The company was established in 1892 by Arthur Turnue. Kristoffer Wright sponsored the magazine at first but when he died in 1909 Conde Nast took over the magazine and slowly built up its publication. Conde Nast also changed vogue a to bi-weekly magazine and started Vogue abroad in the 1910's. The original intention of Vogue was to produce the most tasteful and elegant magazine that had ever existed. Vogue is universally identified as the fashion world's most influential magazine, and its editor Anna Wintour routinely hailed as the most powerful person in fashion. Wintour's power, however, extends far beyond her influence on readers clothing tastes and purchases. Acting behind the scenes as consultant, kingmaker, power broker, and promoter to the fashion industry, Wintour inserts herself into fashion's creative, business, and marketing practices, thus shaping the contours of the world her magazine purports to merely cover. In doing so, Wintour executes her own interpretations of a number of foundational media theories and suggests ways to expand our understanding of the scope of media effects.
Some of the people who are involved in making vogue are Editor, Copy Editor, Magazine Journalists, Writers, and Proof readers, Publishing Commissioning Editor, Publishing Editor, Art Editor and Web Content Managers etc.
Those ends that an organisation seeks to achieve by its existence and operation are known as organizational goals (Mullins,2010). Goals are prearranged and describe future results toward which present efforts are directed.
Official goals are the general aims of an organisation as expressed in the corporate charter, annual reports, public statements and mission statements. Their purpose is to give the organisation a positive public image, provide legality and validate its activities.
Operative goals reflect the actual intention of an organization. They describe the concrete steps to be taken to achieve the organisation\'s purpose. They often don\'t correspond with official goals (Bhasin, 2012).
Key Organisational Goals
These are the key areas of Vogue magazine in which organisation establishes result oriented goals. First one is Innovation. Tom Peters found that excellent companies are obsessed by innovation (Schein, 2006). Next is Productivity. This is probably the most regularly cited goal of all, to produce greater outcomes with fewer inputs. This provides organisations with a competitive edge. Physical and financial resources are also one of the goals. Renovating and maintaining equipment is important in the long run for an organization (Mullins, 2010). Increasing cash flow is often important for new ventures. Profitability is usually expressed as a percentage and should always be stated. Management training is important because management is a key to organization success. For example, GE has a special course in Crotonville for up and coming young managers and IBM spends 15 days per year training management in better management practices. This is often a neglected aspect in many organizations. Employees are the most important asset in any organisation, although many organisations don\'t act as if they believe this. More and more organisations see this as somewhat important to gain legitimacy on the public\'s eye. These days one is witness to organizations providing matching funds for fundraising efforts and giving their employees a certain number of paid hours time off to volunteer in community activities.
Vogue places fashion in the context of culture and the world we live in – how we dress, live and socialize, what we eat, listen to and watch, who leads and inspires us. Vogue immerses itself in fashion, always leading readers to what will happen next. Thought-provoking, relevant and always influential, Vogue defines the culture of fashion” (Hemphill and Gersen, 2009).The three European national versions of Vogue according to its representations of the global and local, and the issues surrounding key factors such as sex and gender representations, tone and authority, and social identity are discussed. Our method of analysis can be applied to any country and any magazine brand. Our chosen template of three diﬀerent national edition of Vogue28 of April 2005 could easily be applied to any country or fashion magazine (Yvrande-Billon, 2005).Vogue is part of a huge network of magazines and publications owned by Conde ´Nast. It is associated with the luxury-end of fashion and its readers are generally considered to be from the middle- to upper-classes (Helfat, et.al, 2009). The French approximate circulation is 170,000, subscriptions: 21,000. Russian, circulation and subscription is unknown and UK approximate circulation is 187,300, subscriptions: 37,600.
A fashion journal should be about – independently from the country where it is issued – as well as sensitive to national context, for example, journals may include culturally acceptable standards of style, featuring local celebrities and avoiding sensitive or uncomfortable topics (Patton, 2011). We have also studied ‘‘global'' product advertisements, such as those for Chanel No 5, and examined whether these are using the same formula in all magazines, or local signiﬁers instead, such as local (by featuring local language, models, or themes; and whether there are HELEN KOPNINA diﬀerences etc.) Are their diﬀerences in the content of featured ‘‘serious'' stories on political, social, economic, and cultural topics, if presented. Can we speak of Vogue as exhibiting a ‘‘brand name personality'' relative to its country of origin? The individual editions of the magazine serve as examples for exposing cultural diﬀerences and similarities evidenced from the same ‘‘brand name'' magazine across diﬀerent cultural markets. We can thus compare textual and visual signals between cultures with the standard international template of one magazine brand (Harper, 2015).
