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  • Subject area(s): Marketing
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  • Published on: 14th September 2019
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The Master in Information Management course provides six specialisation for an individual to be the ideal information Leader. Depending on what aspect of the Management Information System, a person is interested in, courses can be chosen to advance's one's career. The general approach that is followed is to choose one major specialisation and one minor specialization. However, individual are free to not choose any specialisation but to get an all around view of the courses as well.

In this paper, we would be understand the basic definition of each other specialization, the objective behind a specialisation and the focus area.

The focus area defines how managerial or technical a position is.

The six specialisations that are offered are as follows

Business Intelligence

Definition: Business intelligence (BI) comprises the strategies and technologies used by enterprises for the data analysis of business information.[1] BI technologies provide historical, current and predictive views of business operations. Common functions of business intelligence technologies include reporting, online analytical processing, analytics, data mining, process mining, complex event processing, business performance management, benchmarking, text mining, predictive analytics and prescriptive analytics.

Objective: BI's major objective is to enable easy access to data (and models) to provide business managers with ability to conduct analysis.

Business Tools used

Focus: It tends towards the managerial side, however depending on the specialisation you choose it with, it can be aligned towards technical as well.

Data Science

Data science is an interdisciplinary field that uses scientific methods, processes, algorithms and systems to extract knowledge and insights from data in various forms, both structured and unstructured,[1][2] similar to data mining.

Data science is a "concept to unify statistics, data analysis, machine learning and their related methods" in order to "understand and analyze actual phenomena" with data.[3] It employs techniques and theories drawn from many fields within the context of mathematics, statistics, information science, and computer science.

Objective: To use methods, tools, framework, for analysing and deriving insight from large scale, heterogeneous data.

Focus: It is highly technical in nature, but can be made non technical by taking other specialisation or courses.

Information Consulting

Information Consulting reflects a businesslike approach to information services, and focuses on the importance of in-depth service and information literacy skills is an outgrowth of tiered reference experiments.

Objective: Information consulting helps leading companies transform business objectives into innovative solutions

Focus: It's extremely managerial in nature, and demands efficient and effective communication skills.

Information Architecture

nformation architecture (IA) is the structural design of shared information environments; the art and science of organizing and labelling websites, intranets, online communities and software to support usability and findability; and an emerging community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape

Objective: To work on back end and front end systems and be able to interact with business, technical and design professionals.

Focus: On the spectrum of managerial vs technical, Information architecture almost lies in the middle with equal scope of each.

Information Security

Information security, sometimes shortened to InfoSec, is the practice of preventing unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, inspection, recording or destruction of information

Objective: To assure quality, security and appropriate use of information assets.

User Experience: User Experience (UX) refers to a person's emotions and attitudes about using a particular product, system or service. It includes the practical, experiential, affective, meaningful and valuable aspects of human–computer interaction and product ownership

Objective: To learn to understand user's perception about a product and find the most efficient and effective way for user satisfaction.

Information Architecture and it's importance in User Experience, Usable Security and Consulting.

Information architecture is all about organising the content in a way that it can be understood in an easiest manner.It can be visualised as an intersection of the users, context and the content.

 Good Information Architecture is a foundation of efficient user experience because well-organized, well-structured content makes a product easier to use for your users. To understand the difference between the two, it's important to remember what UX design is. User Experience is the way a person feels about using a product, system, or service and this includes a person's perceptions of practical aspects such as utility, ease of use, and efficiency of the system. It's clear UX design means much more than structuring content. At the same time, good Information Architecture is a foundation of efficient user experience. User Experience takes Information Architecture as its foundation and brings it to the next level. That's why every good UX Designer is also a competent information architect.

It is said that user experience and security cannot go hand in hand. But, in the digital era that we live in, it is extremely important for users to feel safe about the application that they are using, from app-centric perspective and also from an individual perspective. The idea to make security understandable to users is what is called usable security. It could involve different aspects of user design and security like

1) Reduce configurability

2)Visible security states

Intuitive user interfaces

metaphors that user understanding

while setting up certain user expectations like Authentication, Password protection, audit trails, privacy protection.

