In a business world, understanding customer behavior is getting importance to stay alive even in a bad or good economy, social and political situation. For being achieve, companies should analysis to structure (demographic, political ext.) of country or area where they want to be in. If you ask why this researches critical, the answer is so simple; compete with our competitors and to be best in our market.
1.1. Problem Statement
There are too many methods which companies are using. Traditional marketing method is the most preferred one. In fact, it is still discussed of how useful method is to understand the reason of consumer real purchasing behavior. Because traditional marketing method are only giving behavior of consumer, not giving feedback about feelings of customer or the real reason of purchasing behavior. Research shows, more than 90% of the information is processed subconsciously in the human brain. So, by observing human buying behavior in their brain, marketing research and actual buying behaviors' mismatch will disappear.
In that reason, scientist, academicians and marketers had been started to look new method; Neuromarketing. It is the way to see emotional part of buying behavior, in other words it is measuring subconscious of how humans really think and decide, which involves brain activities even consumers aren\'t aware of. Neuromarketing is measuring emotional part of the brain when making decision, not just the rational part.
To understand consumers' emotion, psychology and neurological responses, there are three methods as known in neuromarketing technic; EEG (Electroencephalography, Figure 1), PET (Positron emission tomography, Figure 2) and fMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Figure 3). Those technologies are recording consumers' emotion, psychology and neurological responses.
We can say that those technologies like a brain scanning. Basically, In the interview process, we may verify or reject of the consumer\'s verbal answers to the questions by following the signals in their brain. On this project I will mention more deeply at theory part and also will explain with examples at application part.
There are also known advantages and disadvantages of neuromarketing study. As an advantages we can say that neuromarketing is giving opportunity for companies about positioning on market (determine of target audience) and seeing how make a decision of consumer. As a disadvantages, I found 3 critical issue depend on my research; Cost, ethical and for the health. I will explain by one by at the theoretical part.
1.2. Importance of the Study
Through this study, I have reached some result which shows importance of traditional marketing. But, I also have realized that traditional marketing methods are not enough to see emotional part of purchasing decision. Neuromarketing helps to reach subconscious of consumer. There are some experiments in countries but, I found limited research which made in Turkey. With applications we have a chance to see how important for company's growth or stability in a future with this new methodology.
2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Despite different country, companies and culture, all companies are trying to understand their consumers for desire to survive. According to Agarwal, S., & Dutta, T. (2015) there are a lot of method to understand them. But companies are still far a way to understand customer behaviors.
As the Leonard, D. A., & Rayport, J. (2011) has stated, to understand consumer behavior we are arranging survey, asking them our previously determined questions and trying to understand their purchasing behavior. Maybe we are choosing focus group method and trying to observe consumers' behavior by our observation. Some companies are also trying to understand them on field. They are watching consumers and trying to understand how they are using their product by observation. However, it is still debated how effective traditional market research is.
2.1. Traditional Marketing Research
Agarwal, S., & Dutta, T. (2015) believes that traditional marketing research method are using to understand behavior of the consumer. He described traditional marketing research in four categories; Print (brochure, inserts magazines), broadcast (TV and radio commercials), direct mail (mailing categories, insert, brochure) and telemarketing (communication with phone). With those methods companies are trying to be rememberable.
According to Devlin, H. (2016), by using power of campaigns, companies are trying to increase consumers' awareness like; Nike (Just do it) He said; we can measure performance of our campaign on consumers by following our sales numbers and customer loyalty. But we do not know how accurate our analysis is.
Agarwal, S., & Dutta, T. (2015) refers, by using traditional marketing research, we can achieve the result of how satisfied the consumer is with our products. As she said; they are not measuring subconscious how the behavior influence by emotion which also influence to purchasing behavior. There is also some risk to find reality. Let me explain what kind of risk we might face.
Again for Agarwal, S., & Dutta, T. (2015), in traditional marketing; designers, analyst and respondents are people which may add their value, emotional and their own bias. Sometimes even responders are not sure about their needs. So, how will companies know that their products are preferred or not? This is the most controversial topic of current days, according to the marketer.
