AN ASSESSMENT OF INTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING STRATEGY EXECUTION IN THE TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY IN KENYA, A CASE OF TELKOM
1 CHAPTER ONE
Strategic management process has become a fundamental activity in organizations all over the world today. According to Pearce and Robinson (2013, p.10) strategic management process is a set of decisions and actions resulting in formulation, implementation, and evaluation of strategies designed to achieve the objectives of an organization.
Strategic management has been defined as the set of decisions and actions resulting in formulation and implementation of strategies designed to achieve the objectives of an organization (Drejer, 2009, p.10). Strategic management concerns both the formulation of strategy and how such strategy is put into practice, while still undertaking analysis and forecasting, far greater prominence is placed on strategic implementation.
According to Freeman (2010) strategic implementation of a plan is a challenging and delicate task which affects various internal processes that include resource mobilization, restructuring, cultural changes, process changes, quality of people such as skills, attitudes, capabilities, experiences and other characteristics required by a specific task or position.
On the other hand, Capon (2010) argues that strategic execution is a process by which management translate strategies and policies into action through development of programs, budgets, and procedures. The process might involve changes within the overall culture, structure, and/or the management system of the organization.
Michalski (2011) explained that one of the models that have assisted in the evaluation of the internal factors and how they impact on implementation of strategy , change management and business process re-engineering, is the McKinsey 7s Framework which was developed in 1980 by Robert H. Waterman, Jr. and Tom Peters. The McKinsey 7s model is based on the theory that, for an organization to perform well, there are seven elements categorized as soft elements and hard elements which need to be aligned and mutually reinforcing to achieve strategic execution. The soft elements are the shared values, skills, style and staff while the hard elements are structure, strategy and systems.
The aim of this proposal is to assess the internal factors that affect strategic execution in the telecommunication Industry, a case of Telkom. This study will be carried out by analyzing the internal forces that affect strategic execution.
1.1 Background of the study
Michael Porter, a philosopher of strategy, explains how over the years, survival of firms and gaining competitive advantage have led to strategic thinking, planning and implementation of both long term and short term plans in an ever turbulent environment. (Pearce and Robinson 2013, p.20)
In the early 1940's, strategy was about winning war in military, however, in the 1950`s, the acceptation of strategic management in organizations became apparent. The changeability and unpredictability of the exterior environment led to strategic thinking in the 1960`s. Alfred Chandler (1962) was reputed as the father of strategic management, originating from his seminal work on strategy and structure. (Pearce and Robinson, 2013, p.20)
Several authors put into perspective the need to better understand the topic of strategy execution in organizations (Bigler, 2001, Syrett, 2007; Hendry and Seidl, 2003; Jarzabkowski et al., 2007). Strategy execution is often described in the literature as complex and difficult. Freedman (2003) mentioned that strategy formulation was often glamorous but unfortunately implementation got short drifted. Speculand (2009) has argued that leaders are now beginning to state that they understand the importance of strategy implementation as well as for strategy design. As a consequence, these leaders are now asking on what they need to do differently and how a better strategy execution would achieve a better organizational performance (Mankins and Steele (2005).
1.1.2 Telecommunication Industry in Kenya
Telecommunication is a global concept where the reciprocation of information by electronic and electrical means, over a significant distance, through a complex consanguinity of a variety of heterogeneous switching systems to transmit signals, messages, words, videos, audio and intelligence of any nature via radio ,television, satellite, internet and/or any electromagnetism system ( Viswanathan et al.,2015).
The telecommunication megacorp in Kenya has diversified over the years due to many dynamic occurrence within the economy such as the introduction of mobile technology, the uptake and use of smart phones, innovation such as use of satellite, the continuous growth of internet and the ever changing consumer behavior in terms of communication from word of mouth to word of mouse to use of application technology (Ateka, 2015).
