6.1 Marketing Implementation
With current assets, Enactus aims to target college students to get involved in Leadership and skill building programmes enabling students to create, and implement, social entrepreneurial projects which positively impacts global economy and communities. The current marketing technique is focused in using student's innovative and creative energies to positively change the lives of others in the world. Enactus' marketing resources include:
• Blog Posts
• E-Books and Whitepapers
• Interactive tools
• Social Media channels (Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Instagram, etc.)
• Earned Online Coverage (PR, Social Media, and Reviews)
• Online Brochures and Look-books
• Branding assets (Logos, Fonts, Templates, etc.)
The process of turning marketing strategies and plans into actions is Marketing Implementation. The techniques used by Enactus for promotion are mentioned above, however, universities' and colleges' corridors, walkways, notice boards are filled with posters, ad campaigns, sign up posts, pictures, etc., thereby, making it ineffective to reach the target audience.
The “value proposition” or the set of benefits or values that Enactus promises to deliver to students/faculty advisors/teams to satisfy their needs is to inspire them to join the organisation and create an impact with their idea and facilitate change at a global level.
Furthermore, collaborating Enactus with an existing Society/Club in the Institute will help Enactus to occupy a clear, distinctive and desirable place relative to other famous organisations in the minds of target students to create community development projects, while developing the skills to become socially responsible business leaders of the future. By creating a differentiated marketing strategy synchronised with IMC (Integrated Marketing Communication) would be a valuable tool in addressing the effectiveness of Enactus' brand development and achieve a multiplicative impact from unified promotional efforts.
6.2 Project Implementation
The project aim is to devise and develop a marketing strategy (Integrated Marketing Communication Strategy) that will raise Enactus' profile and presence in University College Dublin and increase participation levels in the organisation's activities among students and faculty.
Theorists and advocates of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) behold that IMC was an innovation to rescue the downward of advertisement industry and to strengthen the strategic and tactical power of branding. IMC offers the option of integrating several marketing communication approaches in one message content for developing effective brand equity. However, IMC is a theoretically celebrated panacea that has experienced a longstanding conceptual and practical muddling, which includes the practicality, definitions, implementations and measurement of its effectiveness. Pertinently, an explicit strategy and tactics of implementing the principles of IMC in advertisement still remain obscure. In a quest to quench the conceptual haziness of IMC and its implementation in advertisement-being one of the very crucial tool in marketing communications, this project presents the review of the implementation process of IMC in the general marketing communication fields, advertisement and branding.
As an indication of ongoing conceptual and theoretical development, a recent IMC article suggested that IMC should
▪ be more strategic than executable,
▪ be about more than just advertising and sales promotion messages,
▪ include two-way as well as one-way communication, and
▪ be results driven.
IMC is also regarded by some as a management philosophy to be incorporated into the organisation's approach to business (Cornelissen 2001; Duncan 1998), whereas others regard it primarily as a process of campaign development connected to a wider brand strategy (Nowak and Phelps 1994; Percy1997). The notion of IMC as a philosophy or concept was evident as early as 1991 in the widely cited definition by the
American Association of Advertising Agencies (Caywood, Schultz, and Wang 1991). Furthermore, Duncan and Everett (1993, p. 31), when speaking of the experience in large U.S.-based organisations, suggested, "an organisation that has an IMC philosophy may or may not physically integrate into one department the people responsible for the various marketing communication functions, although the trend is to do so".
Duncan and Mulhern (2004) note that a common element to most of the recent definitions of IMC is its representation as either a strategic or tactical process. It is commonly understood that the strategic dimension of marketing management is the framework that provides guidance for actions (tactics) to be taken, and, at the same time, is shaped by the actions taken and the response to such actions by competitors, customers, and other stakeholders. In a broad sense, strategic focus emphasises the proper identification of market opportunities as the basis for marketing planning and growth, with the objective of achieving sustainable competitive advantage (Rust et al. 2004). Tactical dimensions relate to the shorter-term activities to be used in implementing those strategies to achieve planned marketing objectives.
