Managing Organization & People.
MSc in Healthcare Management, DUBAI, Year 1, 2018-2019
- Team Effectiveness.
- Impact of Department's Culture to Openness to Change.
Date of submission:
Table of Contents
Introduction for part A: 3
Context for part A: 4
Discuss for part A: 7
Summary for part A: 8
Conclusion for part A: 9
Managing Organization & People
A team refers to two or more people in an organization with shared goals. An effective team is comprised of members with desired skills to achieve the shared goals. Every team member brings their individual knowledge and perspectives to the team. They exchange in transparent communication, utilizing active listening as well as responding. The team's goals are reasonable and realistic with clear deadline for completion. The task is divided in order that no one is overwhelmed by respective responsibility. All the team members are responsible and accountable for accomplishing goals and they are motivated and inspired to do well.
Individual recognizes each other's accomplishments and co-workers trust as well as support one another. Team effectiveness is, therefore, defined as the capacity a team members has to achieve their individual and the common objectives and goals. The effectiveness of a team is influenced by the clarity of the responsibilities and roles; identification of as well as commitment to the purpose of the group; resource access and constraints; social processes and interactions among the team members; and the skill levels allowing collaboration, resolution of conflict and cross-functional understanding. Teams are thus groups with common goals and concurrently and inevitably, teams are comprised of people and each person has his or her own goals.
The aim of this assignment is to draw on relevant literature and apply a model of team effectiveness to present a critical discussion of how healthcare organizations can improve or enhance team effectiveness. To achieve this, this paper critically analyses the behavior of individuals and team in the organization based on the key factors that influence the organizational behavior. It also critically evaluates the potential effects on organizational behavior of organizational-level factors like culture, change and structure. Further, the paper demonstrates the ability to analyze the management issues in the context of management theories, concepts and models. The last one is to critically evaluate the effects of key developments in the organizational environment on organizational management.
The behavior in an organization is influenced by number factors. The role of work has altered worldwide because of social demands and economic conditions. Initially, work was merely a matter of survival and necessity. However, the role of “work” has evolved throughout the years and the workforce composition has changed. In the present, work still remains a necessity; however, it needs to be a source of personal satisfaction.
In respect to behavior at workplace, most individuals with right attitude always think that pushing their all, is the best way. However, it is imperative to push as well as give one's best and rest and even known how to recharge one's batteries. A person might have an extremely good behavior at workplace as well strive hard to boost his efficiency; however, if he does not know when to rest, he will soon record a drop in his productivity (Luciano et al., 2018). Change cannot be avoided in the organizational life. Presently, organizations face a dynamic alongside changing business environment. They have to either change or die because there is no option. Organizations which learn as well as cope with change shall thrive and subsequently blossom whereas those that fail to do will be outstripped (Carlson et al., 2017).
The primary forces that make changes not solely desirable but also unavoidable include political, economic, legal, technological, international as well as labor market environments. Social change for example will be reflected in the aspirations of the people, their needs and their means of working. Social change results from various forces such as educational level, feeling of autonomy, and urbanization. These changes affect people's behavior in the organization since organization has to adjust in its working to match with people. Conflict is another factor that impacts on how a team behaves. For example, conflict exists in each organizational department and to some degree demonstrates a health idea and creativity exchange which might lead to team effectiveness.
Nevertheless, counter-productive conflict in a team could lead to team members' dissatisfaction, decreased productivity, absenteeism, increased turnover, and augmented work-related stress. These factors will serve to weaken the effectiveness of a team in the organization. Demographic factors also influence the team behavior. For example, an effective team should comprise of people who belong to good socio-economic background and well educated. This is because they perform better hence team effectiveness. The young and dynamic professionals enjoy good academic background alongside effective communication skills which are boosters to team effectiveness (Kozlowski et al., 2015).
Ability and skills are also factors that influence team behavior. For example, the behavior of an individual and performance in a team is extremely influenced by skills and ability. An individual is able to perform well in the team if his or her abilities and skills are correctly matched with the roles in the team. Such a match will lead to effectiveness in team and the organization as a whole. Perception is another important factor that influence the behavior of a person in a team and organization at large. An effective team requires a member who is able to organize and interpret environmental stimuli in his or her own basis. Thus for a team effectiveness, there is a need to study perception to understand all the factors influencing it and how to ensure positive perception (Kozlowski et al., 2015).