1.1.3 Telkom Background
Between 1948- 1977 postal services were shared among the East African Community countries i.e. Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Upon collapse of the regional body in 1977, Kenya formed the Kenya Posts and Telecommunications Corporation (KPTC), a government institution in charge of telecommunications and postal services. In 1999, KPTC separated into various entities: Telkom Kenya, in charge of telecommunications, Kenya Postal Corporation, in charge of postal services and Communication Authority (CA), the regulatory authority for the communications industry in Kenya.
Telkom initially began as the sole provider of landline services in Kenya. In 2007, the company was given a mobile license by CA to offer mobile cellular services and the Kenyan Government announced plans to privatize it to make it more profitable. France Telecom bought a 51% stake in Telkom Kenya in November 2007 and rebranded to Orange Kenya. In November 2008, the shareholding changed due to the conversion of government debt to equity to ease the growing Orange Kenya debt. It was subsequently confirmed that the Kenya government would retain 40% shareholding down from 49% with the remaining shares held by France Telecom. In January 2010, France Telecom increased its stake in Orange Kenya to 70% as a consequence of the government's failure to provide its full portion of 2011 funding.
In June 2016, UK private equity firm, Helios Investment Partners, acquired 60% shareholding in Orange Kenya by Jamhuri Holdings Limited (JHL), a company owned 100% by HeIios Investors III, L.P and rebranded to Telkom. The transaction also included an increase in the shareholding of the Government of Kenya (GoK) in Telkom from 30% to 40%.
1.2 Problem Statement
Neilson et.al (2008) revealed that execution of strategic management is a people problem and not a strategy problem. The study conducted also revealed that some organizations are faced with a problem when it comes to implementation of their strategy.
Kaplan and Norton (2005) revealed that 90% of the companies had developed detailed strategic plans with much higher targets. However, there was a persistent gap between ambition and performance. The gap arose from a disconnection between strategy formulation and strategy execution. The research revealed that, on average, 95% of a company's customer facing employees and back end support, are either unaware of or do not understand the business strategy.
Sull et.al (2015) explain that since Porter`s (1980) seminar work the definition of strategy is clear and widely accepted but a gap is revealed when it comes to translating strategy into results. This begs the question, what do we know about strategy execution?
Keter's (2015) study on challenges of strategy implementation in the telecommunication industry in kenya: a case of Safaricom Kenya Limited, revealed that a number of internal organization challenges, such as organizational structure, leadership and administrative systems affected the strategy implementation process. Further, Keter recommended the need for future researchers to look at the challenges faced by other telecommunication companies when they strive to implement their strategies.
Koskei's (2003) study on strategic implementation and challenges in public corporation, case study of Telkom, showed that the executions of functional strategies by individual departments were more or less at the same level of execution, with an exception of human resource which lagged behind. According to the results, Telkom Kenya was experiencing inadequate availability of financial resources, un-supportive culture, lack of good leadership qualities, un-supportive organizational structure as well as lack of prudent management of resources.
In 2017, the same problems that were identified by Koskei (2003) still persist in Telkom. First, the organizational structure is highly bureaucratic leading to slow decision-making processes hence the inability to quickly respond to the market changes such as mobile financial services. The structure has also not been shared to all the employees of Telkom; hence no clear job description and roles. Second, Telkom human resource is bloated leading to organizational inefficiencies such as hiring incompetent staff. Third, Telkom has had a laggard organizational culture as a government parastatal; this has been a problem as Telkom has been unable to shake off this culture even after evolving into a private company, which has left Telkom at a competitive disadvantage. Lastly, the Government of Kenya, the minority shareholder (40%), has led to slow decision making in Telkom due to influencing the regulation body, Communications Authority by slow license release e.g. 4G license. All the above stated problems have led to the decline of revenue in Telkom as shown in table 1.
