Tourism has been mentioned as world's larger industry (goeldner and Richie, 2003).
According to international labor organization, the travel and hospitality industry provides for more than 250 million jobs, which constitutes 8% of global employment (international labor organization). The organization predicts that by year 2023 9.9% of global employment of world will be provided directly or indirectly by tourism industry.in terms of numbers it will holds almost 338 million jobs and it means that industry will provide one in every job worldwide by 2023 (WTTC, 2014).average growth of hospitality jobs is 2.45% annually; however, it is influenced by considerable local factors for every country.
The data showed by Pakistan statistics Bearue government of Pakistan that by next 5 years the growth of hospitality industry in Pakistan will absorbs the 6.7% of work force which in numbers is almost 3847 (in thousands) of total employed peoples 57420(in thousands). Therefore, well trained industry professionals, and the role of education in the industry which is mix of both hard knowledge and soft skills is necessary. Economic impacts of tourism are dominant for government, business and for teaching institutes too.
Meeting the needs and expectations of industry is still the main objective in developing tourism curriculum (Raybould & Wilkins, 2005). Although there is no common definition of the specific curriculum for local market. Bunyi in his research mentioned “formal and informal content and procedures through which learners gain knowledge, develop skills as well as appropriate attitudes and behaviors all of which guide the candidates toward achieving their objectives from that curriculum. Therefore, as argued by Zehrer and Mossenlechner (2009), the aim of every curriculum developer and planner to design such curriculum, that graduates could develop competencies enabling them to work in changing environment of the 21st century hospitality and tourism industry.
Currently “graduates are expected to be proficient and competent in broad range of areas, consisting both field-specific and soft skills” (Allen & Van der velden, 2009:71).
A job of university is to establish opportunities of polishing skills and competencies. It is important both for a university graduates to get employment and build their careers and for the hospitality industry that needs well educated and trained staff.
Integration is the process to find desired results through combination of separate core processes to acquire the proposed objectives. The key idea behind every process is that it should be efficient, well defined and executed. Efficiency is built on efficient human resources. To create efficiency in the human resources there is need to constitute many physical, mental and behavioral skills.
There is increasing demand in the Pakistan tourism market for new graduate tourism leaders because of recently growing potential of the industry. Competency development for Pakistani tourism graduates is relatively new idea. Not only is the current job market is becoming more competitive for applicants, but it is also less likely to provide employee training programs for its new members (Abel, Deitz & Su, 2014; Cappelli, 2012). This fact is further supported by Yet, Gunn (1998) and World Tourism organization (2004) cautioned that structure of tourism curriculum in higher education is not meeting the demands of future professionals and leaders. Management in higher institutes of Pakistan, tourism industry professionals, and government regulating bodies may not consider to develop the importance competencies with academic knowledge.in order to understand poor performance and planning of Tourism sector in Pakistan, this study have aims to identify the professional skills that will be integrated with knowledge which are essentials for new graduates. Being tourism graduates to be ready for workplace is not involved hard competencies (academic and technical) but also a soft competencies (personality traits and behaviours).
Much of attention and interest is given on hard skills by experts and educators, while the area of soft skills, such as teamwork, leadership, analytical thinking, organizational knowledge, influencing, negotiating etc., is left unaddressed in mostly developing countries like Pakistan. So need of integration of both hard and soft competencies and their impact on the student learning is of utmost importance in successful upbringing of graduates as leaders who could provide motivation for emerging challenges of 21st century in tourism industry in Pakistan. The purpose of this study is to develop some Competency model development of hard and soft skills for Pakistani graduates.
Background of the problem
Due to recent economic developments in central and south-east Asia tourism sector is in tremendous growth and is predicted one of the major contributor of Pakistan's GDP. It has consistently showed increase in a demand for technically competent leaders in the industry.
The recruiters of industry place a very significant detriments mentioning the various hard and soft skills desired form applicant for the position of industry leaders. One common factor all advertisements have is that perspective hotel leaders must have achieved at least a first degree from a recognized university plus “strong analytic and strategic management skills “two to three years before. During last one or two years recruitment efforts demand that applicant have” excellent leadership skills”, good oral and written communication” , “ excellent public interaction within industry” etc.
On international level, leaders with competencies in both hard and soft areas have fuelled in the creation of more strategic advantage regarding the hotel business. Therefor it is very important that academic institutions responsive for training graduates to be energetic in defining the ways to make soft skills “teachable”. The result will be helpful for the industry leaders with the ability to positively compete in meeting the dynamic requirements of Pakistan's tourism and hospitality industry.