An information architects designs a blueprint of the site.

A user experience designer designs the site based on the blueprint and the user requirements and preferences

A security artichect analyses the site and points out the security risk with respect to the site and explains the designer.

A consultant then communicates between the UI designer, Security architect to establish an optimum secure design.

UX Designer

The “UX designer” title tends to be the most holistic and broad of the various positions. This position will span a variety of roles and responsibilities. It is typical that UX design jobs will ask applicants to be a “full-stack designer” in that you should have experience in the design process from research through wireframing and even a bit of visual design or front-end development.

Key skills to know: Research methodologies, wireframing, ideation, prototyping

User Researcher

User researchers are responsible for understanding user needs, behaviors, and motivations. Through empathizing with the user, a researcher is able to inform design decisions and advocate for the user. This role typically works closely with business analysts, data analysts, and marketing teams to help determine product goals. In companies with larger UX teams, researchers may work separately from interaction designers or user interface designers in a more waterflow process.

Key skills to know: User interviews, survey design, data analysis, usability testing

Information Architect

Information architects are responsible for a product's organization. They determine how information should be arranged and displayed to make it easy to understand and use. This ultimately helps the user interpret her surroundings, navigate around a product, and easily discover what it is that she's looking to find or do. IA comes from library sciences and can help define product strategy.

Key skills to know: Card sorting, understanding of cognitive psychology, library sciences, user research analysis

Interaction Designer

Interaction design is all about how the a product feels and responds to a user. This role is typically very focused on precise user interface details. These details can include anything from designing movement, to animation, to visual aesthetics. If you're looking to practice your research skills or dive into the nitty gritty of process flows and user journeys, this may not be the role for you. However, if you love interaction and you're passionate about how products react and respond to users, this might be perfect for you.

Key skills to know: Visual design, HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, animation

User Interface Designer

User interface design is under the user experience umbrella but occupies its own distinct niche within the discipline. UI designers are most concerned with the look and feel of page visuals and layout. They ultimately choose where buttons should be placed, what colors are used, and what style the dropdown menu will display. Keep in mind, many companies will combine the role of the user interface designer with UX design responsibilities.

Key skills to know: Visual design, user interface patterns, typography, layout best practices

Product Designer

Product designer is an extremely popular title and one of the most ambiguous as well. You will be hard pressed to get the same definition from any two people because it tends to be used as a catch-all term that varies from company to company. For this reason, the role of product designer tends to include many aspects of all the roles defined above and is often most closely related to UX design because of the range of skill sets it can include.

Key skills to know: Content strategy, sketching, scope defining

Front-End Web Developer

As Nick Schaden told us, “Front-end web development is a mix of programming and layout that powers the visuals and interactions of the web.” Front-end development is very closely tied to user experience because it the physical programming of the designed interface. While this is a separate job, it is not uncommon to see UX designers asked to program or front-end developers asked to possess knowledge of UX.

#5: Security Engineer

A Security Engineer is a mid-level employee who is responsible for building and maintaining the IT security solutions of an organization. In this capacity, Security Engineers configure firewalls, test new security solutions, and investigate intrusion incidents, among other duties, all while reporting to the Security Manager.

Candidates who aspire to become Security Engineers must possess a strong technical background in vulnerability and penetrating testing, virtualization security, application and encryption technologies, and network and web-related protocols. The more tools and concepts with which a Security Engineer is familiar, the more they can help troubleshoot any problems with an organization's security systems.

#4: Security Manager

A Security Manager is a mid-level employee who is tasked with managing an organization's IT security policy. Soft skills, such as leadership and strong interpersonal and communication skills, are therefore crucial for successful Security Managers.

Individuals who are interested in becoming a Security Manager must be prepared to create and execute security strategies based on the input from the Security Director and/or the CISO. They must also test and implement new security tools, lead security awareness campaigns, and administer both department budgets and staff schedules.