Table 1: Financial statement of Profit or Loss
Profit & Loss - Ksh.M 2015 2016 2017
Mobile Business Unit FY FY H1
Total Revenues 6,066.0 4,993.2 2,092.7
Total COGS 3,476.0 2,749.4 984.5
COGS % of revenue 57.3% 55.1% 47.0%
Gross Margin 2,590.0 2,243.8 1,108.2
Gross Margin % of Revenue 42.7% 44.9% 53.0%
Total OPEX 4,958.0 5,392.0 3,153.5
OPEX % of revenue 81.7% 108.0% 150.7%
EBITDA -3,149.2 -3,148.2 -2,045.3
EBITDA % of revenue -51.9% -63.0% -97.7%
The aim of this study is to assess the internal factors that affect strategic execution in the telecommunication Industry, a case of Telkom. This study will be carried out by analyzing the internal forces that affect strategic execution.
1.3 Research Objectives
This study seeks to examine the internal factors that affect strategic execution in the telecommunication industry in Kenya, case of Telkom
1. Analyze the soft elements (shared values, skills, style, and staff) that affect strategic execution in Telkom
2. Analyze the hard elements (structure, strategy, and systems) that affect strategic execution in Telkom
3. Ascertain how to make strategy execution more effective in Telkom Kenya
1.4 Research Questions
1. What are the soft elements that affect strategic execution in Telkom?
2. What are the hard elements that affect strategic execution in Telkom?
3. What ways can be used to make strategy execution effective in Telkom?
1.5 Delimitation/ Scope of the study
The focus of the study will be to assess the internal factors that affect strategic execution in the telecommunication industry in Kenya, case of Telkom. The study will be on strategic execution and not the entire strategic management process.
1.6 Significance of the study
The study will help the management and executive teams in Telkom, and across the telecommunication industry in Kenya, to realize what internal factors affect strategy execution and the corrective measures to mitigate the barriers.
The study will be used to carry out replication research of the same nature in the future; it will be used by the students, scholars, and professionals within the telecommunication industry as a reference point.
2.0 CHAPTER TWO
This chapter will review relevant literature on strategy, strategy management, strategy execution, McKinsey 7s Framework and the conceptual framework. The chapter will explain studies done to show how internal factors can affect strategy execution in an organization.
According to Mintzberg (2013) strategy is a multifaceted or multidimensional concept that cannot be effectively contained in a single definition. The strategy is categorized into 5P`s of plan, ploy, pattern, position and perspective. Strategy plan is something that many managers are happy with and comes naturally to them. Strategy ploy is used to get better at competitors by plotting to disrupt, dissuade, discourage, or otherwise influence them. Strategy pattern emerges from a past organization behaviour, rather than being an intentioned choice. Strategy position is how organizations decide to position themselves in the marketplace; Lastly, strategy perspective relies heavily on its culture, for instance, an organization that encourages risk-taking and innovation from employees might focus on coming up with innovative products as the main thrust behind its strategy. Strategy helps in exploring the fit between the organization and environment and thus develops a sustainable competitive advantage .
2.1.2 Strategy Management
According to Sadler& Craig (2010) strategy management is the art and science which determines whether an organization excels, survives, or dies, by exploiting and creating new and different opportunities for tomorrow while long-range planning tries to optimize for tomorrow the trends of today.
Hitts et al. (2010) defines strategy management as a process rather than an event. This is because strategy management involves a number of stages, as opposed to being a one spectacular event. The stages follow a logical order beginning with vision , mission, then followed by a situation analysis or environmental analysis of external environment to identify opportunities and threats, and internal environment to identify strengths and weaknesses of the firm. This leads to the development of a SWOT analysis (strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats).
This is then followed by setting up strategic objectives, strategic analysis and choice which is done at both corporate and business levels. The last phase is the strategy execution evaluation and control which involves the monitoring progress, measuring progress and taking corrective action in good time.
Pearce and Robinson (2013) define strategy management as the set of decisions and actions resulting in formulation, implementation and evaluation of strategies designed to achieve the objectives of an organization.
