Primary threats against agricultural production lies amongst: climatic extremes, warming in high altitudes, poleward advance of monsoon rainfall, and reduced soil water availability. While the most familiar dangers are in accordance to increases in global temperatures created by greenhouse gas emissions, humans are responsible for 30 billion tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, yearly. Predicted to reach 9.7 billion, the global population will reach hunger at high levels if food production does not increase between 50 to 70 percent. Agriculture is dependent on weather for proper growth and production, though such unpredictability puts crops at high risks of vulnerability, reducing agricultural production. Tested by the Food and Agriculture Organization, studies showed that without climate, there will be 100 to 130 million citizens undernourished by 2080, though with climate change present, 740 to 1300 million will be undernourished. Regions of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia suffer weak food security in response to the detrimental harm caused by climate change. The inability for crops to adapt to climate change continues to increase levels of hunger and undernourishment in both developed and developing nations. At risk of destruction from flooding and drought, crops become absent of fertile topsoil, which are dependent for productivity, and are blown or washed away in response to drought. Dried out by unusually high temperatures, crops face higher risks and greater need for water at times when water cannot be supplied. As crops struggle to improve their resilience against the effects of climate change, insects profit off high temperatures and levels of CO2 production. Rather than crop production rising, sea levels are reaching new heights and the melting of glaciers are harming the irrigation that is vital in protecting and growing crops.
II. Previous UN Action
According to the United Nations Fifth Assessment Report, “the average global temperature increased by 0.85 degrees celcius between 1880 and 2012”, endangering global food production. Through proper assessment of sea level risings and CO2 emissions, the United Nations has developed countless legal frameworks such as the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Kyoto Protocol, Paris Agreement and the 2019 Climate Summit to combat climate change, as well as the weakness of crops. With assistance from the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the UN has grown successful in providing updated and skilled reports on the effects of Climate Change, as well as outlining for new projects. Motivated to strengthen crop resilience against climate change, the United Nations established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a set of 17 global goals for the purpose of international development, such as climate change resilience. As climate change continues affecting each country in every continent, lives and infrastructure are put at great risk and the possibility for nations to defeat climate change becomes slimmer.
III. Country Policy and Solutions
Due to the nation's geography and natural hazards: earthquakes, mudslides, floods, and droughts, Algeria faces great vulnerability to climate change. Referencing recorded data between 1931 and 1990, Algeria is expected to reach an increase of 1 degree celcius by 2020, as opposed to the previous celsius of 0.5. Having levels of temperature rapidly increase, Algeria continues facing challenges in: obtaining water resources, energy consumption, proper planning for initiative and failure in agricultural production. Having such arid land, Algeria often experiences drastic changes in weather, may it be intense rainfall or drought, and therefore are working to integrate adaptation into the country's policy. Belonging to to the Mediterranean Basin, an area directly affected by climate change, Algeria adopted the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) in 1993 in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions within the nation. With the signings of the UNFCC and the Kyoto Protocol, Algeria has worked immensely to defeat climate change and the negative outcomes on water accessibility, the nation's ecosystem and economic development. In addition to the UNFCC and Kyoto Protocol, Algeria has established an alternative strategy centered of four primary factors: “institutional strengthening, adaptation to climate change, mitigation of emissions of GHG and human capacity building”, even though the nation produces less than 0.5 of global GHG emissions. In order to improve agricultural resilience to climate change, the country of Algeria focuses primarily on “energy, industry, transport, waste, water resources, agriculture and forests”, therefore implementing alternative energy based solutions would prove most efficient. To promote energy efficiency, all nations must adopt the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program (REEP) through the expansion of boundless resources, such as solar energy and other renewable resources. Focussed on five goals: Installation by field of energy activity, energy efficiency programs, strong industrial capacities to support program, research and development, in addition to incentives and regulatory measures, REEP will meet domestic needs as well as generate indirect and direct occupation for agricultural resilience. Not only should the utilization of solar energy be adopted for the reduction of climate change, though also LPG and CNG vehicle fuel. Through Algeria's Fuel Tactic (AFT), nations will use liquified petroleum gas (autogas) to fuel passenger and small utility cars, while larger buses will run on compressed natural gas (methane). Increasing the number of autogas-powered vehicles will reduce energy consumption by 9 percent and save 42 billion dollars to national budgets by 2030. As for private vehicles, LPG conversions will consist of: 50000 units between 2016 and 2020, 70000 units between 2021 and 2025, and 100000 units between 2026 and 2030. With the help of the National Transportation and Marketing Corporation of Oil Products (NAFTAL), nations will CNG service stations will be easily located for citizens in order to meet the goal of 11000 CNG buses by 2030.
As various nations struggle in obtaining new and eco-friendly techniques in the reduction of climate change and destruction to crops, it is most wise to join, if not form, centers such as the Regional Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (RCREEE) in order to expand energy through 5 essentials measures:facts and figures, policies, people, institutions, and finance. Funded through member state donations, government grants by the German Development Cooperation (GIZ) GmbH, the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), and the New and Renewable Energy Authority, the RCREEE works in collaboration to eliminate costly energy and policies, as well as increase renewable energy within Arab regions in order to soon share with the international market. Implementing the RCREEE will improve international renewable resources from 6 percent to 40 percent by 2020. To improve agricultural resilience to climate change, it is vital for nations to utilize alternative sources of energy and create environmentally friendly strategies.
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