Lindstrom (2008) confirms, today's scientist and marketers are working together and trying new methodology which is giving opportunity to understand our customer real need not just the behavior. Neuromarketing is a result of this reason. It allows us to learn customer's unconscious behavior which is not possible to learn by using traditional marketing methods. We are getting closer to the customer one step every day.
2.2. Neuromarketing for Measure Consumer Subconscious
As Lindstrom (2008) research shows that very few of the companies that are being opened are still going on. Although they are producing similar product like other companies in their sector, consumers are showing different buying behavior. Because there are very few companies out of the way by trying to understand the customer behavior.
How many of these new ventures would continue if we understood our customers subconscious and supported our organization to it? For Lindstrom, (2008, p.11-13), confirms, in today's world, companies should understand not only behavior of the customers, also need to see how their brain responding to their product.
Zurawicki, L. (2010, p.12) research shows, more than 90% of the information is processed subconsciously in the human brain. According to for Agarwal, S., & Dutta, T. (2015), by observing human buying behavior in their brain, marketing research and actual buying behaviors' mismatch will disappear. This methodology name is Neuromarketing.
Before talk about how it is use in other countries and Turkey, I want to mention about what is Neuromarketing as a theoretical according to Cosic, D. (2016) research. By German Professor Ale Smidts was first time used this term on 2002. He hadn't named Neuromarketing. He described this study as “cerebral mechanism, understanding behavior of consumers for improvement develop marketing strategies”. So what is this term mean?
According to Sahakian, B. J., & Gottwald, J. (2017) “Neuromarketing techniques are based on scientific principles about how humans really think and decide, which involves brain processes that our conscious minds aren\'t aware of.” One of the important person in neuroscience Antonio Damasio's (2003) as a mentioned; Neuromarketing is measuring emotional part of the brain when making decision, not just the rational part.
2.3. How to Measure of Consumer Behavior with Neuromarketing?
According to Eser, Z., Isin, F. B., & Tolon, M. (2011), for understand consumers' emotion, psychology and neurological responses there are three methods as known in neuromarketing technic; EEG (Electroencephalography, Figure 1), PET (Positron emission tomography, Figure 2) and fMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Figure 3). Those technologies are recording consumers' emotion, psychology and neurological responses.
We can say that those methods like a brain scanning. As the Eser, Z., Isin, F. B., & Tolon, M. (2011), described, in the interview process, neuromarketing is the way to verify or reject of the consumer\'s verbal answers to the questions by following the signals in their brain. On the application part of my project, I will support how important and useful this method for success of companies. In this section, I will just try to explain the technical part of the system a bit more.
2.3.1. fMRI in Neuromarketing
Devlin, H. (2016) believes that, nowadays researchers are choosing fMRI to see buying behavior clearly. It is most commonly used method which is also most expensive one. With this method we have a chance to see the signals in brain (Figure 1) by following blood flow.
Figure 1 fMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
According to Eser, Z., Isin, F. B., & Tolon, M. (2011) when a purchase decision is made, neurotic part of our brain reacts to a stimulus. When a purchase decision is made, the blood flow is collected at one point in the brain. This place of gathering may also indicate our decision-making reason.
Figure 2 - An fMRI scan during working memory tasks.
According to Eser, Z., Isin, F. B., & Tolon, M. (2011) researches; linking brain regions to a variety of responses helps neuromarketing research. Let me explain by using his example of Eser, Z., Isin, F. B., & Tolon, M. (2011), the brain's reward center is named the nucleus accumbens (NAcc).
This section receives input from dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental region. Normally, the atomic nucleus is randomly oriented, but under the effect of the magnetic field, the nuclei are aligned with the direction (Figure 2) of the field. The stronger the area, the greater the degree of integration.
Devlin, H. (2016) research is keep going by explain the process; Pointing to the same direction, tiny magnetic signals from the individual nuclei are collected in a consistent manner and a signal that is large enough to be measured is obtained. In the FMRI, the magnetic signal of the hydrogen (H2O) core detected in the water. Oxygen is given to hemoglobin and neurons in capillary red blood cells. As neuronal activity increases, oxygen demand increases and local response increases blood flow to regions of increased nerve activity.