Team leadership is also an important factor in determining people's behavior in a team and organization. For example, a new manager or a new leader will bring his own ideas and means of working in a team and organization. Attitude of managerial or leadership change in a team can affect the effectiveness of team. The nature of the workforce or team members is also a factor that influences individual behavior. Different generations express different work values. For example, workers in age group of fifty plus value being loyal to their employers, those in mid-thirties and forties are only loyal to themselves whereas the youngest generation of employees is career-royalists.
The workers' profile are also altering fast with the new workers' generation having better educational background and place much emphasis on humans values and questions the managers' authorities. Their behavior has become extremely complex and this makes leading them towards team goal a challenge for team leaders. Thus only team that deals with the above factors will ensure effectiveness.
Belbin Team Roles Model and West Models are effective in understanding the team behavior and how healthcare organization can improve team effectiveness. However, in this paper, emphasis is accorded to Belbin Model as it appears more effective in enhancing team effectiveness. Whereas West Model also gives insights into understanding the effectiveness of a team, Belbin Model list the specific roles that clearly help ensure team effectiveness. According to West (2013) argues that team effectiveness, team task, team composition, and organizational support are perceived as vital inputs that influence critical team process like team objectives, reflexivity and leadership, which subsequently influence patient and staff outcomes. He further adds that team training interventions together with care pathways are able to enhance more effective interdisciplinary teamwork.
Belbin Model is based on the realization that successful teams are comprised of diverse mix of behaviors (Mosser & Begun, 2014). By coming up with the nine behavior clusters, “Team Roles”, a healthcare team can greatly benefit when it is accessed to each of the nine Team Roles behaviors to boost performance and hence team effectiveness. However, it must be noted that not every effective team requires nine individuals. Even two or three Team Roles can lead to effective team. It must be understood that each Team Role has its weakness and strength, and each has equal significance (Mosser & Begun, 2014).
Nevertheless, not all are usually needed at ago and hence it is imperative for healthcare team to examine team objectives, and work out the specific tasks that need to be carried out to ensure team effectiveness. After this done, the team needs to discuss about which and when each Team Role behavior needs to be used. Thus, to enhance team effectiveness, completing the Belbin self-perception Inventory is imperative and feedback must be sought from their colleagues (Kartha, Fowler & Fraser, 2017).
The resulting Belbin Individual Report helps pin-point the individual Team Role weaknesses (strengths) to communicate as well as share with the entire members of the team. The use of Belbin helps individuals to have a greater self-understanding of their strengths and weaknesses. These results in more effective communication amongst team members, managers and team leaders hence increased team effectiveness. This helps the great teams to be clump together, current teams understood and enhanced, and everyone will feel they make a difference in the team.
From the above discussion of factors influencing the behavior of individuals in a team and organization at large, it is easier to understand team effectiveness in healthcare and how it can be enhanced. To enhance the effectiveness of team, it is clear that the objective of the team must be clear to all members; there should be a higher level of members' participation, higher levels of commitment and higher level of support of innovation. These lead to more effective are the healthcare teams across all domains of the functioning.
Functioning teams are also more probably to stay working in their setting as compared to those working in ineffectively functioning teams. Thus to enhance team effectiveness, the organization must try to have effective team leadership. This is because where there is no clear coordinator or leader, or even where there are leadership conflicts, the objectives of the team will not be clear leading to low levels of participation, low level of commitment to quality, low level of support for innovation, poor team member mental health as well as reduced levels of innovation and effectiveness.
The important developments in the organizational environment greatly affect the management of organizations. For example, in this department, there have been various changes that have greatly affected the management of the organization. Particularly, there has been much investment in team building and capacity leading to increased team performance (Carlson et al., 2017). The effectiveness the team has ensured that workers have a clear understanding of the objectives and goals of the organization. Subsequently, managing the organization has improved there is less resistance to change. Changes in the organization are easily accomplished leading to effective management.
In summary the literature reviewed clearly highlight the need for healthcare team effectiveness. The literature demonstrates that a progress is noted in understanding the factors that dictate the behavior and ability of the people in work place to work effectively together as a team. Nevertheless, in the health care domain, progress remains patchy and solely few studies are constructed on the strong theoretical grounds. The progress is additionally prevented by the added challenge of operationalizing the effectiveness concept.