The division between strategic and tactical dimensions is also reflected in Schultz's (Schultz 1998; Schultz and Schultz 1998) representation of integration as a continuum from lower-level integration through to "absolute integration" involving several evolutionary phases:
Phase1: Tactical coordination of messages that ensures consistent depiction of core values.
Phase2: Redefining the scope of marketing communications to take an "outside-in" approach, with all potential communication focused on consumers' perceptions.
Phase3: Application of information technology to turn customer data into customer knowledge.
Phase4: Strategic and financial integration for consistent monitoring of performance of marketing communication efforts for return on investment.
Strategic and Tactical Characteristics of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC)
1. Driven by market-based assets and financial expectations 1. Campaign-level consistency
2. Customer and stakeholder connectivity 2. Campaign-level clarity
3. Strategic Consistency 3. Campaign-level coordination
4. Cross-functional integration
5. Resource commitment for IMC
Table 3: Characteristics of IMC
Integrated Marketing Communication(IMC) Plan
IMC Plan covers all the distinctive ways that a business or association imparts about itself, its items, or its administrations to the world. It incorporates showcasing, publicizing, advancement, advertising, and correspondence (both offline and online) systems and strategies. It gives the guide to an organization to convey messages to, and communicate with, target markets and public. An IMC plan can be created for a whole business, new product or service launch, an event, or a program.
7.2 Category Data
Enactus Ireland has a presence in 10 campuses across Ireland. These campuses have over 345 students involved with Enactus Ireland. Students from these campuses have worked on 48 projects in affiliation with Enactus Ireland, out of the 48 projects, 28 projects are still active at different campuses.
Campus # Projects
Cork Institute of Technology 2
Dublin City University 4
Dublin Institute of Technology 3
Dún Laoghaire Institute of Art, Design and Technology 3
Maynooth University 2
National University of Ireland Galway 3
Trinity College Dublin 3
University College Cork 5
University College Dublin 2
University of Limerick 1
Table 4: Number of Projects in Enactus Ireland
Partnerships and organizations assume a fundamental part in advancing Enactus Ireland's work to enhance lives, strengthen communities and grow socially dependable business pioneers. Executives from many organizations become actively involved with mentoring teams, providing training and in judging Enactus Ireland Competitions. Enactus Ireland has 17 corporate partners, some of them are KPMG, Bank of Ireland, HSBC, Abbott, AIG, Microsoft etc.
Figure 9: Statistics of Enactus Ireland (enactusireland.org/about-us/our-network)
7.3 SWOT Analysis
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) Analysis is a far-reaching review and aggressive investigation that dissects the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats facing a business. An honest SWOT analysis enables a retailer to distinguish what it's doing well, where it can enhance, and where it fits in the competitive landscape.
SWOT Analysis is the most prestigious instrument for review and examination of the overall strategic position of a business and its condition. Its key design is to recognize the systems that will create a specific business plan for the firm that will best align to the organization's assets and capacities to the prerequisites of nature in which the firm works. As it was, it is the establishment for assessing the internal potential and limitations and the plausible/likely opportunities and threats from the external conditions. It sees all positive and negative factors inside and outside the firm that influences their achievement. A consistent study of the nature in which the firm works helps in forecasting/predicting the changing patterns and aides in incorporating them in the decision-making process of the organization.
Performing a SWOT analysis encourages one to completely comprehend his or her business by showing a perspective of the organization's operations from a different angle. For new organizations, this analysis is critical to the organization's planning procedure. It can be performed whenever the organization requires. An organization's unique "SWOTs," as they are frequently referred to, will help get a good business in good shape.
7.3.1 Strengths and Weaknesses
The strengths and weaknesses part of SWOT are internal to the business. For instance, one quality might be an organization's intellectual property while low level expert or poor physical location might be a noteworthy shortcoming. While these internal positives and negatives can be adjusted, doing as such for the most part takes a lot of work.
Figure 10: SWOT Conversion Strategies
7.3.2 Opportunities and Threats
Opportunities and threats are normally external to the organization. For example, collaborating up with another company to enhance the organization's market presence is an opportunity, the prospective partner, collaborating up with a competitor is a possible threat.