Devlin, H. (2016) is also described movement of oxygen; Hemoglobin is diamagnetic when oxygenated and becomes paramagnetic when oxygen is removed. This difference in magnetic properties leads to small differences in the blood MR signal due to the degree of oxygenation. Since blood oxygenation changes according to the levels of neural activity, these differences can be used to detect brain activity.
This MR image is known due to the level of blood oxygenation (BOLD). Devlin, H. (2016) research shows that when the demand match with consumer, level of oxygenation in the blood increase. This means depends on neural activation; blood oxygenation is getting increase. After around 6 second as it can be clearly see, blood flow peaks up and then falls back again. This process is named “post-stimulus undershoots.”
126.96.36.199. How Does It Appear When We Make a Decision on fMRI?
You can see in Figure 3 basic fMRI experiment by Devlin, H. (2016). The image shown is the result of the simplest kind of fMRI experiment. While consumer lying about their supply decision, visual stimulus is getting darker every 30 second. By following blood flow, we can identify products they are interested in. This moment is giving idea to marketer to see subjects' choices, decision process by scan images of brain activity. It is also giving opportunity for advertiser to how connect with costumer volume. Without a scan of brain, it is hard to understand the reason of buyer behavior.
Figure 3 - An fMRI scan more closely screenshot
2.3.2. EEG (Electroencephalography) in Neuromarketing
Depend on Cosic, D. (2016) research, Electroencephalography is second method which is usually chosen and it is also cheaper than fMRI method which is giving opportunity for other companies more involve. This method is starting with a place electrode outside of a skull for measure neurons' electrical activity.
As Cosic, D. (2016) described, the person who involve this scientific test should sit upright. The users should feel comfortable during interview for not to feel disturbed emotionally. EEG (Figure 4) is using to measure body reflex. Even brain reaction measurement is important also we need to analysis body reflex (happy, sad or angry) of users'. EEG is recording our muscle activity; laugh, smile, facial factors.
Figure 4 EEG (Electroencephalography)
2.3.3. Positron Emission Tomography
Cosic, D. (2016) is also described PET methodology. This method is not usually preferable due to the health effect. Researchers are starting process by inject radioactive ligand to the bloodstream of human and measure how substances impact to the brain (Figure 5). We can say that because of the radioactive material, this method is not preferable to use due to human health affect.
Figure 5 PET (Positron emission tomography)
2.4. Neuromatketing Implementation Methodology
According to Somani P. (2008); during this process, we need first determine technology (fMRI, EEG, PET ext.) which will be useful for our research. For an achieve study, we need conducted focus group study which included neuroscientists, professionals and academicians. The study first starts with determine questions. By participant scientists (neuroscientists, professionals and academicians) group, questions are getting ready. Then, scientist group are analyzing all questions as a second eye to prevent misunderstanding. Also marketing managers are involving this process. They are giving idea to create the best and suitable questions to ask to subjects. After the whole process is over, the prepared questions are putting in electronic platforms.
Another aspect raised by Somani P. (2008); subject selection is also important. As a marketer, first we need to determine our target group. Without a target group, we will have useless result which we want to mainly focus on. I will mention about positioning on my research again. Basically we need to distinguish our target group according to consumer (age, education, gender, job ext.) and industrial buyer (company size, location, benefit ext.) After selection part is over, we can start our progress.
There is different way to ask questions variables according to Çubuk, (2012:38) Like a traditional marketing research, we have a scale which we can response 1 to 5 (1 = strongly disagree, 5= strongly agree) for range of subjects'. Show the picture and try to get responses is also another way. Or we can show or taste any product and ask their responses. 27
According to Yücel and Çubuk, (2014: 174) analysis part is very important. During the interview, we need to follow up all brain activity to understand which part of brain actually working. It is like a window to see what reason we are getting purchasing decision. We have a chance to see emotional part of our consumers' brain without giving any answers. At the application part I will give more example about this process; what subjects actually are believing, but saying. But basically we need to understand what kind of reasons our consumers are choosing or not our product instead of our competitor.
2.5. What Does Those Methods Explore?
As I mentioned before, marketers should analysis results very carefully. Cosic, D. (2016) has stated; during process of implementation, marketers need to analysis consumers' response and behavior; Which part of questions were affected their muscle, which situations were they laughing or crying, in which situations were their breath changing, which part of process or question were noticeable by them? To reach marketing target memory, emotions, attention, senses and motivations, we should follow the answers of those kind of questions.