2.1.3 Strategy Execution
According to Grant (2010) strategy execution is the sum total of the activities and choices that are required for the actualization of a strategy plan. Strategy execution is the process by which objectives, strategies and policies are put into action through the development of budgets, programs and procedures. The stakeholders must consider three questions when starting the execution process: who are the people who will carry out the strategy plan? What must be done to align the company's operation in the intended direction? How everyone is going to work together to do what is expected of them.
Freeman (2010) stated that strategy implementation of a plan is a challenging and delicate task which affects various internal processes that include resource mobilization, restructuring, cultural changes, process changes, quality of people such as skills, attitudes, capabilities, experiences and other characteristics required by a specific task or position.
Capon (2010) argued that strategy execution is a process by which management translate strategies and policies into action through development of programs, budgets and procedures. The process might involve changes within the overall culture, structure and/or the management system of the organization.
2.2 Theoretical Framework
2.2.1 McKinsey 7s Framework
According to Michalski (2011) McKinsey 7s model has assisted in the evaluation of the internal factors and how they impact on the execution of strategy , change management and business process re-engineering. The McKinsey 7s model is based on the theory that, for an organization to perform well, there are seven elements categorized as soft elements and hard elements, which need to be aligned and mutually reinforcing to achieve strategy execution. The soft elements are the shared values, skills, style and staff while the hard elements are structure, strategy and systems.
126.96.36.199 Soft Elements of McKinsey 7s Model that affect strategy execution
Michalski (2011) stated that the soft elements of McKinsey 7s model are the elements in an organization that are difficult to describe and manage as they are less tangible and more influenced by culture, but very important if a firm wants to succeed. The soft elements include shared values, skills, style and staff. These are people related elements.
188.8.131.52.1 Shared Values
Shared values are defined as the norms and standards that guide employee behaviour and firm`s actions and thus, are the foundation of every organization. This element is measured by asking questions such as: what are the core values? What is the corporate/team culture? How strong are the values within the organization? What are the fundamental values that the company/team was built on? (Michalski 2011)
Skills are defined as the abilities that firm's employees perform very well. They also include capabilities and competences. Skills are measured by asking questions such as: what are the strongest skills represented within the company/team? Are there any skills gaps? What is the company/team known for doing well? Do the current employees/team members have the ability to do the job? How are skills monitored and assessed? (Michalski 2011)
Style, in an organization, represents the way leadership style influences how communication takes place, delegation process, what actions top level managers take and their symbolic value. In other words, it is the management style of the company's leaders. Style is measured by asking questions such as: how participative is the management/leadership style? How effective is that leadership? Do employees/team members tend to be competitive or cooperative? Are there real teams functioning within the organization or are they just nominal groups? (Michalski 2011)
The staff element is concerned about the employees that work within the organization. The staff element considers what type and how many employees a firm will need and how they will be recruited, trained, motivated and rewarded. Staff element is measured by asking questions such as: what positions or specializations are represented within the team? What positions need to be filled? Are there gaps in required competencies? (Michalski 2011)
184.108.40.206 Hard Elements of McKinsey 7s Model that affect strategy execution
Michalski (2011) stated that the hard elements of McKinsey 7s model are the elements in an organization that are easier to identify and management can directly influence them. The hard elements are structure, strategy and systems. These are organization related elements.
Structure is one of the most visible and easy to change elements of the McKinsey 7s framework. This is because structure represents the way business divisions and units are organized and includes the information of who is accountable to whom. In other words, structure is the organizational chart of the firm. Structure is measured by asking questions such as: how is the company/team divided? What is the hierarchy? How do the various departments coordinate activities? How do the team members organize and align themselves? Is decision making and controlling centralized or decentralized? (Michalski 2011)
Strategy is a plan devised to maintain and build competitive advantage over the competition. In general, a sound strategy is the one that is clearly articulated, long-term and helps to achieve competitive advantage and is reinforced by vision, mission and values. In order for strategy to be successful, all the other six elements must align to the organization`s strategy. The strategy element is measured by asking questions such as: what is our strategy? How do we intend to achieve our objectives? How do we deal with competitive pressure? How are changes in customer demands dealt with? How is strategy adjusted for environmental issues? (Michalski 2011)
Systems are defined as the processes and procedures of the company, which reveal businesses, daily activities and how decisions are made. Systems are the areas of the organization that determine how business is done and are the main focus for managers during organizational change. Systems are measured by asking questions such as: what are the main systems that run the organization? Where are the controls and how are they monitored and evaluated? What internal rules and processes does the team use to keep on track?