7.3.3 SWOT Analysis of Enactus Ireland
Enactus Ireland takes an effort to work with pioneers in business and higher education to motivate students to think out of the box, to take an initiative and make a difference in their societies, while building up the skills to become socially responsible and leaders of tomorrow.
Figure 11: SWOT Analysis
Networking: It helps to create a good network for an individual, that may be helpful for future projects.
Experience/Exposure: Students who become a part of Enactus Ireland gain a practical experience in different projects, they get exposure in various fields that will be beneficial to them in various forms of life.
Self-Reliance: Working on different projects help to build confidence in doing different task and negotiations.
Creativity: Brainstorming and collaborating with different individuals helps develop different creative ideas amongst the group, this helps them to perform the task more efficiently and dynamically.
Events: The volunteers organize different events to improve the knowledge and creativity of the people involved
Resource Availability: It is difficult to get resources for a project that require a huge amount of resources and personnel.
Independent Projects: There is not much collaboration between different projects, which results in working the extra hour for a different project, despite communicating with a project working on the same issue.
Turnover of members: turnover of members is very low when it comes to big and critical projects.
Public Speaking: It helps volunteers to develop public speaking skills, which is an essential skill for the overall personality development of an individual.
Marketing to Post-graduate students: It helps build a good profile, that will be beneficial while applying for different job opportunities.
Recruitment of Students for Academic Projects: It helps people think out of the box, they try to improvise and come up with different ideas that may help their cause.
Collaboration with other societies: Enactus Ireland does not believe in spoon feeding the people in need, it believes in empowering them so that they can help themselves and the society.
Time: Time is of the essence, all the projects are time bound, they need to be completed within a period or needs to be transferred to the students next year successfully.
Lack of Funding: Funding is a big issue, all projects require funding in one way or the another, and raising fund is a bit tedious than implementing a project.
7.4 Strategic Campaign Decisions
• Increase the presence of Enactus Ireland at UCD
• Increase the brand awareness of UCD Enactus under the guidance from Innovation Academy by collaborating with different clubs at the university
7.4.2 Target Audience
The primary audience consists of the students at UCD. The organization at the campus is run mostly by volunteers who increase and advertise the presence of the organization. They keep the rest of the students at campus updated about the events and competitions being organized by Enactus Ireland. Currently, over 345 students from 10 institutions are involved with Enactus Ireland. They are aiming to surpass this numbers by increasing their influence at UCD.
7.4.3 Message to target Audience
Participation in Enactus Ireland furnishes third level students with the chance to have a significant effect in their groups while picking up the experience, abilities, and contacts important to assemble a fruitful vocation. Enactus Ireland students are talented, hardworking, and value-driven pioneers that mix an aggressive soul and craving to prevail with a feeling of respectability and yearning to give something back. As an individual from an Enactus group, students will be joining an overall system of more than 67,500 different students who are each making their own commitment toward Enactus Ireland's shared mission of making world the world a better place. It's an ordeal that will change the lives of those in need and perhaps their own too Key messages directed to the target audience are:
• Change people's lives and have positive impact on the society
• Building Community Relationships
• Gain Real World Experience
• Create Career Connections
• Represent your university and maybe your country
The following is a concise statement that incorporates the essence of what Enactus Ireland wants every member of the target audiences to believe and remember about the organization:
We believe in investing in students who take EN-trepreneurial ACT-ion for others, creating a better world for US all.
7.5 Communication Strategies and Tactics
Strategy: Create an identity for Enactus at UCD.
Tactics: Develop and distribute flyers through the University during Fresher's week.
Draft brochure for potential volunteer.
Recruit volunteers in volunteer fare at UCD on October 2017.
Figure 12: Enactus Poster (enactus.org/seeopportunity/take-action/on-your-campus)
Strategy: Develop a complete online marketing plan.
Tactics: Develop a Facebook page for UCD Enactus.
Register on volunteer.ie to recruit volunteers.
Create an informational video to post on YouTube and other social medias.
Strategy: Develop a Public Relation Campaign.
Tactics: Organize a social entrepreneurship competition within the university.
Have the winning team of Enactus National Competition present their ideas to motivate more students to join Enactus.
Strategy: Promotion through mail chain.