Statement of the problem
Management in hospitality industry of Pakistan consider certain requirements in term of technical knowledge and hard competencies which consist of academic knowledge such as finance, marketing, hospitality subjects like food & Beverages, hotel operations etc. Despite the idea of hard skills, it is not clear whether the “soft skills” are seen as important in term of competency requirements and if so which are of more importance to leader's performance in hospitality industry of the Pakistan. There is flowing demand on fresh tourism graduates to be “professionally ready” when entering in their career roles. Being professionally ready involves nourishing skills in both “hard “(Academic and technical) and “soft” (personality traits and behaviors) skills areas (Schultz, 2008).
So there is need to investigate and examine the relevance of soft skills with hard skills in the hospitality industry of Pakistan.
The study will investigate the following questions.
1 – What areas of soft skills are necessary for the future potential of newly graduates in hospitality industry in Pakistan?
2 – What will be the necessary approach to integrate such competencies in graduates?
3 – What will be the potential behaviors to measure progress of such competencies in a graduates because soft skills are all behaviors and traits?
Significance of study
This study will provide also precious information to Pakistan's tourism education institutes responsible for creating future industry leaders. Since by Ladkin, (1993) education and training play an important role in the growth of hospitality and tourism industry. In studies carried out by Okeiyi, Finley and Postel, 1999; Enz, 2001; and Christou, 2002, it is argued that soft competencies should be studied in the designing of hospitality management programs. To fulfill the current demands of industry, institutions need to embed into their academic programs, studies that promote the development of future management work force competence not only in a Hard skills areas, but also soft skills as well,(Chung- herrera, Enz and Lankau, 2003). So the gap between the industry ‘needs and what universities provide maybe reduced. As the result of this both parties will be aligned better in term of skills requirements.
Identification of soft skills needed by hospitality industry in Pakistan
Soft skills are important towards nourishing the output of labor force like graduates who will occupy potential management in the market by future. Soft skills are much more individualistic skills that must be polished for each candidate with the traditional academic knowledge of specific domain.
By previous study of literature and review of tourism industry in Pakistan, the most identified soft skills for Pakistani graduates are as under. The structural interviews to identify these skills were the main instrument of measurement for gathering this data in the previous studies from time to time. We will categorize in three clusters.
Interpersonal skills – building relationships
1 – Client focus: it is the quality to be familiar with internal and external clients (committees, working groups, consumers, etc.). To identify their concerns in short and long term and find solutions.
2 – Diplomatic sensitivity: it deals with understanding of peoples. It is person ability to hear accurately and understand unmentioned, half expressed thoughts. In the competency definition it has emphasis on cross- cultural sensivity
3 – Influencing: it refers to intention to motivate, convince others in an honest, respectful, graceful manner in order to get align others with their objectives.
4 – Negotiating: it refers to ability to work towards win – win results. At base level this competency speculates an understanding of ones counterparts and how to reply them during negotiating.
5 – Organizational knowledge: it is the ability to understand power relationships in your own organization and with other organizations. It also includes the quality of person to understand the rules and structures of organization in order to work efficiently.
1 – Developing talent: it means creates an environment that will enhance professional and individual growth. It also includes transfer of knowledge to future talent.
2 – Organizational alignment: it is the ability and will of a person to align one's own behavior with the needs, priorities, and objectives of organization and to perform in such a way that intensify organization's goals or institution needs.
3 – Strategic networking: it involves working to construct and maintain friendly, credible and open internal and external relationships with the persons who are, or might become, important players in getting strategic – related goals.
4 – Strategic thinking: it is ability to develop a vast, big – picture view of institution and its mission and vision. Competitive advantages and threats, corporate trends, emerging technological advances, marketing opportunities, stakeholders vision – strategic thinking is where come all – together.
Deliver related – achieving results
1 – Analytical thinking: this is the potential to determine patterns across various situations that are not surely related, and identifying key or essential issues in complex situations.
2 – Achievement focus: it is generating results by visualizing responsibility for individual's performance and the adjustments of one's interventions. It is distinguishing opportunities and behaving in efficient manner at the appropriate moments and within time deadlines.
3 – Drafting Skills: it is based on the quality to respectfully communicate ideas and knowledge (often technical) in writing to make sure that information and messages are understood and have the required effects.
4 – Flexible thinking: it involves the ability of person to adopt to a various situations, either individually or in groups. In basic form it is the ability to understand and value different and opposite ideas on same issue. It is to adapt change or easily accept changes in one's own organization or job's needs.