So we need to analysis emotion of our consumers to understand their buying behavior. So which ways can we measure? You can find Cosic, D. (2016) researches at the following.
• By distinguish of stimuli, emotions; good or bad, low or high, positive or negative
• Track subjects' answers and use an emotion matrix by rate of respiration and pulse
• Follow the signals of brain activity, insula (center of positive and negative emotions) and orbital frontal cortex (enjoyment with any kind of product) during process
2.5.1. Motivation of The Consumer's
Why is motivation (the reason of desire and needs) very important? With motivation word, I mentioned participant motivation. I would like to explain Martin Scot \'s wanting and liking system depend on Milosavljevic, M (2012) research, as a part of fMRI study. He was asking questions which were about their desire and needs to the subjects. For example, he was asking to rate (1 to 5) their liking range of something.
During process he was also following changes in activation of basal ganglia and at the other hand nucleus accumbens which were giving idea wanting system. Knutson, B (2007) was also having study on fMRI. He was watching brain activity, when the subjects were looking at the product. When the buyer had purchase decision, he was also seeing strong activation of nucleus accumbens and a stronger activation of the insula when the consumers see the prices.
2.5.2. Attention of The Consumer's
Attention is another important process of this methodology. By attention Ramsoy, T.Z. (2014) wanted to mean process of focus and suppresses other all stimuli. He was separating attention as a two process bottom up (accidentally looking to product) and top down (looking to the product particular. Bottom-up attention is important because we have a chance to see why consumer change their purchasing decision in this way. (brightness, contrast).
Ramsoy, T.Z. (2014) was having another research about how advertisement influence consumer buying behavior. He had an experiment with EEG to distinguish top-down and bottom up attention. One of the product's commercial was watched by subjects. With equipped EEG and eye tracking system, they sent to the store. At the end of the research, 91% of the subjects who had watching commercial, bought the product. 78% percent of the subjects group bought the product without watching commercial. This was example of experiment with EEG system which is giving opportunity to see us consumer's behavior.
2.5.3. Senses of The Consumer's
Senses (sound, taste, smell, sight and touch) are very important part of this methodology. According to Cosic, D. (2016), smell is reaching to the brain much faster than others. With a just one-time smell, we can memorize a good memory, like childhood. Let me explain with examples. Forever New, Ipekyol, Ted Baker, those brands have special perfume in stores. With a just one smell, you may remember memory about this mark. Or when you visit the leather store, you are expecting to smell leather. This smell gives you an idea of whether the product is real or not.
2.5.4. Memory of The Consumer's
Finally, the last one, for Cosic, D. (2016) also the one which is the important as the other is memory in the brain. We have a memory which is shaping our decision behavior. With fMRI and EEG methods, researchers are also following memory side of the brain, during purchasing decision of consumers. In this project I will explain this method with Coco-cola and Pepsi experiment.
2.6. Advantages of Neuromarketing
Neuromarketing is a topic which debated for a long time. It is still argued by companies and customers how effective it can be and whether it is ethical. As Cosic, D. (2016) mentioned; understanding customer's memories, emotions, attention, senses and motivations, is very important. Although traditional marketing method is useful to understand consumers' behavior, it is not giving our expectations for how they are making decisions. So Neuromarketing is giving opportunity us for positioning, to find our target consumer.
2.6.1. Advantage of Positioning in Neuromarketing
As Chowdhury (2013) mentioned; positioning is not just important for neuromarketing method, it is also important for all marketing activity. To achievement sales strategies companies need to determine their target consumer. Companies need to determine their packages, logos, their brand name according costumer's perception. The company who are giving importance to understand consumer perception, have an opportunity to compete with their competitor.
So who is my customer? Which target should I focus? Chowdhury (2013) confirms that; to answer this question we need to distinguish consumer as a segment. By classify consumers (demographic characteristics (gender, age, family life cycle), behavioral variables (benefit), geographic, psychographic variables (lifestyle, attitudes, values)) and industrial buyers (socioeconomic characteristics (company size, location) and behavioral variables (product benefit)), we have a chance to see who is my consumer. Neuromarketing is giving opportunity to see gender differences and cultural differences more clearly.