In conclusion, Michalski (2011) stated that the McKinsey 7s model can be used to understand how the organizational elements are interrelated, and so ensure that the wider impact of changes made in one area is taken into consideration. McKinsey 7s model can help analyze the current situation, a proposed future situation and to identify gaps and inconsistencies between them. It's then a question of adjusting and tuning the elements of the McKinsey 7s model to ensure that the firm works effectively and reach the desired endpoint.
2.3 Solutions to make strategy execution effective
Keter (2015) observed that effective strategy execution in the telecommunication industry required strategy-structure alignment. This revealed that strategy implementation was anchored on the structure of the organization and was considered to be a very important factor; hence an organization structure that was ineffective inhibited and acted as a barrier to strategy implementation.
Koskei (2003) results from a study of strategic implementation in the telecommunication industry showed that adequate leadership style was needed for effective implementation of strategy, as this would ensure that all company efforts were united and directed towards achievement of company goals, organizational structure was supposed to be compatible with the chosen strategy as it is through structure that firms are positioned so as to execute its strategy, supportive procedures and culture and availability of financial resources among other factors to enhance the success of strategy.
Sabourin (2009) proposed that one of the solutions for effective strategy execution is carrying out the implementation process on a small-scale level to obtain results quickly and to adjust strategy based on feedback. According to Speculand (2009) results are obtained through immediate actions. There is an opportunity for fast decision-making without regard to an established plan. Interaction with the others is favoured only as far as it provides results quickly.
2.4 Research Gap
Empirical research carried out to examine the process of strategy execution has yielded results that show internal factors of the organization impact on the success of strategy implementation. The aim of this study is to assess the internal factors that affect strategy execution in the telecommunication Industry, a case of Telkom. This study will be carried out by analyzing the internal forces broadly categorized into soft and hard elements that affect strategy execution.
2.5 Conceptual Framework
Based on the studies reviewed, there are two broad categories of factors that affect strategy execution; the soft elements of the organization shared values, skills, style and staff and the hard elements structure, strategy and systems.
Figure 1: Conceptual Framework
Shared values will be measured by using nominal scale questions which will seek to analyze the employee values in Telkom
Skills will be measured by using nominal scale questions to determine if the employees of Telkom have required skills to achieve their objectives in their respective roles
Style will be measured by using nominal scale questions to determine how the current leadership in Telkom drives the vision, mission and values of the organization
Staff will be measured using general questions in the questionnaire to determine the demographics of employees at Telkom and how they affect strategy execution
Structure will be measured using nominal scale questions to determine the current structure of Telkom and how this enables the employees to achieve the objective of the company
Strategy will be measured by using nominal scale questions to determine if employees know the vision, mission and values of Telkom, and seek further to analyze the strategy plan knowledge of Telkom.
Systems will be measured by using nominal scale questions to determine the programs that employees use to achieve the strategy of the company.
This chapter examines the methods and techniques that will be used to collect and analyze data during the research. The chapter is divided into the following sections; research design , target population, sample and sampling design, data sources, collection methods and data analysis.
3.1 Research Design
A research design can be defined in very many ways, it can be a blue print, a plan, a guide or framework that a researcher uses in carrying out an evaluation of a given study. Research design can be descriptive, inferential, qualitative, quantitative, experimental, co-relational, causal, literature and meta- analytics (Cooper & Schindler, 2000).