Tactics: David Nevin of the innovation academy will be sending out a mail promoting Enactus Ireland amongst UCD students in the new session (2017-18).
7.6 Campaign Strategies
To communicate the message of Enactus Ireland, time and effort needs to be invested in integrated marketing communication campaign and will take advantage of the following marketing communication tools:
7.6.1 Events Marketing
Event marketing depicts the way toward building up a themed show, display, or presentation to promote a product, service, cause, or organization utilizing face to face engagement. Events can happen online or offline and can be taken an interest in, facilitated, or sponsored. These activities can be promoted through different kinds of marketing techniques.
In today's buyer-empowered world, advertisers need to grab every chance to build relationships, create goodwill, and acquire the trust of imminent purchasers and clients. The modern consumer needs more than just a pitch to assess arrangements or making decisions while purchasing. Events offer a one of a kind opportunity for them to associate with brands to get a first-hand feeling of an organization's concentration, point of view, and identity. Event marketing should be an indispensable part of demand generation, and a key mix of offline and online events are necessary to any organization's key approach. The following are a few event marketing tools:
Flyers ought to be utilized to advance awareness about Enactus Ireland's services, volunteer opportunities and events. Distribution of the flyers will be done at all the schools on the main campus as well as the other campuses. All flyers will take have an imaginative brief and will be comparative in look and feel. All necessary contact details will be listed on it for additional points of contact and volunteering opportunities. One sample flyer is presented below:
Figure 13: Enactus Flyer
18.104.22.168 College Newspaper
Writing letters to the editor of college newspaper will advance Enactus Ireland and its group outreach. The letters should address an issue and present Enactus Ireland as the source of its solution. This letter should explain how Enactus Ireland solved or came up with an idea to solve that problem. This will motivate students to find out about the work of the organization, consequently expanding its influence and impact at UCD. News releases and general feature stories ought to be composed for college newspapers (College Tribune and University Observer) preceding and after events and for general awareness about Enactus Ireland. Pre-composing stories will expand the possibility of being published. This ought to be sent by means of fax and email to college newspaper. A subsequent telephone call or email is important to confirm the receipt.
22.214.171.124 Campus Television Network
Campus Television Network(CTN) is a student run TV station, that is operated by the students at UCD. This TV network is run for the students by the students. This can provide a great platform to highlight various events organized by UCD Enactus, they can also have them run the Enactus Ireland National Competition, to make students at UCD aware of various projects that are undertaken by Enactus Ireland, thereby increasing their influence at UCD. This TV network can also be viewed online on YouTube (www.youtube.com/user/CampusTN).
Radio has become an important source of information in the 21st century, it provides an opportunity to people who do not have access to newspaper or television to keep up-to-date with the news and other services. It also provides various other information and entertainment programs for its listeners. UCD has its own radio station – Belfield FM. UCD Enactus can use the services of this radio station in many creative ways. They can advertise their events on various radio shows. UCD Enactus can also request a Radio Jockey for their events, which can later be used for broadcasting on the Belfield FM.
A word-of-mouth marketing campaign, also referred as a WOM advertising campaign. This publicizing strategy that depends on one student/volunteer promoting Enactus Ireland by talking with another student about it. While WOM campaign efforts are free in their most essential, inspiring discussion about the organization and their work, takes strategizing and incredible execution. On the hindsight, if not done effectively can also have an adverse effect.
7.6.2 Public Relations
The public relations campaign will profit UCD Enactus from multiple points of view. Public relations are a reasonable yet powerful promoting instrument. A complete public relations campaign for Enactus Ireland incorporates events, news releases, general stories, letters to the editor, flyers, an e-newsletter, and testimonials.
• Organize an annual UCD Enactus event
• Create flyers to promote UCD Enactus and events
• Write general stories for college newspaper
• Write letters to editors
• Create monthly e-newsletter
• Collect testimonials from volunteers
7.6.3 Digital Marketing
A standout amongst the most widely recognized components that go into internet marketing is having and implementing a solid Digital Marketing Strategy. This is one strategy or method that can be clarified as the aggregate approach that should be settled on with regards to contributing on an online marketing tool for the fulfilment of the business goals.