2.6.2. Advantage of Make a Decision in Neuromarketing
According to Yücel and Çubuk, (2014: 174) neuromarketing is also scientific way to understand of customers' decision process. Marketers have a chance to see how they are reacting during purchasing moment and due to that which part of is the brain response. Because our facial expressions are not always telling true. There are human factors in traditional marketing. But in neuromarketing, consumer's or researcher's own bias are not influencing to analysis. During survey or focus group subjects can fake on answers.
Through Yücel and Çubuk's (2014: 174) research, there is almost no chance to give fake answers during fMRI process. Marketers and scientists have full control on answers. By following brain signal, we can be closer to reality even more. I will also stand on the debate over how ethical it is. There are some comments and prejudice on neuromarketing. At the application part, I will explain all the process with example.
2.7. Disadvantages of Neuromarketing
Although it seems the best way to understand consumer buying behavior nowadays, depend on to Eser, Z., Isin, F. B., & Tolon, M. (2011) research, there are also disadvantages of this method. I will try mention stand on what is expecting to us in a future depending on my research at the following subject. But before that, I would like stand on disadvantages of this methodology as which to Eser, Z., Isin, F. B., & Tolon, M. (2011) stated. There are three disadvantages which I find depend on my research; Cost issue, ethical and for the health. Let me explain by one by.
2.7.1. Cost Issue in Neuromarketing
According to Moore, K. (2005); when we analysis the leader companies in the world, we may realize that, they have been giving importance to the marketing activity. Traditional marketing methods are usually using more often. Companies are undertaking all marketing cost to understand consumer perception and to keep the pulse of the market. It is also using for determine target customer.
Those analyses are important for protect the leader role and sustainability. As Moore, K. (2005) mentioned, this analysis has a heavy burden on companies. They are paying too much cost for this process. Neuromarketing method is having more cost than traditional marketing method. Because of the technology in this scientific method is also new and expensive.
According to Moore, K. (2005); compare with traditional marketing research, neuromarketing is hard to practice for every company. Companies need to reach technology whenever they need. But there are not too many alternatives work with. Also this technology expensive for new organization or small-scale companies. Especially fMRI brain scanner 17 cost is almost 2.5 million $US. If you want just rent, it is cost about 1000 $US per hour. Eser, Z., Isin, F. B., & Tolon, M. (2011), like Moore, K. (2005)., emphasizes EEG is having less cost than fMRI 25. But it is not specific as much as fMRI.
As Moore, K. (2005) confirm, determining who will participate in the analysis is also a very important step. Participant should feel relax and comfortable during process. And they should be also voluntary. We need their permission for to get in their brain. People estimation also has a cost like traditional marketing research. But this methodology more expensive than the average of conducting focus group.
2.7.2. Ethical Issue in Neuromarketing
Ethical part of this process is the most controversial part of this methodology. When we
say ethical problem, as Cosic, D. (2016) mentioned we are not talking to the use of scientific technology for advance commercial interest. Almost all the marketing research activity are based on commercial interest actually.
However, according to Cosic, D. (2016) with the use of technology exploring the inner
workings of the human brain, subjects may feel that they are being x-rayed. As Cosic, D. (2016) described; researchers who works in process, are likened to voyeurs. Because sometimes their questions are disturbing to the subjects for extend their analysis. They have to respect their client's special life with their permission. No further questions should be asked except for the product.
Neuromarketing according to Martin Lindstrom (2016, p.27) need to use just for the understand consumers real desire. Sometimes companies are asking questions which addressed to their product. It is like a management of subconscious without consumers realize. They are unconsciously suggesting the purchase unwanted item. Ruskin, (2004) also claim that, neuromarketing mustn't use by companies which are producing tobacco, alcohol, fast food and junk food. It is thought to be a serious problem for children and adults.
2.7.3. Health Issue in Neuromarketing
As a similar of all the technological product, Neuromarketing's scientific products have radiation magnetic effect to human health. As Cosic, D. (2016) mentioned; because of the system which is directly connecting to the human brain, subjects are feeling sometimes uncomfortable during process. They have rightful anxiety on this scientific method. Also scientists are having foresight; if the subjects are not feeling comfortable during process, it is impossible to get correct signal from their brain.