The research design that will be adopted for this study is descriptive and quantitative research design using questionnaires to employees in the core business either at the corporate, business or functional levels and interview to the board members to collect data. From the literature review, internal factors that affect strategy execution in telecommunication industries have been identified and categorized into two as soft and hard elements in organizations across the globe. The study will therefore seek to examine how these internal factors affect strategy execution in Telkom. The research will also be a correlation study, as it will seek to establish the relationship between the independent variables(soft and hard element) and the dependent variable (strategy execution).
3.2 Population and sampling
A population is a collection of all the members of a particular unit which the researcher chooses to work with (Bryman and Bell 2015). The population of focus in this research will be on the total number of employees working in Telkom Company in Kenya, who are 1,200.
3.2.2 Sampling Design and Sample Size
220.127.116.11 Sample Design
The research will use probability sampling technique in coming up with a sample. Probability sampling is a technique wherein the samples are gathered in a process that gives all the individuals in the population equal chance of being selected. Bryant (2011) considers this to be more methodologically rigorous approach to sampling because it eliminates social biases that could shape the research sample. The type of probability sampling technique will be simple random sampling method.
The sample frame will include the total population of 1200 employees in Telkom. The sample will be derived using Cochran sample size formula. (Sreejesh et al., 2014)
In using the Cochran sample size formula the following assumptions are considered:
The confidence level will be at 95% which using the Z score table is 1.96
The marginal error will be 5% or 0.05
The standard deviation will be 0.5
The response rate is 30% since questionnaires will be administered online
Cochran sample size formula= Necessary sample size = (Z-score)2* Standard Deviation*(1-Standard Deviation) /(margin of error )2
(1.96)2 * 0.5 *(1-0.5)/ (0.05)2
= 3.8416* 05*(0.5) /0.05
Adjusting to find sample from 1,200 (total population)
=SS Adjusted= SS/1+(SS-1) /population
Since the questionnaires will be administered online, assuming that the response rate will be 30%,then the number of invites to send will be 292/0.3 =974
A sample size of 292 employees will be targeted using questionnaires in the Telkom; either at the corporate, business or functional levels and interviews to the board members to collect data.
Primary data will be collected using two instruments. One will be a questionnaire for the targeted employees (See Attached Appendix I). The questionnaire will have two parts; Part A will address demographics and general questions. PART B will address the research questions related to soft elements (shared values, skills, style and staff) and hard elements (structure, strategy and systems).The questionnaires will be administered online depending on how convenient it will be for the respondents. The second data collection method will be a face-to-face interview (See Attached Interview Guide Appendix II) with board members of Telkom after the data collection from questionnaires, to seek further clarification on the findings from questionnaires and a layout of the strategy of Telkom.
3.5 Data analysis
For the nominal scale questions, such as whether the employees are conversant on the soft and hard elements that affect strategy execution, data collected will be analyzed using Microsoft excel spread sheet tool which will enable the results to be illustrated using dashboard of frequency tables, pie charts and bar graphs.
For the data that will be collected from the face the face interviews with board members will be analyzed by coding and categorizing the themes and patterns that will be identified and presented.
Correlation analysis will also be used to explain the relationship between the independent variables (soft and hard elements) and dependent variable (strategy execution).
3.6 Research Quality
3.6.1 Internal Validity
This refers to the extent to which a research design measures what it's supposed to measure. To ensure internal validity of the research tool, pilot testing of the study to 30 employees of Telkom will be done. Expert advice will also be sought from the supervisor on the suitability and relevance of the questions in the research tool in addressing the research objectives.
Reliability refers to the degree to which a research tool yields consistent results. To enhance this, the questions in the research tool are clearly stated and explanations given where required ensuring that the respondents clearly understand what is expected of them.
Objectivity refers to the extent to which the findings are free from bias. To enhance objectivity, data collection will be administered online and security measures will be taken.
