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Land use and land use changes can greatly contribute to long term global change. Vegetation and soil commonly serve as a carbon sink, accumulating carbon dioxide that is disrupted, the accumulated carbon dioxide likewise methane and nitrous oxide is emitted, and absorbed by the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous are greenhouse gases, that causes global warming (The Environmental Literacy Council, 2015).

Land use change has ample effects on climate change. The leading ones are detectable through the greenhouse gas content of the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (NO2) and methane (CH4) disturbs the atmosphere as a result of human actions, especially over the last 100-200 years (Arneth and Agreiter 2015). The greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere can be determined directly from a comfirmation of observation stations around the world. Like, in air bubbles trapped in glaciers and these air bubbles caan show as a fine record of green house gas levels hundreds and thousands of years ago (Arneth and Agreiter 2015). The clearing of land, can lead can lead to soil degradation, erosion and the leaching of nutrients; which perhaps reduce its capability to save carbon sink. This reduction in the capability to save carbon can lead to further carbon dioxide remaining in the atmosphere by that increasing the entire amount of greenhouse gases (The Environmental Literacy Council, 2015).

Furthermore, changes in land use, particularly those related with deforestation annd increase of agricultural yield for food, contribute about 15% of global emissions of GHG. Presently, less than 1% of global agricultural land is used for panting biofuel crops and land used related with bioenergy produce a very small percentage of global changes in land use (Berndes et al 2010).

Types of land use changes

• Direct land use change: The direct land use change is human caused. The impacts of land use on the climate is mainly depends on the kind of land cover existing in a region. The examples comprises of deforestation, reforestation, afforestation, agriculture aand urbanization (The Environmental Literacy Council, 2015). In areas with excessive snowfall, reforestation or afforestation can make the land to reflect fewer sunlight, following intake of more heat on the land. This could as well, cause a net warming effect in spite of the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis. On the otherhand, urbanization could impact the climate greatly. The neighbourhood climates is likely to be warmer as a result of increased quantity of heat generated within a highly populated region. Average temperatures of city centres could escalate moreas as a result of high density of construction substances like sidewalk and roofing materials since they are likely to capture rather than reflect sunlight (The Environmental Literacy Council, 2015).

• Indirect land use change: The significant manner that changes in climate could disturb land use is via higher mean annual temperatures, changed precipitation patterns, and more continual and severe weather actions. Changes in temperature and rainfall could escalate the danger of insect infestation epidemic, harmful to forests and other plants (The Environmental Literacy Council, 2015).

Objectives of EU adaptation policy for land use change

According to European commission climate actions; “on 20 July 2016 European commission presented a legislative proposal to integrate greenhouse gas emissions and removals from land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) into the 2030 climate and energy framework. The proposal follows the agreement with EU leaders in October 2014 that all sectors should contribute to the EU´s 2030 emission reduction target, including the land use sector. It is also in line with the Paris Agreement, which points out to the critical role of the land use sector in reaching our long-term climate mitigation objectives”.

 Ensuring fair and cost-effective achievement of targets: The recommendation control sustains current resilence under the present Effort Sharing Decision. This recommendation supports the resilence for Member countries. Such as if a member country has net emissions from land use and forestry, they could use appropriation from the effort sharing regulation to settle its no debit commitment. It means that  each member country is expected to repay for the assumed CO2 emissions by a commensurate removal of CO2 from the atmosphere via activity in the same sector. Hence if a member fell down their trees (deforestation), they must repay the following emissions by planting new trees (afforestation) or fixing the present forests and croplands (European Commission Climate Action, 2013). Another effort sharing regulation is banking, borrowing, buying and selling. This allows member countries the resilence to handle with yearly variations in emissions over the 2021-2030 duration as a result of weather or eonomic circumstances. Member countries can purchase and trade allocations from and to other member countries. This is an effective medium to ensure cost-effectiveness as it gives member countries to handle emissions reductions where they are unexpensive and the revenue can be used to  provide infrastructure (European Commission Climate Action, 2013). Moreover, there is also new flexibliliy to access credits from land use sector over the total duration 2021-2030 from various land use type to abide by their internal targets. All member countries are qualified to make use of this resilence, while connection to this credit is higher for member countries with a greater contribution of emissions from agriculture. In accordance with EU officers direction, this admits that there is a minimal mitigation possible for emissions from the agriculture sector (European Commission Climate Action, 2013).