2.8. Future of Neuromarketing
For Cosic, D. (2016) Neuromarketing technology is improving by years. Although some disadvantages, it is starting to prefer by companies. It is easy way to understand consumer's behavior. It is also giving opportunity to redesign our product according to their demand. The large-scale companies (Hyundai, Coco-cola, Pepsi, Microsoft) are using this technique to understand consumer and to launch new product to them. They are planning their advertising work according to the results. In a future, it is inevitable for companies to better understand the customer and produce products for being closer to them.
Now, we have opinion about; what is neuromarketing, what type of tools (fMRI, EEG) can we use during this method, why do we need neuromarketing process although there are various methods in traditional marketing, what does those methods explore, what are the advantages and disadvantages and what is waiting us in a future?
There are also some good examples which is prove how can we close to consumer by reaching their subconscious. Until this part I have just mentioned theoretical part of neuromarketing. Let me explain how helpful to understand consumer's purchasing behavior by examples.
3. APPLICATONS / BEST EXAMPLES OF NEUROMARKETİNG TECHNOLOGY
As I mentioned before, neuromarketing practices are increasing for years. It is naturally inevitable that, this technology attracts interest from large capacity firms.
I will continue to explain how the theory, which I mentioned in the previous section, has been adapted by the firms with examples in this section.
3.1. Coca Cola & Pepsi Duello by Using Neuromarketing
3.1.1. Aim of the Experiment
Coco Cola and Pepsi experiment (Figure 6) is one of the best example of Neuromarketing methodology which is conducted by the Dr. Read Montague. The reason for this experiment is competition, which lasts for many years. It was being discussed by management of Pepsi Cola, why Coco Cola was still the leader company in their sector, although their taste more favorable by customers at the blind taste as a result of market research. As I mentioned in theory part, traditional marketing methods are not giving 100% reality. In this reason, we need more scientific methods to understand our consumer. Dr. Read Montague who realized importance of neuromarketing had chosen Pepsi and Coco Cola case and the doctor signed an experiment that surprised everyone with result.
Figure 6 (Coca Cola & Pepsi Duello)
3.1.2. Process of the Experiment
The experiment was starting by testing both product by subjects. fMRI technology was used over 67 participants during experiment on 2003. The subjects had connected to fMRI device and the beverages were tested by one by. But they had no idea which brand they were drinking before tested. Because during the test, drinks' packaging has covered by white cardboard for not to realize by subject, it was just blind testing. The reason of kept hidden products packaging, to protect correctness of experiment against of prejudices subjects.
Experiment starts with Montague's question by asking to the 67 participant opinion by; which beverage is the best for them, Coco cola or Pepsi? He asked this question without use any technology devices. That was the first step of process. He was aimed to understand their first impression. As a second part, he asked same question to the subjects by using fMRI technology. Montague used blind testing. 67 participants tried both beverage by one by and shared which of one is tasty for them.
During this process scientist and marketers were watching what the subjects' said, by following their brain and blood activity. By this methodology they tried to understand what the subjects said, but what actually thought. This moment was giving opportunity to the marketer for see subjects' choices and decision process by scan images of brain activity. In a third part Montague used same technology which he had used in second part. But this time it wasn't blind taste. Subjects drink their two type cola by knowing what their drinks are.
3.1.3. Analysis of Coco Cola & Pepsi Experiment
The results were quite interesting when the experiment was completed. As I said before
Montague distinguished to the 3 steps of analysis. In first part, when he asked which beverage was the best for them, 75% of participant chose Coco cola. In second part, at the blind taste, when he asked which one was better, most of the participant again gave same answer, but during the test when they drunk both beverages they actually liked Pepsi cola. There were quite differences between what actually they thought but said. In a third part, things were changed. When they realized what actually drink, 75% of participant chose Coco cola. In this time participant opinion and choses were matching
With the fMRI technology we had a chance to see reality. Analysis of the data at the end of the process is one of the most important parts. Which factors were changing their opinion for purchasing decision, why the subjects were choosing Coco Cola even they liked Pepsi\'s taste more.