5 – Managing Resources: it is person's understanding about human, financial, and operational potential within organization to make efficient descions. Further building and planning sufficient project workflows, and improving overall organizational efficiency.
Hospitality management is one of the part of hospitality industry but occupies its own independence (Barrows, 1999). Hospitality industry is one of the oldest profession but it has relatively a short life span in higher education. Hospitality education is specialized field whose aims is to train professional for career in different fields of hospitality .It has taken beginning to take roots in universities in the early 1900s in the USA and later in Europe(barrows and johns,2008).
Hospitality management higher education faced some difficulties in establishing itself as an academic field within academia. One of the reason was that that it faced difficulties due to tendency of hospitality educators argue for the unique status of this study as management science as opposed to other disciplines. Consequently it fails to establish as distinct management science and lack of research which is now necessary factor for some discipline to exist as academic entity.
Hospitality management has many aspects commons to other different forms of a management, but also its own core elements that require a technical/vocational skills (hard) and soft skills trainings. It should be noted that students will get attracted to such subject if they expect the required training (Raybould & Wilkins, 2006). Knowledge for hospitality has been taken from the practical industry and this was evident from the curriculum. It was detached from its vocational base in later 1990s and extended to broader horizons and scope (Morrison & O'Mahony, 2003). Courses from other subjects related to management, economics, psychology and other social sciences were incorporated. There has been lately consideration in term of competencies required for hospitality management and now is great emphasis for integration of soft competencies.
The view of hospitality education as vocational program remains dominant but universities have been often reluctant to grant hospitality education the same status as other disciplines (Rudolph, 1999). Hence there is ongoing debate carrying on to take hospitality education take out from vocational training session to establish the full time social sciences.(Lashley, 2004).it is therefore argued that hospitality education is still immature when compared to other traditional fields , and has to establish its identity as perfect academic discipline specially developing countries like Pakistan.
In spite of relatively less significant study in society of Pakistan and recent academic domain hospitality degrees are gaining rapid importance in the public due to recent growth of the industry. From the examples of different countries pattern in hospitality education it has developed in ways, from limited choice of diplomas programs to multiple subjects and full time degrees. For Breakey & Craig-smith (2007), the trend has been to change from subjects such as culinary art, hotel operations to more quality management and technological applications. Moreover universal trend in hospitality education is to be incorporated with business study, while tourism tend to be have separate departments. Courses may be include traditional management subjects and hotel and food service operations. At few places where ethically allowed more specialized subjects like private club and casino operations are taught. However, the curriculum which is balanced in development of technical knowledge and soft skills is not very common especially in Pakistani institutes.
As it is evident from above discussion, in order to respond to changing industry needs, it is necessary that hospitality degree programmers have clear know-how of industry and employer expectations of the competencies that emerging candidates should possess for the future leaders in the industry. Integrating technical skills and soft competencies (in this way increasing performance) has been a well-defined need in higher education as mentioned earlier and in case of the hospitality it is crucial.
So the educational institutions have the responsibility to make sure that required competencies are mastered by the students (Moncarz & Kay, 2005).
Through previous studies have shown that there are differences between academicians and industry managers in what comprise the important soft competencies (sigala & Baun 2003). So the goal is to match the program outcomes with professional needs and parallel providing higher education without falling into trap of “tyranny of relevance “(lashley, 2004).
In short, higher education institutions are called on to provide technical knowledge, management knowledge and with the mix of soft competencies, and they maybe unprepared for this integration.
Hospitality management higher education in Pakistan
We will discuss the current state of hospitality education in Pakistan. First we will discuss the short courses on offer then concentrate the degree programs .there are many short diploma courses on offer from small institutes for students who have basic education to work in the industry.
The Pakistan tourism development cooperation has many vocational institutes in many cities and various technical colleges are also offering short courses for school leavers. These tend to be concentrated on short diplomas for 3 to 6 months including the fields like cooking, front office management, F&B staff and culinary arts etc. There are also similar courses for adults and private initiatives who want to join industry on short term basis.
Tourism education dates back to 1957, while there is long tradition of technical training for hospitality industry. The higher education degree programmers are quite new in the country. In the eighties tourism degrees started to appear and, one decade later, hospitality management degrees (2007).s
For the year 2016( Pakistan higher education ministry HEC), and within all fields like accounting, management and accountancy, there are 22 courses on offer under the degree of undergraduate and post graduate hospitality and tourism management across entire country.