In the April 2005 issue of the British edition of Vogue, the representation of the ‘‘local'' is even more infused the exotic other, than in the Russian and French editions there is also a sense of cliché ´d Britishness. The return to the fashion of ﬂoral decoration (long associated with aromanticised ideal of countryside England) brings back the ‘‘English Roses'' and ‘‘petal power''. The Vogue Living section features London-based French stylist Florence Nicaise ‘‘telling Chloe Fox about hosting dinner parties with Parisian panache''. An interesting diﬀerence to the 2005 April Russian and French editions of Vogue respectively is the emphasis on women achievers and women with high-powered jobs. From women with dangerous jobs in the article Fear Factor to challenging jobs in the retail fashion sector like directors at exclusive stores like Liberty, women are portrayed as positive, strong and ﬁnancially independent. This correlates positively with Hofsteds ‘‘masculinity index'', which the UK scores high on. In masculine countries both boys and girls learn to be ambitious and competitive. Most advertisements in the British Vogue is foreign with the majority of luxury products being French. The mass market brand – Rimmel London – is an exception with the eﬀervescent London ‘‘It'' Girl Kate Moss as its face. Another British brand – Smeg – uses a variety of coloured fridges, with one decorated entirely by the Union Jack, the epitome of British design. Another local ad is for Black Prince by Belstaﬀ a specialist company specializing in waterproof clothing for motorcyclists. The current campaign features a mud-splattered couple embracing on a motorbike with a Union Jack sticker on the body of the bike. The Union Jack often returns as the symbol of Britain, as opposed to the French or Russian editions of Vogue, where national emblems are rare or do not appear at all. In summary, while the Russian edition of Vogue features predominantly foreign luxury products, and its features and interviews are mostly local, notions of ‘‘local'' are much more stereotypical of ‘‘French'' and ‘‘British'' in the French and British editions respectively, where connections with other ‘‘global'' locations suggest lifestyle rather than nationhood as the diﬀerentiating factor in what constitutes the ‘‘local”.
There is no structure that can be perceived as the “greatest” type of organizational structure. An organizational structure that can be categorised as being appropriate is depended on the goals of the organization, the environment that the organizations is doing business in and the type of work carried out by the organization (Yvrande-Billon, 2005). Most, if not all organizations, two types of structures exist. The first one is the formal structure, the documented one that describes ranks of individuals, authority channels, departments and grouping of elements. The second one is the informal structure, the undocumented one that describes how participants interact with each other in an organization. Whereas the formal structure comments how participants are expected to relate to each other, the informal structure is how they actually do interact with each other.
The Impact of Organizational Culture on Project Performance
There are also a substantial number of publications that suggest an uncommon opposite relationship between performance and culture. The researchers argue that high performance within an organization leads to the birth of strong culture. The argument is that, if an organization is performing well, there will be collective principles, customs and morals within the organization. A particular way of ‘how we do thing around here' will be developed and there will be less disagreement to how ‘things are done'. This culture proves to be more than just a product of high performance but also a critical element that leads and contributes to the organizational success (Schein, 2006).Even though effectiveness is a fundamental subject in the study of organizations, it still remains one of the commonly mentioned yet least understood concepts in organization theory. Failure to understanding organizational objectives, the environment it operates in, the markets, how it does its business, how it's structured and all the elements of an organization leads to faulty assumptions of performance (Harper, 2015).Once an organization has made a decision on how it expects its employees to act in the workplace, what employee attitude it expects, what it wants its employees to achieve, it can then implement its structure and promote the growth of culture morals and customs to achieve these anticipated boldness, manners and objectives. Structure does not only lead to increased organizational capabilities, but also the processes that result in increased performance .Good performing employees working in a structure that is poorly designed tend to adapt to the poor structure. This phenomenon is as a result of employees not having total control of the organisation's procedures, processes, policies and all the organisation's supporting systems (Hemphill and Gersen, 2009). These feelings are often amplified by a performance management system that arbitrarily pushes people for behaving like the system, structure, or processes they have been forced into.
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