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  • Subject area(s): Marketing
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  • Published on: 14th September 2019
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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Consumers behavior is different in international view, it can be seen from the culture that we know is different in every country. Most of peoples might things that we are use the same clothes, eat the same food and do the same things. But actually not, in every different countries or places we wear the different clothes, eat the different food and do different things depend on the culture in that country. The consumer's behavior that depend on the culture can be seen on their behavior, their emotion and their attitude. These two aspect is very related, from learning the behavior of peoples that has a different culture it can help us to see how cultural diversity and consumer behavior affect marketing. In nowadays there is so many kind of online things that can be use by peoples to get what they want and also there is so many kind of online commercial or e-commerce to sell product to other countries. But again, it is hard to e-commerce to compete because of the cultural diversity and consumer's behavior that different in every single way.

There is no impossible way to connected consumer online in the cultural diversity and consumer behavior. There is a dimension that can be used to connected consumer online. There is a dimension of rating and reviews, this dimension is used to evaluate a product or service review. These dimension that depend on four toolset includes customer ratings and reviews, expert ratings and reviews, sponsored reviews and customer testimonials.

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

A. Cultural Diversity and Consumers Behavior

Cultural diversity is a difference in peoples, but the aspect is not really big because in any culture there is a minority and majority. Most of people see cultural diversity as a thing that will detain the progress of a country, whether in politic, education, military, social and business. Here we focus on the business and will be lead on the e-commerce.

Actually, cultural diversity can lead our country to a better future, it also united peoples all around the world. The diversity that very visible united peoples and make the relation of peoples getting stronger. If we have a good and strong relation in diversity we can also be strong in compete in business, especially in e-commerce. The diversity like the unique language, different way of thinking and the way to live will bring something new in life. Cultural diversity in business is affected consumer behavior, there is some factors that affected consumer behavior. First there will be the explanation about consumer behavior itself.

Consumer behavior in marketing perspective is about how peoples make a decision making of something, what they need, what they want and about act toward services, product and company. By knowing consumer's behavior it can help to improve the marketing strategies and it can help us to more understand by the issue like knowing how consumers think, knowing their feeling and how consumers affecting by the environment like culture, family and peoples around them. The other things such as how markets can improve the campaign or brand and how creative strategies to reach consumer or attract them.

In consumer's behavior we can understand about consumer in act and thinking, so the producer can market their product well and can understand why and how the customer takes decision, so the marketers or producer can arrange the strategy well. Here culture is determining factor desire and behavior of people, especially in decision making behavior and buying behavior.  In consumer behavior there is also about how we can improve the relation with customer. There is theory which in that theory said that improving or enhancing the relation with customer or the brand community can improve the relation and improve contact between customer, so that the relation influence positively (Laroche et al, 2013).

Here is some explanation on how can cultural diversity affected consumer's behavior and how it will be going on. In the business world, it is very important to know about people's behavior and knowing how to make consideration in facing the differences.

B. The Factor of How Cultural Diversity Affect Consumer Behavior

Markets or business is related with consumer behavior, consumer behavior is different in every single way. There is some factors that affected consumer behavior, this factors influence the buying decision of consumers. We might be the same person that life in the same places or country, but we no matter how similar we are, we make different way of think in purchasing behavior. Business world trying to figure it out about the factor that affects consumer behavior. Here business world trying to influence consumer behavior, in the process of influencing the customer the influence may be long lasting and some are not. The hard factor that effected to consumers behavior is cultural diversity.

Culture is different in every places or country, this differences can give benefit because of it differences. To get the benefit from it there is so many things that need to know like peoples believe, way of thinking and habits. The factors of culture that affected to the consumers believe is like the ideology from a community or individual groups. Learning cultural properties is important, especially for analysis of consumer's behavior and has been very important in marketing. Culture makes peoples united to learn words, language, tradition and feelings.