Factors influencing team effectiveness in healthcare teams have been highlighted and ways the organization can enhance the team effectiveness. In my experience I would agree with the findings of this literature review. This is because whatever team effectiveness is always associated with better client and patient outcome and satisfaction. I would advise that the organization take serious the recommendations given in the paper to enhance team effectiveness.
The main focus of this paper was to draw on relevant literature and apply a model of team effectiveness to present a critical discussion of how healthcare organizations can improve or enhance team effectiveness. From the review, it is clear that the best and utmost cost-effective results for clients and patients are realized when healthcare professionals work as a team, learn together, participate in clinical audit of the result together as well as generate the innovations to guarantee progress in service and practice. The purpose of this paper has been achieved by clearly highlighting the factors that influence individual behavior at work place and how the healthcare organization can harness these factors to enhance team effectiveness.
Carlson, J. R., Carlson, D. S., Hunter, E. M., Vaughn, R. L., & George, J. F. (2017). Virtual team effectiveness: Investigating the moderating role of experience with computer-mediated communication on the impact of team cohesion and openness. In Remote Work and Collaboration: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice (pp. 687-706). IGI Global.
Kartha, R. R., Fowler, M. W., & Fraser, R. A. (2017). Comparative study of the organizational structure of engineering student teams and team effectiveness. Proceedings of the Canadian Engineering Education Association (CEEA).
Kozlowski, S. W., Grand, J. A., Baard, S. K., & Pearce, M. (2015). Teams, teamwork, and team effectiveness: Implications for human systems integration.
Luciano, M. M., Bartels, A. L., D'Innocenzo, L., Maynard, M. T., & Mathieu, J. E. (2018). Shared team experiences and team effectiveness: Unpacking the contingent effects of entrained rhythms and task characteristics. Academy of Management Journal, 61(4), 1403-1430.
Mosser, G., & Begun, J. W. (2014). Understanding teamwork in health care. McGraw-Hill. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/book.aspx?bookID=694#45427882
Salas, E., Tannenbaum, S. I., Kozlowski, S. W., Miller, C. A., Mathieu, J. E., & Vessey, W. B. (2015). Teams in space exploration: A new frontier for the science of team effectiveness. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24(3), 200-207.
Wang, D., Waldman, D. A., & Zhang, Z. (2014). A meta-analysis of shared leadership and team effectiveness. Journal of applied psychology, 99(2), 181.
West, M. A., & Lyubovnikova, J. (2013). Illusions of team working in health care. Journal of health organization and management, 27(1), 134-142. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.427.1253&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Table of Contents
Understanding Competing Values Framework 14
Explaining Each Culture: 15
The Clan Culture: 15
Hierarchical Cultures: 15
Market Culture: 16
Adhocracy Culture: 16
The Department Culture: The Clan Culture 17
Impact of the Clan Culture on the Department's Openness to Change 19
The aim of this section is to assess the culture of the department or service unit using the Competing Values Framework to critically analyze the impact of the culture on the department's openness to change.
Understanding Competing Values Framework
The Framework was developed by Robert Quin and Kim Cameron. It provides a classification of 4 corporate cultures indicating how an organization operates, how workers collaborate, and what the corporate values are used in the organization. Through the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI), a mechanism to assess the culture of the organization or department or service unit, the Competing Values Framework is filled with assessment outcomes of the present and future state (Adams, Dawson, & Foureur, 2017).
Explaining Each Culture:
The Clan Culture:
It is a culture featuring high level of flexibility and internally focused. In such a department, the relationship between individual remains central. A friendly working environment features, whereby workers many features in common. It best explains start-ups, small ICT organization or family business. Such an organization takes after a large family. Its leaders are regarded as mentors or father figures, who can be approached by their employees very easily. Tradition and loyalty holds these organizations or departments together. Mutual commitment remains huge and operations emphasizes on human resources. The loyalty, morality and relationships remain extremely strong and success remains partially defined on customer satisfaction basis. The department or organization puts significant value on teamwork, partake, flexibility and agreement or consensus.
These are highly formal cultures with structured working environment. The typical examples are government agencies. Procedures dictate the actions of employees and the emphasis is on the control system management. Consequently, there are precisely structured hierarchical layers within the organization. All work processes are organized efficiently to allow everything to be under control to be easily adjustable. It is imperative that the organization smoothly runs (Costanza et al., 2016). The organization is stabilized by formal rules and policies. Results and stability are linked to smooth and efficient task execution. Success is produced from reliable supply alongside tight scheduling besides low costs.