Digital marketing strategy is the strategic use of the internet by a business to promote their image, items, and business ideas. To be most productive, it ought to be executed in view of an organization's point by point attention to the digital market and the conduct of the internet users. It is additionally in view of an organization's understanding of the online technical structures, and the expert involvement in the advancement of strong business and advertising objectives.
Since digital marketing is considered as a complex and consistently developing part of online business, viable methodologies should always be implemented in front of the circumstances. This can be accomplished through orderly research and systematic survey methods for the improvement of the most ideal solutions.
The main objectives that are needed to be achieved using digital marketing are:
• Develop a campus wide campaign to help Enactus Ireland, grab a foothold at UCD.
• Have students volunteer and participate in UCD Enactus's events.
• Create events that will interest students to join UCD Enactus.
A monthly e-newsletter ought to be sent to the UCD email database about Enactus Ireland. The substance ought to shift from month to month, yet it should incorporate up and coming events, the accomplishment of recent events, client and volunteer stories, and photographs. The e-bulletin will set up a steady contact with current volunteers and will encourage these people to "Find us on Facebook." This newsletter should also be shared by the ‘UCD Enactus' members through various social media.
Enactus Ireland at UCD has a Facebook page by the name of ‘UCD Enactus', it has been revamped and updated with all the recent Enactus Ireland's activities. It has the responsibility of notifying the members about the current UCD Enactus activities. Volunteers must promote the page so that other students on campus may become aware of the activities held by Enactus at UCD campus.
Twitter has become an increasingly influential platform to share and promote one's ideas. This can be used to the advantage of UCD Enactus, in their cause of creating an influence on the UCD premises. Members of UCD Enactus would be required to share and promote twitter handle of ‘UCD Enactus' – @EnactusUCD so that students across various UCD campus can stay updated on UCD Enactus's activities and promote ‘#' to publicize the cause across the web platform.
126.96.36.199 Blog Campaigns
Blogger outreach, also referred to as Blogger relations is one of the most imperative instruments to use as a feature of one's marketing campaign. On the off chance that utilized accurately, it can likewise be a standout amongst the best advertising tools. Bloggers can enable UCD Enactus to associate with their audience in a way they have never done. They can help the organization to venture into online networking, and connect with a group of people they didn't know they had. Blogs on ‘myucdblog' or ‘ucdblog.ucd' can likewise help them to share individual stories and experience that can help frame a positive supposition of the association at the UCD campus. These blogs can later be promoted on Facebook, Instagram, and twitter.
188.8.131.52 Video Blog (Vlog)
Video blog offer a different and undoubtedly a distinct advantage over the normal text based blogs. First, the viewer can not only see the author but also hear them, this tends to add a sense of ‘personal touch', which may boost the author's credibility. Second, many people do not like to read long texts, vlogs are beneficial for such people. Finally, video can pack more information in a short span of time. The members of UCD Enactus can create a vlog where they can broadcast all their events and special talk sessions, this will help them create a personal connection with the followers and viewers.
184.108.40.206 E-Mail Marketing
Exceptional email marketing campaigns should be shrewdly composed to draw attention in busy inboxes. Promoting messages likewise should be customized, loaded with intriguing illustrations, and intended for desktop and cell phones. And above all, messages must contain a meaningful call-to-action. Given the circumstances, if brands are taking up supporters' opportunity and inbox space with another email, each message must have a point to it. David Nevin of the Innovation Academy has the email of all the students at UCD, he will be sending out a mail promoting Enactus Ireland amongst UCD students in the new session.
7.7 Campaign Marketing
Every plan needs to be evaluated once its implemented, this describes the methods that are needed to be applied or actions that are needed to be taken to evaluate the results of implemented plan. To evaluate the IMC Plan that has been recommended, there are a few ways to measure its effectiveness.
7.7.1 Evaluation of Effectiveness
To decide the adequacy of the IMC design, it is important to have strategies for the assessment of every target. A daily assessment of volunteer hours and advance on various social ventures will suffice in following Enactus Ireland's progress at UCD. This information ought to be compiled at the end of every month.