In term of teaching infrastructure (staff and training facilities) the private institutes have more modern facilities than public universities for cooking and accommodation training. All subjects are taught in general by technical staff. Now the government of Pakistan is trying to introduce the legislation for recruiting the PhD staff to be hired in under- graduate and post- graduate universities, but these criteria will be difficult to meet at present because lacking of enough staff in qualification and numbers.
Program curriculum is not very different across all institutes in country. There are mix of objectives and components across the curriculum, collection of management, and other general and technical subjects. Curriculum includes IT, accounting, law, human resources management, marketing, and foreign languages as core subjects. The number of subjects vary from institute to institute. Some institutes go for internship or practical training for the semester period plus couple of foreign languages. There is no specific admission requirements for diploma courses and for post graduate degree only graduation degree is required does not matter in which discipline.
Vocational subjects comprise of F&B, hygiene and food security, room operations. Alcohols and events management. There is no placement for soft skills development in the curriculum like personal, team and operational level soft competencies
Why integration of soft skills with technical skills are important
There is great debate in the tourism industry of Pakistan that fresh graduates regardless of how competent they are in traditional knowledge of hospitality industry, very often lack basic soft skills and, as a result they are not fully ready for their job. According to Chamorro-Premuzic, Arteche, Bremner, Greven and Furnham (2010, p.221) it is necessary to implement a set of non – academic (soft skills) in higher education. They also state that “ in contrary academic knowledge , which is subject-based, description specific an formally assessed, soft skills are range of competencies that are of individual nature, even though often developed by, formal curricula and merely assessed explicitly (Chamorro – Premuzic et al ., 2010,p.221). From above quote we can presume that the situation is same in higher education hospitality industry of Pakistan. The reality is that although soft skills are perceived as essential a necessary, soft skills are rarely included in the curriculum of universities and in evaluative criteria.
Further the industry professional believes that soft skills are important and key attributers for their future hiring graduates. They agree that importance of soft skills is as equal to hard skills, however in some situation it surpass the need of hard skills.
Are hospitality schools in Pakistan are delivering on enough for the integration of hard and soft skills in tourism industry?
The reply to this question can be varied from institute to institute with mostly are out of the way to provide such training. However, perceptions among students exist that there was not enough emphasis concentrated on the skills they realized as being necessary for their career success in the programmes they are delivering. This question can be resolved on the perceptions of industry professionals, how they observe the fresh graduates entering in the market. The professionals do not have positive views about fresh graduate “soft skills”. Most of the employers complain that soft skills of fresh graduates who are entering market are weak. They think that Pakistani teaching institutes should make a comprehensive plan to produce graduates who are able and capable of delivering academic knowledge with the mix of soft skills. Higher education of tourism in Pakistan has made slight contribution, however, it still needs lot of improvement in training and equipping students with soft skills and to develop cooperation with industry in this regard.
There are number of factors that prevent development of “soft skills” in students of Pakistani tourism institutes. Strong criticism is on the methods used for the teaching in higher education system of Pakistan. They are considered as traditional methods, just like routine procedure that is, memorisation and rewritten of information provided in lectures.
The main objective of students in universities while learning is just to sit quietly in the class, taking notes of lectures. They then repeat this information at home and reorganize the information in assignments and examinations.
Skills integration is major challenge among Pakistani universities, hence it is becoming very urgent. This problem is getting bigger and bigger as Pakistani universities fail to coordinate efficiently with what professionals want.
Is it realistic to expect from Pakistani tourism schools to integrate both hard and soft competencies and what level?
Is it realistic to presume that within 2 or 3 years period institute can provide pupils with enough range of skills required by the industry? .Some researchers argues that it is unrealistic for the students to possess all the soft skills demanded by employers (Bancino & Zevalkink 2007). Some researchers suggest that “employer must understand that many soft skills can only be nourished through guidance on job” (kavangah and Drennan (2008:296). By contrast researchers such as Elliot and Jacobson (2002:79) highlight the role of academics play in the development of key soft skills in graduates. They argue that it is the role of both academics and industry professionals to adopt certain skills models for graduates who will perform role in future job market. In this regard as there is great need of evolution of necessary competency model for Pakistani graduates for future tourism industry, so the task must begin now.
Given the expectations of profession's key market and all stakeholders regarding competency framework, greater emphasis should be placed on the soft skills and their key aspects needed by the graduates. This is seriously in need for future graduate leaders of Pakistan's tourism industry for their prosperity and flourish in the market. Despite of limited time in study curriculum, and overall reduction of resources by management it is academic and industry professional duty to prepare the graduates for the future challenges of market.