This a high degree controlling behavior culture with external focus. Here, it is all about outcomes and rivalry of the work. Workers are competitive persons and highly oriented towards goals. Typical example is trade associations, banks and insurance. The managers are usually demanding and strictly follow activities of employees. Concurrently, a lot of mutual competition exists. The focus is on image, winning and success. The organization usually strives to accomplish measurable objectives and goals. Success is transferred to the market penetration and share. Externally, the organization desires to profile itself via market leadership and competitive pricing. To create a competitive edge, the organization employs ruthless competition to retain customers. Employees are aware of customer service and satisfaction (Aktaş, Çiçek & Kıyak, 2011).
This is a high degree flexibility culture with external focus. Innovation remains central and constant innovation exists with sole purpose of remaining visible in the market. Typical examples are research organizations like Dutch TNO or advertising and marketing agencies. They have a dynamic, enterprising alongside creative work environment whereby workers are inspired and urged to strive for innovation as well as use their respective creativity to establish novel ideas (Cameron, Quinn, DeGraff & Thakor, 2014). Alongside innovators, the managers are risk takers. These organization desire to be leaders and at the forerunners of new services and products. Therefore, they encourage individual initiatives and permit the freedom in the determination of what kind of tasks to carry out.
The Department Culture: The Clan Culture
From the assessment of the 4 cultures, it is apparent that the department I work for employs the clan culture. This is because we have a high degree of flexibility and mostly focused internally. Moreover, work is done using team works and this makes the relationship between the members of the team be very central. Moreover, we have a friendly working environment in this department whereby the colleagues share a lot in common. It is indeed true that our department takes after a large family as in the case of the clan culture. This is because we have leaders of various teams who we consider to our mentors or even our father figures. This is because we always approach our leaders from time to time with a lot of ease (Wiewiora et al., 2013).
We are increasingly loyal to our teams and leaders and we strictly follow the department tradition of working in teamwork. This has served to hold each and every member of the team together for a long time without negative conflicts. Moreover, we are always having mutual commitment in the department and our operations always focus on the human resources, patients and clients' satisfaction and services. We have strong relationships as members of the team and as a department at large. We value morality and royalty and we believe that success stays partially determined on the premise of customer satisfaction. Moreover, our department places significant value on the teamwork, flexibility, participation and agreement or consensus. This description typical befits the clan culture and hence the reason I strongly believe that our department follows a clan culture.
The clan culture in our department is further supported or reinforced by our style of management. Just as it is done in clan culture, the management in the department is based on teams. The management of teams in the departments aims at the promotion of effective as well as smooth co-operation in order to accomplish positive outcome. This is a key feature in the department because we have always worked as a team and our team leaders have always encouraged as to not only cooperate with team members but also the team leaders to realize both individual and shared success for the department and organization at large (Sanz-Valle et al., 2011). Another management feature that makes us befit clan culture is that there is a great attention towards interpersonal relationships within and between the teams in the department. This has led to numerous supportive feedbacks which are desired to help the department adjust accordingly to achieve the desired success.
The team members or the employees in our department are actively listening to one another and attempt to solve the interpersonal problems amicably. This is another feature of the management style in clan culture that further supports that our department is employing this culture in its management. Moreover, the management of the department acknowledges the personal development of the workers/team member as a very key element. This is why they always organize targeted training to enhance the team effectiveness or the individual members' capabilities and hence the department's capabilities at large (Belasen & Belasen, 2018).
Another management style feature of the department analogous to that of clan culture is the fact that the employment contracts for the team members are long-term. Moreover, my fellow employees are highly loyal and they actively assist one another to accomplish better performances or team effectiveness. This also applies to the leaders of the teams and the management of the department since they are undoubtedly much interested in mentorship alongside trainee programmes. This analysis clearly shows that our department follows a clan culture.
Impact of the Clan Culture on the Department's Openness to Change
The clan culture greatly impacts the department's openness to change. As has been seen in the above discussion, clan culture appreciates and focuses on flexibilities. This means that it is high open to changes as employees are free to approach their leaders with new ideas from time to time making it possible to effect changes without much resistance to change. The clan culture has more members cooperate with each other and when the result is out, everyone feels part and parcel of the outcomes. With this high level of cooperation, change resistance is significantly reduced thereby making the department high open to changes. Moreover, in the clan culture, it is easy to effect behavior change as there is high level of loyalty and strong relationships. This means that the members of the department will easily agree to make the necessary changes. Also, it is easier to build a consensus in the clan culture when a change is required. This makes the department further easily open to changes. It will be easier for a team leader to model a novel means of doing things and get the support from fellow loyal team members in the clan culture. This is because the leaders are seen as a mentor or father figure and hence opposing the leader is minimal as both employees and the leaders share a lot in common.