7.7.2 Awareness Level Evaluation
The awareness level of Enactus Ireland at UCD can be determined through an overview. At present, it is proportional to zero, this makes the assessment to some degree less demanding in the evaluation. A comparable overview ought to be led every year to track changes in the awareness level and student's impression of the organization. To eliminate printing and other costs, the survey should be done online. The study ought to be directed in May to permit time for assessment and to roll out any vital improvements in light of results for the up and coming year.
7.7.3 Media Coverage Evaluation
Media coverage is followed most effortlessly on the web. Google Alerts is a free service that will scan the Internet for particular terms. The inquiries can be additionally determined by sort, for example, news or sites and the subsequent connections are conveyed by means of email instantly, daily, or weekly. This will alert the members of any mention of UCD Enactus in any vlog, blog, article or social media. The mention of UCD Enactus in any article or blog ought to be printed and kept in a media folio.
Following print media requires additional time and exertion. Any article or commercial in the college newspaper that mentions UCD Enactus or its events ought to be cut and kept in the media binder.
7.7.4 Online Evaluation
The number of Facebook or Twitter followers and the number of people following any update Facebook wall of ‘UCD Enactus' and the number of hits the informational video gets on YouTube will be an indication of UCD student's involvement with Enactus Ireland on the web. These components ought to be followed on a monthly basis in the media binder.
Strategic Dimensions of IMC
The strategic dimensions of IMC relate primarily to the quality, comprehensiveness, and flexibility of the process of IMC planning and strategy development. In this model, the parameters of IMC at the strategic level can be grouped under five broad dimensions:
1. Market-Based Assets and Financial Expectations
IMC planning is surely performance or outcome driven (Duncan and Moriarty 1997; Duncan and Mulhern 2004; Kitchen, Brignall, and Li 2004; Low 2000; Schultz 1998; Schultz, Cole, and Bailey 2004; Smith 1996). While devising and effecting a strategy, the decisions need to be underpinned and shared through clear and consistent linkages, so as to build and maintain brand equity and observe financial indicators of performance such as sales, market share, profit, and return on investment. The use of improved data and measurement technologies are paramount in shaping IMC and facilitating its acceptance by senior management.
2. Customer and Stakeholder Connectivity
“IMC requires the adoption of an "outside-in" approach that enhances customer connectivity and organizational responsiveness to change by putting the customer first” (Duncan and Moriarty 1997; Pickton and Hartley 1998; Schultz 1998; Smith 1996). More specifically, IMC planners and strategists require the existence, calibration, and application of a marketing information system designed to elicit a clear understanding of brand touch points, effect a timely dialogue with customers and other key stakeholders, and facilitate insights into competitive brand activity. The existence of a database calibrated to measure customer and stakeholder responsiveness of campaigns will also facilitate measurement of performance.
3. Strategic Consistency
This dimension recognizes that all parts of the brand entity send a message to customers and other stakeholders. The coordination of brand messages, from whatever source, including other aspects of the marketing mix, coordination of customer-facing staff, and, more broadly, contact with the organization, must be consistent to protect brand image (Duncan and Moriarty1997). Achieving strategic consistency has also been likened to central coordination of IMC programs (Cornelissen 2001; Duncan and Moriarty 1997; Eagle and Kitchen 2000; Low 2000; Pickton and Hartley 1998). Enabling strategic consistency requires the use of meetings and other planning mechanisms that facilitate linkages between marketing and brand strategy and IMC strategy, and also the use of mechanisms to ensure that the brand has the best opportunity for achieving one voice/one look across all elements of the marketing mix (Duncan and Moriarty 1997; Eagle and Kitchen 2000; Schultz 1998; Smith 1996). The issue of consistency should also extend to cover the design and implementation of campaigns over time (Duncan and Moriarty 1997; Eagle and Kitchen 2000; Phelps and Johnson 1996).
4. Cross-Functional Integration
It has been argued that an organization cannot be integrated externally without being integrated internally (Duncan and Mulhern 2004). Cross-functional integration is built on focused internal marketing processes and provides the foundation for effective IMC planning and reporting (Conduit and Mavondo 2001; Cornelissen 2001; Duncan and Moriarty 1997). Top management needs to be involved to drive the process (Duncan and Mulhern 2004), and there needs to be a willingness to change policies that inhibit the implementation of IMC (Phelps and Johnson 1996; Smith 1996).