There is an example of cultural diversity that affected to consumers behavior. We know the most famous retailer in the world is Wal-Mart, these retailer has so many branches in some country. Because they know that they are famous and still can build another market in other country, they build one market in other country and Germany is their choices. Wal-Mart built in Germany just as other markets, big and trusted. But there is something weird there. Germany peoples is not like other peoples, they are a kind of peoples that respect their country by example buying their own product, they only buy some product from their own peoples and they only buy a things once a month or just buy something that they really need.

C. Dimension 2: Ratings and Reviews

Here I am trying to connect the dimension and the theory that might be can lead us to the good definition of cultural diversity and consumer behavior. Trying to find out how cultural diversity related with consumer behavior and using theory the explanation will be clearer. There is some dimension that use to find out about cultural diversity and consumer behavior the dimension consist of Customer Ratings and Reviews, Expert Rating and Reviews, Sponsor Review and Customer Testimonial. Before jump into the dimension itself, there will be a little information about the Ratings and Reviews itself. Ratings and Reviews are giving evaluation that doing by third party of reviewing product or services.

  Customer Ratings and Reviews

Here customer will give some assessment to a product by ratings and then will reviews the product. There is an example to help us more understand, the example is yelp.com. Yelp.com provide some access to find restaurant or food, these application get some review from some peoples or restaurant. In the journal there is the explanation about how yelp trying to attract consumers by adding something interesting like picture and video. Their action got review by some restaurant that wants their restaurant in that application looks better. But here it is depend on how yelp can attract the customer.

Depend on the Paivio's theory (2013) that individuals keep memories and some code. The code is deal with verbal and visual language, it is mean or explain how verbal and visual language got process in memory. If we related the theory with yelp.com problem it is like the problem with the picture that will memories by the customer that has been a problem all this time. A picture really has a superiority suggests. The point of this theory is to attract customer yelp.com need to added pictures and videos.

  Expert Ratings and Reviews

Expert ratings and reviews is about a review from the professionals, the review will be integrated into an e-commerce product expert, magazine, review side or news. Same with the first part of dimension, there is an example that gives here, the example is open critic. Open critics are about how the professionals give some review or critics toward games. Something that special from open critics is that we can create to be personalized, we can choose a menu that can help us get untrusted websites filtered out. These website is the good website to get review on.

  Sponsor Review

Here the reviewers will get paid for every reviews, either the professionals or expert on social media platforms. There is an example that provides here, the example is payu2blog.com. Here, in this website they giving some interesting assignment to the blogger who made their own blogger and to that one who more creative and ensure that the blogger will be paid well and on time. This website show their effort by paying the bloggers that created their own website through their website. It is a very smart way in collect money, this is the good example of sponsor review. The bloggers will created their own blog and also bring up the name of payu2blog.com.

  Customer Testimonial

Customer testimonial is about how customer gives a review toward things that they got from e-commerce. There will be an example here to help us more understand about the customer testimonial itself. The example is Grade.us; grade.us is a review or rating platforms that always remind the customers or asking help to give ratings and reviews using “review funnel”. By using grade.us we can make customer happy, because everything in grade.us is easy to find. In the grade.us we can prevent negative reviews, track third-party that trying to ruin the content and also this website reinforce the businesses reviews.

CHAPTER III

FINDING

A. Relation Between Cultural Diversity and Consumer Behavior with Customer Testimonial

Customer behavior is really important things to know in marketing, it is really help in the process of product review. Customer behavior that we as a study about an individual or groups of people, here we learn about how peoples got influence by others in select and use product. Customer behavior affect to buying behavior, it is like their emotion and attitudes. Consumer behavior is a thing that underlies the way consumer makes a buying decision. The common example is like when we want to buy something chipper it is easy to us to think, but when we want to buy something expensive we will think hard whether we buy it or not. It is why the understanding about customer behavior is important.

As what already explain that consumer behavior got affected by the cultural diversity, where cultural diversity itself is different in every single way. Cultural is the concept that consist of many things in this world, this things is from the idea that made by every individuals or groups. Culture is pointing to something like values and ideas that will support the communication in marketing. The influence of culture to consumer behavior is very deeper, if misunderstood the product might fail. Business is grow not only in one place, where it is mean that business also did not grow in one culture, but more than one.