The Clan Culture is also open to change easily because it focuses less on structure and control while focusing greatly on flexibility. Instead of strict rules and procedures, individuals are driven via visions, shared goals, outcomes and outputs. Therefore, since there are no strict rules and procedures, it does not matter from who the idea for change is coming from. For this reason, even a junior employee will begin the change initiative and will get the blessing of the entire members of the department.
The fact that people and team act more autonomously in the clan culture and that the department will have flat organization makes it increasingly open to change. This is because people or even leaders are never forced to follow strict rules and procedures when they feel the need for change for the shared goal. Also, the fact that the clan culture has an inward focus alongside a sense of family makes people to work together as a team when going through a change process and this reduces resistance to change. Moreover, people in the department will be firmly driven by loyalty to each other and the common cause. This means that when there is a change initiative irrespective of who initiates it, each member of the department will view as a common good or shared cause and will have no resistance but to support and make the best out of the change proposal.
The clan culture also facilitates openness to change in that clan leaders act in a facilitative and supportive manner and might take on a parental role. In this sense, when an employee of the department comes up with a proposal or an idea to effect change in the department, the clan leader will not chase him or her away but to welcome him or her a more supportive and facilitative manner to ensure that the proposal is harnessed to something beneficial to the entire members of the department (Cameron & Quinn, 2011).
To this end, the paper has employed the use of Competing Values Framework to critically analyze the impact of the culture on the department's openness to change. It is has been highlighted in the discussion that the best type of culture that befits our department in is the clan culture. Various cultures have been discussed and weighed against the happenings in the department to determine which one best fits our department. Such an analysis focuses on the dominant organizational characteristics, style of leadership, employee management, and organizational glue, strategic emphasis and the success criteria. Based on such a consideration, clan culture is found to be the best that suits the department in which I am placed. In terms of dominant organizational characteristics, it is noted that the clan culture has a personal or like a family and this fits our department. On leadership style, clan culture uses mentoring, nurturing and facilitating styles which is exactly what is happening in the department.
On employee management, the clan culture assumes teamwork, participation and consensus same as the style used in the department. On the organizational glue, our department is glued by loyalty and mutual trust which are key features of the clan culture. On the strategic emphasis, the clan culture focusses on human development, openness, and high trust, all of which are found in the department's strategic emphasis. In regards to criteria for success, our department uses the development of human resources, concern for people as well as teamwork which are key tenets of clan culture. Thus, it is been determined the clan culture used by our organization is best suited for change. It remains open to any change which is always viewed as a common cause to the entire membership of the department.
Adams, C., Dawson, A., & Foureur, M. (2017). Competing Values Framework: A useful tool to define the predominant culture in a maternity setting in Australia. Women and Birth, 30(2), 107-113.
Belasen, A. T., & Belasen, A. R. (2018). Integrated Corporate Communication: A Competing Values Perspective.
Cameron, K. S., Quinn, R. E., DeGraff, J., & Thakor, A. V. (2014). Competing values leadership. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Cameron, K. S., & Quinn, R. E. (2011). Diagnosing and changing organizational culture: Based on the competing values framework. John Wiley & Sons.
Sanz-Valle, R., Naranjo-Valencia, J. C., Jiménez-Jiménez, D., & Perez-Caballero, L. (2011). Linking organizational learning with technical innovation and organizational culture. Journal of Knowledge Management, 15(6), 997-1015.
Aktaş, E., Çiçek, I., & Kıyak, M. (2011). The effect of organizational culture on organizational efficiency: The moderating role of organizational environment and CEO values. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 24, 1560-1573.
Wiewiora, A., Trigunarsyah, B., Murphy, G., & Coffey, V. (2013). Organizational culture and willingness to share knowledge: A competing values perspective in Australian context. International Journal of Project Management, 31(8), 1163-1174.
Costanza, D. P., Blacksmith, N., Coats, M. R., Severt, J. B., & DeCostanza, A. H. (2016). The effect of adaptive organizational culture on long-term survival. Journal of Business and Psychology, 31(3), 361-381.
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