The need is mentioned by Albrecht and sack (2000:55) “content and academic knowledge becomes dated with time and is often not transferrable for different types of jobs, on the contrary soft skills rarely become obsolete and normally transferable across various domains.
ETA competency model clearinghouse
The ETA model was developed by employment and training administration (ETA) working under the department of labour USA. The motive behind the development was the trend to use competency – based approaches in teaching and training. In last few years the ETA has been working with business, tourism industry and education/training administrators to develop competency models for various targeted domains. This study examines the role of competency model in building effective potential related to integration of soft and hard skills. This model discuss where the ETA model Clearinghouse has helped sharing competency related information to education institutes and corporate section.
This model states to understand the competency requirements of specific role job or learning process, the competencies are often represented pictorially and competencies re mapped, with competences existing as hierarchy. The generic framework arrange the competencies existing on nine tires, with lower tires serving as building blocks for the higher tiers(PDRI, Aguire international, 2005). The lower tiers mention foundational competencies with broad application to many fields' especially academic organizations.
The foundational competencies group includes tier one to three, which represent personal effectiveness, academic competencies, and workplace competencies. As we move up the tiers, the competencies become more specific to an organization and profession.
The second group is industry- related competencies and includes industry-wise technical competencies and industry- specific technical competencies (i.e., tiers four and five)
The third and final grouping on ETA model is field-related competencies that progress tier 6 to 9, these are kind of mix competencies (field-specific knowledge competencies, field – specific technical competencies, field-specific requirement competencies and management and personal competencies).
Rothwell (2002) explains that there are core skills required for all applicants. This would include knowledge, skills, and abilities. As well as soft competencies or behaviours (Lucia & lepsinger, 1999; and Rodriguez, Patel, bright, Gregory, and (Gowing, 2002). The unique prospect of models developed by ETA is that the main competencies or skills are same all along most professions and learning institutions.
The importance of competency model is that individual person assessment as a whole can be solely made to analyse the skills and individual keeps and might be still needed to attain as asked by the specific industry or institute. Competency model can be very useful for integrating education and training, aligning both the needs of corporate sector and learners.
ETA Competency Model Clearinghouse.
Competency model for integration of soft and hard skills in Pakistani graduate
Development of competency framework (model)
To define competency model for our specific domain first we have to describe what the competency model is.
Competency model is the descriptive tool that identifies the competencies or skills needed to perform specific role in a particular within organization, occupation, or institute.in simple words competency model is set of behaviours that must be defined by each professional function or each job (Shippman, 2000).
To define the required competency model for Pakistani graduates and integration objective in the learning process we will use the competency model developed by employment training administration (ETA) of USA as a base study.
According to this model we will arrange our competency in 3 clusters. Each cluster will have sub-competency section.
First cluster is named as interpersonal skills cluster which includes skills like influencing, negotiating, organizational knowledge, client focus and diplomatic sensivity.
Second cluster is named as strategic cluster which includes development talent, organizational alignment, strategic networking, and strategic thinking.
Third cluster is named as achievements- related cluster which includes analytical thinking, achievement focus, drafting skills, flexible thinking, managing resources, and teamwork and team leadership.
As per ETA model we will arrange these clusters in 3 tiers, tier1, tier2, tier3.
The tier1 will be the building block in which we will place achievements- related competencies which are necessary for getting knowledge and achieving results in academic or corporate section.
The tier 2 will be the second tier which will be related to industry specific. Hence in this tier we will place interpersonal skills.
The tier 3 will be both related to industry and field specific domain. Hence strategic cluster will be placed in this section, where strategic objectives will be achieved.
1 – Hypothesis HO1 mention that there is significant relationship in the mean ratings of the importance of “interpersonal skills” vs. “Hard skills” between the Pakistani tourism graduates and industry professionals to produce the competitive industry leaders.
2 - Hypothesis HO2 mention that there is significant relationship in the mean ratings of the importance of “strategic skills” vs. “Hard skills” between the Pakistani tourism graduates and industry professionals to produce the competitive industry leaders.
3 - Hypothesis HO3 mention that there is significant relationship in the mean ratings of the importance of “achievement – related skills” vs. “Hard skills” between the Pakistani tourism graduates and industry professionals to produce the competitive industry leaders.
This chapter provides the insights about methodology of study conducted, philosophy of the research, survey instrument, population and sampling.