 Biomass: The emissions of biomass used in energy would be listed and calculated for any member countries 2030 climate commitments. This settles the extensive assessment that emissions from biomass in energy production are not presently reported for under EU law. Being that forest management is the control base of supply of biomass for energy and wood production (European Commission Climate Action, 2013). The agency motion clarify and promote and creates a new EU control measure for overseeing how member countries determine emissions and discharge from activities in their forests and agricultural use (European Commission Climate Action, 2013).

Case study: The impacts of climate change in Africa

 Agriculture/food security: The agricultural sector is seriously significant to Africa, both in terms of economic and social development. More than 60 percent of Africans bank on agriculture for their livings (Clements, 2009). The yield covers from small-scale subsistence cultivation to large scale export industries. Agriculture supplies around 50 per cent of Africa´s entire export value and approximately 21 per cent of its total gross domestic product. Agricultural exercise is really tense to climate change; generally because it rely on biodiversity and ecosystems. Ample freshwater supplies, fertile soil, the proper parity of predators and pollinators air temperature and average weather conditions all supplies to wasting agricultural yield (Clements, 2009).

However, farmland resources supplies about 50 per cent of family food stipulations and around 40 percent of household earnings, with 70 per cent of the continent´s populace depend on agriculture for their livelihood. (Elasha et al 2006). The  food security menace caused by climate cahange is enormous in Africa, where agricultural production and per capita food yield have been regularly deteriorate. Also where population growth will double the need for food, water and forage in the next 30 years (Elasha et al 2006). Hence climate change will disturb the yield of crops. Climate being a leading cause for agricultural yield, such that any environmental hange disturbs plant and animal production (Gemelda and Sima 2015). According to Gemelda and Sima (2015: 258) “it is estimated that African farmers are losing about  US$28 per hectar per year for each 1°C rise in global temperature. Also “The African Partnership Forum (APF, 2007), described that, climate change can no longer be considered as an environmental problem only, as it also become a major threat to sustainable development and poverty reduction”.

 Flooding: This results to instant deaths and injuries of people, contagious ailment such as malaria and susceptibility of people to harmful substances (Gemelda and Sima 2015).  Gemelda and Sima (2015: 258) states “According the flood portal of European Commissions Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability 2010, more than 1 million people were affected in over 20 African countries and approximately about 500 lives were lost and over 1.2 million people were displaced from their homes”. Floods are intermittent in some nations of Africa; even regions situated in dry areas have been disturbed by floods. The years 2000 and 2001 experienced a massive flooding incident in Mozambique, especially along the Limpopo, Save and Zambezi valleys. In 2000 floods caused half million people to displaced and 700 losing their lives (Elasha et al 2006). The floods had a terrible impact on livelihoods, wrecking agricultural crops disturbing electricity supplies and demolishing main infrastructure like bridges, buildings and roads (Elasha et al 2006).

 Impact on human health: The health condition of millions of populace is estimated to be troubled, for instance increase in malnutrition, high level of deaths, diseases and injury as a result of severe weather actions (United Nations General Assembly, 2008). Climate change again causes shortage of water resources and serious floods that results to epidemic of water borne diseases. Africa is the most vulnerable continent to climate change associated health issues as a result of the current poverty and shaky institutions to tackle with health problems caused by climate change (Gemelda and Sima 2015). Africa´s disease worry is somewhat higher than any other part in the world. It is amass by adopting a time based measure that merges years of life lost as a result of untimely death, and years of live as a result of untimely death, and years of life as a result of timed lived in the states of less than full health (Clements, 2009). Climate change disturbs the main determinants of human health namely air, food and water. It also impacts how intermittently the society are threatened to physical and biological danger (Clements, 2009).

 Drought: It is described in broad terms as a 50 per cent lack of rainfall more than three months. The extent of a drought shows the main role in describing its hazard level, being that it evolves gradually and may lost over a period of many years (Elasha et al 2006). African nations were classified as having the most vulnerability to drought. The African Sahel, located at the southern edge of the Sahara Desert and spreading from the West Africa coast to the East Africa highlands, is notably at risk of drought. Droughts have specifically affected the Sahel, the Horn Africa and Southern Africa since the end of 1960 (Elasha et al 2006).

