigers, bears, elephants and many more.
1.1.1 Aquatic Animals
According to Hanafi School, all aquatic animals which live in water and cannot survive outside water are all Haram except for fish. All types of fish are Halal except those are poisonous, intoxicating or hazardous to health. In additional, animals that live both on land and water, such as crocodiles, turtles and frogs are not halal. This is because they are regarded as revolting and unclean animals.
In Islam, all types of water and beverages are halal as drinks except those that are poisonous, intoxicating or hazardous to health. Intoxicants are prohibited in Islam. Khamr is the Arabic word for alcoholic drinks that cause intoxication. The Prophet declared that forbade the trading of not only placed on wine, but the prohibition also includes beer and other alcoholic beverages that will intoxicate to health.
2.1 The Benefits of Halal Certificate
The Halal certificate is a document that guarantees the products and services aimed at the Muslim population meet the requirements of Islamic law, which are suitable for consumption in both Muslim majority countries and in Western countries where there is a significant population group who practice Islam. It is a process which to ensure the features and quality of the products processing according to the rules that established by the Islamic Council that allow the use of the mark of Halal. The Halal certificate is so important because it is to assure the food that\'s served are Halal and healthy and the premise's hygiene and sanitation procedures are in top-notch. With the Halal certificate, it shows the customers that the relating organization produces in high quality level product as the Halal certificate contains the most ultimate level of quality standards. It also widens the range of customers either Muslim customers or non-Muslim who are Halal consumers. This helps the organization to increase revenues and enhance its marketability.
According to Shari'ah law, the halal slaughtering process of animals involves restraining, and severing of trachea (halqum), oesophagus (mari') and both the carotid arteries and jugular veins (wadajain). This process is to hasten the bleeding and death of the animals. The purpose of slaughtering is only for Allah and not for other purpose. The animals that to be slaughtered shall be alive or deemed to be alive at the time of slaughter. Besides, the animals shall be healthy and have been approved by the competent authority. This slaughtering process shall be performed only by a Muslim who is mentally sound, fully understands the fundamental rules and conditions related to the slaughter of animals in Islam and he shall not be in ihram. Before slaughtering, the phrase “Bismillah” in the name of Allah must be invoked immediately. The slaughtering lines, tools and utensils shall be dedicated for halal slaughter only and the knife or blade shall be sharp so that it reduces the pain of animals.
Recently, rapidly expanding of the Muslim population within major markets have created rising demand for Islam friendly and Halal certified products and services. The Halal market is not only exclusive to Muslims, but recently it has gained increasing acceptance among non-Muslim consumers who associate Halal with ethical consumerism. This is because people are looking for high quality, safe and ethical products. This situation has emerged the Halal marketplace as one of the most profitable and influential market arenas in the world food business today. With the increasing demand of Halal products and services, there are many premises take initiatives to capitalize on the growth potential. Therefore, the premises are producing food products from non-Halal becomes halal by changing the ingredients that used. For example, dim sum which has been a quintessential part of Chinese culture. It is prepared as small bite-sized portions of food served in small steamer baskets and it usually served with tea. Traditionally, dim sum is made up by non-halal ingredients, such as pork, which are haram for the Muslim. Therefore, there are some restaurants decided to innovate Halal dim sum by changing the pork to chicken and without changing to taste of dim sum so that the Muslims are also able to enjoy the Chinese cuisine. This makes the dim sum growth popularity in the Halal food industry.
Halal food certification refers to the examination of food processes in its preparation, slaughtering, cleaning, processing, handling, disinfection, storage, transportation, and management practices. With this certificate, it confirms that the ingredients used in a product are Halal and the premise is free from haram. The Halal Authority in Malaysia is the Department of Islamic Development (JAKIM), which is under the Prime Minister's office. It is a Malaysian Government institution which has established Malaysia Halal logo and implemented Halal Certification System. The objective of JAKIM is to review, verify and oversee all food products and Halal personal care, and guaranteed the cleanliness efficiently and effectively. In order to obtain a Halal certificate, there are some steps that are required to follow. The first step is submitting all the document evaluation such as, application forms and supporting documents. After submitting the documents, full payment of the certification fees must be made before the on-site inspection. The inspection of the organization must be in accordance with those declared in the application forms and supporting documents. The technical inspectors who conduct the inspection and analysis will then write a full report on the status of an application. This report will then evaluate by a committee for issuing the Halal certificate. It requires a total time of three months to issue the certificate. After it has been approved, JAKIM will issue the Halal certificate and give permission to use the Halal logo for the products supplied. JAKIM will carry out Halal conformity through constant monitoring either surprise visit or verbal communication with the organizations. If any changes made by the manufacturer without prior approval of JAKIM during the post certification period, the Halal certificate will be suspended or revoked.
Halal food refers to food that allow for Muslims consumption. For the Muslims, it is very important for them to ensure that their meal conforms to the guidelines laid down by Islam. For example, the Malaysia standard for food, MS1500:2004. In Malaysia, the Malaysian standard prescribes practical guidelines for the food industry on the preparation and handling of halal food, which is also included nutrient supplement. It is a basic requirement for food product and food trade or business in Malaysia. This standard should be used together with MS1408 AND MS1514. During the preparation of food product and food, processing, packaging, storage, or transportation, it shall be physically separated from any other food that does not meet the requirements specified earlier or any other things that are decreed as najs by Shari'ah law. The product is prepared, processed or manufactured using equipment and facilities that are free from contamination with najs. All Halal food shall be processed, packed, and distributed under strict hygienic condition in premises licensed in accordance with good manufacturing practices (GMP) as specified in the guidelines for good hygiene practices for small and medium scale food industries towards HACCP and public health legislation currently enforced by the competent authority in Malaysia.
For Muslim consumers, Halal food and drinks means that the products meet the requirements of Shari'ah law. According to law, Halal food and drinks are better for health. The halal method of preparing an animal for food allows maximum drainage of blood from the animal's body. This is because blood in the meat makes it more susceptible to putrefaction and also negatively impacts tastes. The reason why Muslims consume halal meat is because the meat tastes better, is more tender, is healthier and stays fresh longer due to the absence of blood makes it resistant to bacteria. In additional, Halal is better for the animals as it is the most humane method of preparing animals.
As a conclusion, the consumption of Halal foods and services are compulsory for all Muslims. All the Halal foods and services must meet the requirements of Islamic law as the Muslims are particular about the products and food that they consume and use. Therefore, a halal certificate and halal logo is very important as it confirms the ingredients used in a product are Halal and the premise is free from haram. Recently, non-Muslims people also consume halal food as it brings a lot of benefits to people as the food is healthier, more safety and more tender to eat than standard food. Consequently, Halal food industry becomes a multi-billion-dollar business worldwide as the demand for Halal food is increasing and is now widely accepted. Therefore, it is essential that the halal food manufacturer understand the actual requirement for Halal certification in order to capture the growing market.
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