#3: Security Architect

A Security Architect is a senior-level employee who is responsible for building and maintaining the computer and network security infrastructure for an organization. This position requires that individuals develop a comprehensive picture of an organization's technology and information needs, which they can then use to develop and test security structures.

Security Architects are expected to be knowledgeable in a diverse set of technical skills including ISO 27001/27002, ITIL and COBIT frameworks, risk assessment procedures, operating systems, and perimeter security controls.

#2: Security Director

A Security Director is a senior-level employee whose task is to oversee the implementation of all IT security measures throughout an organization. As such, Security Directors are responsible for designing, managing and allocating resources to various security programs within an organization's security department; creating user awareness and security compliance education campaigns; interacting with non-management employees; and offering key assistance to law enforcement in the event of a security incident and subsequent investigation.

Security Directors are expected to possess backgrounds similar to those of CISOs with respect to their knowledge of IT strategy, enterprise architecture, and other security-related concepts. In fact, Security Directors report directly to a CISO and generally assume the position of this executive role in smaller organizations.

#1: Chief Information Security Officer (CISO)

A CISO is a C-level management executive whose primary task is to oversee the general operations of an organization's IT security department and other related staff. The organization's overall security is the foremost concern of the CISO. As such, persons who aspire to become a CISO must demonstrate a strong background in IT strategy and security architecture.

They must also possess people and communication skills, which they are expected to use when assembling and managing a team of IT security experts as well as when consulting with other organizational executives and/or federal agencies depending on the nature of their workplace.

#10: Incident Responder

An Incident Responder is one who is responsible for addressing security incidents, threats and vulnerabilities that arise in an organization.

Individuals who aspire to become Incident Responders must be prepared to actively monitor organization networks for intrusions, perform security audits and penetration testing, conduct malware analysis and reverse engineering, and design measures that not only minimize the damage of a given incident but that also prevent a similar intrusion from ever happening again. Incident Responders are typically members of a Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT) and so report to a CSIRT Manager. They should be familiar with a wide range of skills, including web-based application security, eDiscovery tools and forensic software.

#9: Security Specialist

A Security Specialist is an entry- to mid-level employee who is responsible for completing a variety of duties designed to strengthen the security of an organization.

Oftentimes, Security Specialists are required to analyze the security requirements of an organization's systems, install and configure security solutions on corporate networks, perform vulnerability testing and help train fellow employees in security awareness. Individuals who are interested in becoming Security Specialists should have knowledge in ethical hacking, computer networking, programming and Security Information and Event Management (SIEM).

#8: Computer Forensics Expert

A Computer Forensics Expert is responsible for analyzing evidence gathered off of computers, networks and other data storage devices in an effort to investigate incidents of computer crime.

These individuals commonly work closely with law enforcement agencies to compile evidence for legal cases, draft technical reports or offer expert testimony in trial, and train law enforcement in computer evidence tactics. Those who wish to pursue this particular career path must be familiar with several programming languages and operating systems as well as with cryptography principles, eDiscovery tools and forensics software.

#7: Security Consultant

A Security Consultant is an outside expert who helps an organization implement the best solutions according to their security needs.

Those who wish to become Security Consultants must be knowledgeable in a wide range of security standards, security systems and authentication protocols. In order to succeed, they must also be willing to develop an in-depth picture of the organization for which they are working, which includes interviewing management and other executives, as well as familiarizing themselves with the organization's corporate policies. Security Consultants can then use this knowledge to implement a set of security tools they see fit depending on an organization's needs.

#6: Malware Analyst

A Malware Analyst is responsible for helping an organization understand the viruses, worms, bots, Trojans and other malicious software that threaten its network on a daily basis.

In this capacity, Malware Analysts commonly work with Computer Forensics Experts and Incident Responders in the event of an intrusion and/or suspicious computer behavior to help identify malicious programs that may have infiltrated an organization's computer systems. This involves conducting static and dynamic analysis of the suspicious code in order to establish signatures of the malware's presence, as well as developing tools that can help protect the organization's networks against future intrusions.

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