5. Resource Commitment for IMC
In order for IMC to be performed effectively, there must be adequate resource provision, including time, funds, and skilled and knowledgeable personnel (Duncan and Moriarty 1997; Eagle and Kitchen 2000; Smith 1996). Resource commitment can also be a useful mechanism for signalling the legitimacy of behaviours and mental models consistent with implementing IMC.
Intersection of IMC, Brand Orientation, and Market Orientation
Pickton and Hartley (1998, p. 450) state: "It is very difficult to conceptualise the big picture and to muster all the organisational influences needed to achieve integration. There are many levels and dimensions to integration which all pose their individual and collective difficulties. To be implemented, IMC requires the involvement of the whole organisation and its agents from the chief executive downward. It needs consideration from the highest corporate strategic level down to the day-to-day implementation of individual tactical activity." In recognizing this complexity, this project attempts to explain the role of IMC in Enactus. The project also attempts to define or establish a relationship between IMC, market orientation (MO), and an emerging concept of brand orientation (BO) by proposing that both MO and BO are necessary conditions for successful IMC state.
We accept that IMC can be conceived at two distinct levels, that is, strategic or tactical (presented above); however, we will emphasise the strategic component of IMC, which takes into account the cultural and learning requirements of positioning brands over time. The project recognises the complementarities between IMC to MO and BO, and how each address a critical facet of achieving a competitive advantage through building brand equity.
Figure 14: Intersection of IMC, BO, MO
In justifying and presenting our model, we aim to present a background to MO, and BO concepts as well, highlighting various approaches to conceptualizing IMC and the linkages to MO and BO. We also intend to present a model that illustrates the testable relationships between market orientation, brand orientation, and IMC, as well as the linkages to performance outcomes. In conclusion, we plan to discuss the managerial and research implications of this approach.
IMC Plan Implementation
Enactus Ireland has been trying to grab a foothold at UCD since 2014 when the UCD Enactus team won the national championship and came 4th in the world championship. Enactus Ireland has not been able to form a club at UCD like has for other universities, where they can easily recruit members and organize events in the university. Due to this UCD Enactus has fallen behind its competitors by a long margin.
For Enactus Ireland to have an influence at UCD, the project team devised an IMC Plan. Following this, the team came up with many plans that were discussed with the Enactus Ireland representative wherein, it was suggested that the ‘Investors and Entrepreneurs Society' will take UCD Enactus under their wing and promote them along with their own club, by including UCD Enactus in their weekly mails and put up posters and banners during their weekly event that would promote UCD Enactus. Secondly, the team approached Holly Dignam and David Nevin at the Innovation Academy to ask for their assistance, which they gladly agreed to. David having the database of all the existing students at UCD agreed to send out emails promoting UCD Enactus along with Enactus Ireland and its achievements, so as to create an awareness amongst the UCD students in the coming session (2017-18). This will allow the students to be more aware of Enactus Ireland and their activities, and since its coming from the Innovation Academy it will have a more emphatic impact.
Holly also agreed to talk about Enactus Ireland from her stand during the fresher's week and will also be handing out flyers during the same period, to make the incoming students aware of the presence of Enactus Ireland at UCD.
In a meeting between Elizabeth O'Brien (Enactus Representative), Holly Dignam, David Nevin and the project team it was discussed that the Innovation Academy will hold Social Entrepreneurship Competition to promote UCD Enactus's cause, in the same meeting it was also decided that during the fresher's week one of the successful team in the Enactus Ireland National Championship 2017, will also come on campus and talk to students about their project and their ideas which will put Enactus Ireland in a shining light amongst UCD students.
To better implement the ideas and strategies designed over the course of many meeting between the team and Enactus Ireland, Amy Neville Fulena has taken over as the Team Leader at the UCD Enactus, It was through her efforts that the ‘Investors and Entrepreneurs Society' came on board with UCD Enactus, to them under their wing and promote UCD Enactus along with their own society activities, she has also designed a rough draft of events for the coming session.