3.7 Ethical Consideration
Consideration will be given to ethical issues that may emerge as the objectives of this research are being addressed. Behavioral standards will be upheld that will guide the conduct in relation to the rights of the participants who will be subjected to the questionnaires. Integrity and accuracy of data collection will be observed when dealing with the respondents and also in the analysis and reporting of the results.
Ethical clearance will be sought from the University Review Board and the Informed consent form provided to the participants before filling in the questionnaires. Voluntary participation, confidentiality and anonymity of participants will be assured. All the online questionnaires will include an introductory letter to all respondents to disclose the institution, purpose and use of research.
INTRODUCTORY LETTER TO THE RESPONDENT
My name is Elizabeth Kanini Oyuko and I am a student from Strathmore Business School in Nairobi, Kenya, undertaking a course in Masters of Business Administration. As part of the academic requirement, I am undertaking a research study on the assessment of internal factors affecting strategy execution in the telecommunication industry, a case of Telkom. Your participation in this questionnaire is voluntary and will help to achieve the research objectives.
Strategy execution is a management process to put into practice or action Telkom`s vision, mission and values in order to achieve the strategy of the company.
Kindly note that your response will be used for the purpose of this study only and the highest level of confidentiality will apply to any information provided. Your answer will remain anonymous and strictly confidential and in no instance will your name be mentioned in this report.
The questionnaire will take approximately 10 minutes of your time to fill. Thank You
The questionnaire is divided into two parts; section A and section B. Kindly answer each question in the section as accurately as possible.
Please answer questions by ticking the appropriate spaces or boxes [ ] and/or by commenting in the space provided.
Section A: General Information
1. What is your gender?
Male [ ] Female [ ]
2. How old are you?
22-28 [ ] 29-35 [ ] 36-45[ ] Above 46 [ ]
3. Which division do you work in?
Human resource [ ]
Transformation [ ]
Quality and Audit [ ]
Marketing [ ]
Business Enterprise [ ]
Mass market [ ]
Sales and distribution [ ]
Carrier services [ ]
Mobile and financial services [ ]
Cooperate Communications [ ]
Finance [ ]
Technology [ ]
Kindly specify the unit e.g. IT, INVAS, Transformation........................................................
4. What is your education level?
[ ] Diploma [ ] Undergraduate [ ] Postgraduate [ ] Professional Certificates
Section B: Telkom
1. Do you know and understand the current vision of Telkom?
[ ] Yes [ ] No
2. Do you know the current mission of Telkom?
[ ] Yes [ ] No
3. In your own opinion, which values do you think Telkom has achieved?
Customer centricity [ ]
Integrity [ ]
Team work [ ]
Innovation [ ]
Empowerment [ ]
4. Do you believe the employees of Telkom have the necessary skills to achieve their objectives in their respective departments?
[ ] Yes [ ] No
If no, kindly specify..................................................................................................
5. Are there programs that help you achieve the strategy of the company?
[ ] Yes [ ] No
If no, kindly specify.................................................................................................
6. Do you believe the current structure enables the employees to achieve the objective of the company?
[ ] Yes [ ] No
If no, kindly specify....................................................................................................
7. What systems do you interact with day to day to achieve your objectives?
System e.g. CRM, MNP, IN......................................................
8. Do you believe the systems you have mentioned above help you to achieve your objectives?
[ ] Yes [ ] No
If no, kindly specify.....................................................................................................
9. Do you believe the current leadership in Telkom drives the vision, mission and values?
[ ] Yes [ ] No
If no, kindly specify......................................................................................................
10. What type of communication is used in Telkom to achieve the strategy?
[ ] Top – down
[ ] Bottom – up
[ ] Both
[ ] None
Appendix 2: Interview guide for board members
This is a guide that will be used in interviewing the board members
1. What is the strategy of Telkom?
2. How do you decide in Telkom who gets to receive the strategy plan?
3. Do you have different strategies for each division and unit?
4. If yes, how does the information reach the employees in the specific divisions?
5. How do you ensure and measure if the employees below the pyramid, who are your strategy executers, have the right strategy knowledge?
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