However, drought has had great effect on food insecurity and disturbs the life of African populace and is tendency increases in21th life century. The Eastern Africa nations sucha as Tanzania, Burundi, Eritrea, Ethopia, Kenya, Uganda and Somalia were among the sensitive countries o the effects of drought as a result of its reliance on rain-fed agriculture (Gemelda and Sima 2015). Gemelda and Sima (2015: 257) states “according to Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT) more than 100 million people were affected by drought in Africa. Kenya was affected by drought seven times over 1991-2008, which affects about 35 million people. Ethiopia also experienced six drought times over 1983-2008.

 Biodiversity: It conserves,  and is basically reliant on ecosystems. Humans depend on biodiverse ecosystems to support our food fuel and fibre production. As climate change impacts on human nature the biodiversity of Africa´s ecosystems is being faced at serious danger (Clements,2009). As the climate warms, the effects on ecosystem are expected to increase rapidly as species migrate or goes extinct. This disruption in party of ecosystems will be absurd to compensate for. Even in future changing climates, invasive allien specis infestations will be of a serious danger to ecosystems and biodiversity (Clements,2009). Africa is gifted with well diverse flora and fauna. It houses about a fifth of all known species of plants, mammals and birds in the universe, and a sixth of the amphibians and reptiles. The dominant implications on biodiversity are shift in rainfall pattern increase in temperature, wetland ecosystem and some wildlife species (Gemelda and Sima 2015).

 Tourism: Tourism has close links to the environment and climate itself, it is seen as a highly climate-susceptible economic sector related to agriculture, insurance, transportation and energy. There are two types of climate change impacts on tourism namely, direct climati impacts and indirect environmental change impacts (Simpson et al 2008). The direct climatic impact has a crucial effect on the operating costs, like heating-cooling, snowmaking, irrigation, food, water supply and insurance costs. The indirect environmental change impacts has influence on tourism at the local and regional destination level. Variation in water availability, biodiversity loss, diminished landscape beauty, reduced agricultural yield, coastal erosion and damage to basic amenities (Simpson et al 2008).

 Sea-level rise: The projection of expected sea-level rise are not the same across the universe. Sub saharan Africa as stated span from 15° norths to 35° souths. As a result of the prevailing tropical setting of this region, seashores is likely going to be higher than overall average, by about 10 % (Serdeczny et al 2015). Sea levels would increase around the world because of global warming. The main cause, is the warm increase of the oceans as a result of developing oceanic temperature. This will lead to an increase about half a metre by the end of century (Conway, 2009).

 Precipitation changes: Precipitation projections are in most cases less uniform bust most reliable in Southern Africa shows decreased rainfall in the next 100 years and most figure plan that by 2050 the inside of Southern Africa will face serious deductions during the growing period (Yanda et al 2010). Southern African monsoon are planned to dwindle in the 2000-2049 duration, and precipitation is hoped to reduce. By the 2080´s a drying, extreme of the western sub-tropical region that comprises Northern Namibia as a result of lesser rainy days and few excessive rainfall, is anticipated (Yanda et al 2010).


Failed maize crop after severe drought in East Africa

Fig 1   Hof (2015)

 Parched soil by White Nile Khartoum Sudan  


Fig 2:  Munang and Andrews (2014)

Somalia refugees flee flooding in Dadaab, Kenya    

Fig 3:   UNHCR The UN Refugees Agency

Case study: Adaptation to climate change impacts in Africa

 Water conservation: A strong intervention is needed in the problem of Sub saharan Africa to ensure water harvesting, storage and enhance use efficiency of an increasingly changing resources. Adaptability to climatte change neeeds more prioriy than is presently given to better water conservation in both rainfed and integrated systems. The proposal supports rain water harvesting, supplying enough water storage facilities to decrease risk to dry spells, making better rainwater infilteration into soils and better use of water use efficiency (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2014).

 Strengthening local institutions: Being that climate change, management of natural resources is now difficult and needs more people, broad view and particular intellectual. The plan worked in accordance with the Ethopian Government, the Kenya Agricultural Research institute (KARI), Tanzania´s Ministry of Agriculture and Food (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2014).

 Liveliood diversification: The ability to survive in severe climatic environments and changeable market calls for change of agricultural patterns. Good soils and water harvesting are the basic thing for improved diversification. The better resource base be it land and water allows making of assests via fishing, fruit growing and cover crops. Crop variety encourages good diets and nutrition, it gives the farmers chance to pertake in marketing of export crops, among other activities (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2014).

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