The frontal lobe is regarded as the administrative center that manages our care and attention, controls short-term memory, and thinks and plans. With fMRI technology, we have a chance to see our purchasing behavior influence on frontal cortex. On this experiment when the participant saw Coco Cola they were preferred to drink it. But when they were not realizing what they drink, they were preferring Pepsi. This is our subconscious influence. Pepsi has sugary taste. Because of this sugar range, Pepsi seems more selectable in blind taste.
There was also different influencer which is important than taste. Appearance was the important factor to affect consumer. For example, with the white and red colors Coco Cola was influencing our frontal cortex, therefore also our behavior. Consumers were also making purchase decision by using their emotional. Coco Cola has this power. It is known mark since everyone's childhood. The product can bring back memories of childhood and family life.
At the beginning of the experiment, Pepsi company's managers felt very happy to paste of blind taste. But I think they forgot one of the very important point. It was too normal to chosen by consumer with their sugary taste by just drink two or three sips. Taste was not first or more important factor on our consumers' eyes. There were too many factors which were influencing purchasing activity. To being different than other companies with their product was important factor to being leader. As I mentioned in theory part; taste, voice, color and appearance are affecting our subconscious. Our memories, past experience, and our dreams are also playing role, in our life. How can we think of all these things not affecting our purchasing decision? Firms must consider all factors in order to understand the customers.
Through the result and analysis, Pepsi realized Coco Cola has effect to the all factors on
consumer. Pepsi managers and marketing team have created a campaign that they think will be effective on their customers; Don't Look to the Name, Just Taste it. But they hadn't research individually how can be more affective by using neuromarketing technology. They only had been used Montagues' analysis.
3.2. Coffee Tasting Experiment by using EEG Method in Turkey
3.2.1. Aim of The Experiment
In the first example I tried to show how fMRI technology devices used. I also would like to give an example from experiments with EEG technology. By this concept, I will talk about coffee tasting experiment which made in Turkey.
3.2.2. Process of the Experiment
This research was conducted by Fırat University using EEG method to clarify consumer's coffee purchasing. 30 students with the age of between 18-26 age group was taken as reference. As a similar Coco Cola & Pepsi example this research had 2 part. First part on the research, the subject wasn't informed about the reason and product. Without connection with EEG, 2 question they had been asked; what appearance in their mind when they thought the coffee word and first five words that come to their mind when they heard the coffee of coffee word.
As a second part, subjects were connected with EEG device and started to taste 5 cup of coffee; VIP, Shazillii Nescafe, Jacobs and Café Crown. As a similar Coco Cola & Pepsi example, they tasted without recognize which coffee it is. Because the box of coffee was covered with white cardboard and only with numbers (1 to 5) they can separate the products. The coffee was tasted by the subjects respectively. During this experiment, all activities were measured and video records were taken to follow the mimics. The reason to make all the process by the two part is to match subjects verbal and EEG outputs.
3.2.3. Analysis Part of Coffee Experiment
As I mentioned before, we can reach reality faster by analyzing the two parts separately and we need to compare both part answers. On the other hand, without detailed analysis, our research would be useless. Both part of analysis evaluated by one by. At the first phase, 30 students answer forms were collected. Analysis process was started according to answers. Each question and answers had been analyzed on statistical program. By collection of similar answers, frequencies respond had been determined.
Through EEG analysis, at the second part, the evaluation was separated by age. Because according to age; blood activities, brain attentions, subject's emotions were changing. During the experiment EEG frequencies were changing 0,5 to 70 Hz and depend on rises at the EEG, decline had seen of the amplitude (5-400 µV). By this way EEG was measured neurons activity. It was the way to measure not just the physiologic but also psychological conditions of brain and also similar with brain scan. Expert of EEG was too important to getting correct record.
3.2.4. Findings of Coffee Experiment
30 students shared their answered; Did they like or dislike drink coffee. Without test any product, they only shared their opinion. 7 of them said to dislike drink coffee when 23 participants said liked. When the experts asked to 23 coffee drinker which coffee is favorite of them; 13 subject preferred Nescafe. The experts also asked to 30 participants' first five words which reminds coffee. 114 of 150 words were positive (happiness, love, fun) while 36 of has negative meaning.
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