The research approach
There are two general approaches in research one is deductive and other is inductive and one is made by combing these two which is called mixed approach. Analyst have different opinions about these approaches to collect data. So it is important to mention and justify which approach is most relevant in the dissertation. “Ensuring the effectiveness of information search is an extremely challenging task which raises new research questions” (Liangzhi, 2015, p810).
While using inductive approach, research collects data, analyse it and then move toward the theory development that could explain data pattern. Researcher move from data to theory (Strauss 1990). Deductive method is based on developing the hypotheses and then testing it via data gathering. This study adopted the deductive approach.
When we are concerned about research philosophies two important philosophies are positivism and epistemological view. Positivism involves quantitative data and Is objective approach, while epistemological approach concentrate on subjective approach, illustrated by meanings.
Our aim in this research is to integrate the soft skills from personal talent skills, personal motivators and behavioural traits into hard competencies or skills specially in the new emerged tourism and hospitality industry of Pakistan so that potential graduates could benefit it from their challenging roles in future career prospects.
Client focus, diplomatic sensivity, influencing, negotiating, organizational knowledge from interpersonal talent skills.
Developing talent, organizational alignment, strategic networking, and strategic thinking from strategic kills.
Analytical thinking, achievement focus, drafting skills, flexible thinking, managing resources, teamwork and team leadership from achievement - related soft skills,
Psychologist John Devy (1938) pointed that research design is a process with phases connected to different forms of problematic experiences. According to this definition we defined the multi question - survey and we will implement to seek the opinions of both the students and industry professionals. These tourism professionals working across Pakistan's tourism industry will be queried about skills they find important in newly graduates for their industry positions. In the similar manner students will be asked to rate the competencies they found interesting and important in their academic process.
With reference to survey questionnaire, according to Gall, Borg & gall (1996) both open-ended and close questions will be included.
A quantitative approach will be the core of study. Chacko & Nebel (1991) pointed that the objective of quantitative research is hypothesis testing, statistical description, and identifying the relationships between variables.
The sample of this study will be taken from Pakistan most prestigious hospitality and tourism training institutes ranging from short diploma studies to undergraduate and post graduate level degree awarding institutions. The method for data collection will be survey research. A list of competencies will be built on survey form, to which open- ended questions were added inviting participants to answer. The list and survey will be presented to 50 to 100 hotel managers in the country to analyse what they expect from potential graduates in term of hard and soft competencies. After analysing the findings all competencies will be randomly mixed, in second phase survey will be distributed to academic institutions and students studying in the relative fields in the final years or nearly graduated or graduating. They will be asked to rate each competency and skill according to their need in order to perform in the field. The areas include traits such as interpersonal skill, strategic skills, achievement-related skills , technical/vocational competencies like knowledge of F&B, room division, knowledge of HACCP, cooking competencies , property development, scientific and other knowledge like law, IT, marketing and human resource management, quality management and statistics etc. Respondents will be asked to rate the importance of competencies on 5 point Likert scale ranging from critically important (=5) to not very important (=1). There were also few open- ended questions about person sex, age, numbers of years in industry, course duration. In addition to these open ended questions about 15 core competencies will be also added.
A preliminary questionnaire will be sent to validate the instrumentation. This questionnaire will be sent to Academic students from various tourism institutes of Pakistan and various industry professionals. Distillation edits will be made to questionnaire based on the comments received from respondents. This edited questionnaire will be mailed to further examine its validity and improve its structure in terms of clarity and facility. According to Gall et al. (1996) before subjecting questionnaire in a study, it should be pilot tested. Fowler (1990) stated that, “every data instrument should be pre-tested, no matter how expert is the researcher.
In this study representative sample of tourism industry professionals, academic teachers and graduates will be established.
According to Weisberg, Krosnick and Bowen (1996) “the ideal sampling frame would be identical to population of interest” (p.39). The study sample will begin with listing of approximately 200 industry professionals and 300 students, them taking into consideration that sample will be representative of all the regions across Pakistan and avoiding the repetition sample will be reduced to 100 industry professionals and 175 students. This selection will be made on stratified random sampling technique. It will be perceived that different background, from different places should permit less bias and greater difference of ideas about competencies required for tourism professionals.
Bobbie (1990) stated that research “should check (and hope for) the possibility that the respondents are essentially random sample of initial sampling, and therefore smaller random sale of total population (p.182). In the current study we will try to create balance by selecting peoples from small and large tourism organizations, academic institutes and all over the Pakistan.
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