2017 Semester One Plan
Week Plan Date
1 (Sept 11th) PRO drive All Week
2 (Sept 18th) What is Enactus/ HeadstARTS Pizza night 20.09.2017
3 (Sept 25th) 1. Empathy Workshop 27.09.17
4 (Oct 2nd) 2. Define Workshop 04.10.17
Team Leadership Workshop?
5 (Oct 9th) 3. Ideation Workshop 12.10.17
First BAB Meeting 6-7pm
6 (Oct 16th) 4. Prototype Workshop 18.10.17
7 (Oct 23rd) 5. Project Testing TBC
8 (Oct 30th) 6. Analyse Results 01.11.17
Second BAB Meeting 6-7pm
9 (Nov 6th) DogPatch Event TBC
Share results/Iterate next move
10 (Nov 13th) General Team Meeting 15.11.17
11 (Nov 20th) Showcase Prep 22.11.17
Semester Party TBC
Table 5: Semester 1 Enactus UCD Plan (2017-18)
The relationship between Integrated Marketing Communication, Brand Orientation and Marketing Orientation is simply grasped by the above-mentioned diagram which depicts the interdependence conceptualization and overlapping. In the context of competition, the three aspects (IMC, BO and MO) play an integral role in Marketing Management of an organization which aims to achieve organizational goals of entrepreneurial leadership.
MO provides the context of the above-three. Having conceptualization and operationalized as organizational culture, MO is conceived as a foundation to both BO and IMC. The concept of internal marketing is closely related to the principal link between IMC and MO. With respect to inter-functional coordination, MO is a means of optimizing resource use whereas in context of IMC, it maximizes communication effectiveness and consistency. The organization can achieve optimum results if both these departments or functional areas cooperate and integrate.
We have seen that the principal link between BO and IMC is the brand. For building and managing brands which are distinctive, provide functional and symbolic value for customers and stakeholders, and helps in orienting and positioning the brand. Integrated marketing communication is a sine qua non to achieve this objective. BO provides means of translating a long-term objective of MO into an actionable set of activities, thus the principal link between MO and BO is a customer.
Figure 15: IMC, BO, MO Nexus
From the figure 15, we have marked the nexus-the area in which the non-static interplay of IMC, BO and MO occurs. The situation marked the NEXUS gives the area of commonality among MO, BO, and IMC. All of three have participated equally in this area. The purpose of this region is simultaneously looking after customers, inter-functional coordination, and brand identity. The harmonization between BO, MO and IMC becomes closer if the NEXUS region made is small which in turns helps to become the organization effective.
The responsibility of the three concepts is to fulfil the needs of the customers whereas the IMC meets the requirement of stakeholders such as investors, media and employees. The prime concern is the integration of these three concepts without whom the cultivation of shared meaning or commitment fails.
Brand Identity is an important concept. It makes brand equity, if the brand identity has a significant impact on customer franchise. MO and BO looks after creation of the identity and IMC becomes the vital role. Thus, we conclude that IMC, BO and MO are one above the another and each concern to meets the needs of organizational objective.
Throughout the paper, we have attempted to show the relationship and functional organisation between IMC, market orientation, and brand orientation. We have emphasized that each concept reflects specific emphasis, but collectively, they provide a rich description and complex insight into the relationship. For organizations with low market orientation, in this case, the cultural context for inter-functional coordination and focusing on customers, attempts to develop IMC may succeed. This is because the cultural foundation for cooperation across functions, departments, and SBUs (strategic business units), or with suppliers and other stakeholders, may be existing and functioning properly. Along the same line of argument, we believe that where brand orientation is low, implying low sharing of corporate or brand identity and vision, attempts at introducing IMC may not be as successful as when both MO and BO are adequately developed.
Finally, we see the conceptual model presented in the paper as being imminently testable. The measures of market orientation have been around for over a decade and are becoming well accepted. The measures of brand orientation are slowly becoming acceptable, although still at an early stage of development. The performance measures suggested in the study have been empirically tested by other researchers and present no special problems with operationalization. The value of operationalizing this model will be seen through a clearer understanding of IMC's relationship to other marketing concepts and to customer and brand equity and marketplace performance.
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