Cultural diversity and customer behavior also related with customer testimonial, because customer testimonial explained the same things. Customer testimonial related with consumer view about marketing, it is about consumer opinion, idea, behavior and attitudes in buying decision. Customer testimonial is actually how consumers researched about product to reaching out the company. Consumer will think when they want to buy something, do some researched to a things that they want to buy. It like when we want to buy a pair have shoes or researched an article that we want to read.

There is the benefit of Customer Testimony, There is an example for these parts, and the example is Shopper Approved. Shopper Approved is a website from U.S that has already trusted by so many peoples in the world because of its excellent or superiority. In this website they give their service by giving a review of some product. In this website the owner help customer or shopper to build up a positive image through a customer service. In this website, they obtain up to 70% reviews and they can give a negative comment before post it online. In this website when a shopper gives a negative comment, they gives businesses opportunity to respond the problem privately.

If we related it with cultural diversity and consumer behavior, from this example we can see how consumer still doing work by look at the shopper behavior. We can see how behavior becomes the important things. This website works internationally and it is mean that one idea, one attitude and behavior can be different, it is become the challenge for the customer. If the customer gives the positive review about the product it will give the big impact to the product. So, it can change people opinion about the product and change the consumer buying behavior. Through Customer Testimonial it can improve the credibility of consumer of a product.

As what we know in the product customer must be considering what they wan to buy, is the product trusted or not, if there was testimony it can make peoples believe to the product and it is one of the factor that make consumers buy or choose a product. Actually there is so many factors that affect Costumer buying behavior, but confident or believe is the main factor. Through customer review, consumers convince their self to buy the product, because it is an instant way to win trust.

CHAPTER IV

RESULT

Business world is become so cruel, it is mean that consumers have to compete with other. In compete with other they have to be good, because when consumer buy a product they hope that product run their function as what expected by the consumers. In terms of consumer behavior, culture also plays a strong correlation with the value of the use of a product and the consumer perception. Culture in its correlation gives a big impact to the consumer behavior, how the value in that culture can change peoples attitude. Here culture is using in businesses as the approximation in markets, it is use to make a breakthrough marketing. Here markets have to look at the public reaction.

Market competition is become stronger, it is strongly compete in online business to encourage business to be more creative and innovative in promoting its product. There is so many kind of strategy that use by the markets to run the business and to convince the consumers. They will use consumer testimony to attract new costumers in the Internet. Testimonials are really strong to help online business convince consumers nearby, the testimonial is also the effective way.

There is one strength that can use to convince the consumers, that is by put testimonial on the web page or online store. The good experience of the customer that satisfied with the product becomes the effective promotion tool to convince the customer. Make sure the product actually maintained its quality. If consumers get satisfaction from the product or services that offer, they will not hesitate to give positive comment on the web page that we make.

The example Shopper Approved can give review or rating to the consumer that has been buy or just interest with the product. See from the big impact from review and rating, consumer can consider to using review and rating, which not only in the product but also almost in all aspect that related with consumers.

CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION

In consumer behavior there includes the process that supported consumers buying activities. Consumer make buying process in systematic ways, it is depend on the type of buying process. Cultural diversity and consumer behavior is related with consumer testimonial, it can be seen from review. Cultural that affected consumer behavior, here cultural influence consumer behaviors and attitude. Peoples from different culture consume differently things because of the differences in values and norms. The consumers from the different culture will give the different reaction toward foreign product or services.

One way to improve consumer believe is by consumer testimony, Consumer testimony here trying to strengthen the process of consumer convince. The growing of online businesses experience a significant increasing, but not on consumer confidence, it can be said that level of confidence in online shopping is still weak, because a lot of cheat happen. There is one way to fix that is by showing customer testimony as statement from consumer who has purchased these products. Testimony may include comment, suggestion or opinions from customer through certain media or directly through blog or website. If there are more consumers that give a positive comment, the level of consumer confident will also increased to a product to be sold.

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