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  • Subject area(s): Marketing
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  • Published on: 14th September 2019
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Section 1.1: Problem

Introduction to Fairtrade

Fairtrade is a social movement that combats poverty and inequality in trade and humanitarian problems which the global community, including Singapore, is responsible for. Products certified with a Fairtrade logo (Fig. 1) are produced without exploitation of workers and is a more morally desirable form of consumption. (45 words)

Lack of Awareness of Fairtrade in Singapore

Unfortunately, there is a lack of awareness of Fairtrade locally due to the absence of Singapore Fairtrade branches (Fig. 2). (18 words)

Due to the lack of strong support for Fairtrade, many locally-based social enterprises' websites advocating for Fairtrade have closed (Fig. 3), resulting in Singaporeans' lack of awareness. (25 words)

Reason for Choosing to Focus on Coffee

Based on a 2016 study, it was revealed that working conditions in coffee plantations resembles slavery and child labour, infringing human rights (Fig. 4). Moreover, 100,000 hectares of land are deforested annually for coffee plantations, resulting in environmental degradation. (37 words)

Furthermore, the rising consumption of coffee (Fig. 5) aggravates the aforementioned implications if these issues are not resolved immediately. (17 words)

Currently, Singaporeans are more conscious of the origins of their brew due to the rise of third wave coffee culture (Fig. 6). By leveraging this trend to encourage consumers to support Fairtrade coffee, these issues can be effectively mitigated. (37 words)

Fig. 6: Singapore's transition into the third wave coffee culture

Why Puro Coffee?

Puro Coffee has a local branch in Singapore to promote Fairtrade causes. Hence, it has the potential and is an ideal platform to garner more support for Fairtrade coffee amongst Singaporeans. (30 words)

Therefore, we will help Puro Coffee refine their current initiatives. (9 words)

Section 1.2: Target Audience

Our target audience is youths, comprising of students and millennials within the age range of 15-34. Starbucks, an international coffee chain, revealed that 49% of its customers are millennials, showing that millennials are a significant proportion of coffee consumers. By targeting millennials and students, who make up the majority of the future working class, the positive impact on coffee consumers is maximized. (62 words)

Section 1.3: Current Measures

Puro Coffee enacted the following measures to encourage support for Fairtrade. (10 words)

Section 1.3.1: Raising Awareness of Fairtrade coffee

Informative Website

Puro Coffee utilises their website to educate netizens about the benefits of Fairtrade coffee and categorises their information (Fig. 7) to aid netizens in the navigation. (23 words)

Moreover, statistics such as “Total Forest Area Protected” (Fig. 8), are effective in showing the benefits of their initiatives. (14 words)

Participation of a Local Event in Singapore

Puro Coffee participated in Food Hotel Asia 2016 (Fig. 9) in Singapore EXPO with a turn-up rate of 72 000 attendees, which garners free publicity for Puro Coffee. (19 words)

Section 1.3.2: Marketing of Fairtrade coffee

Partnership to Boost Brand Exposure

Puro Coffee partnered with Subway Singapore (Fig. 10) to offer promotions, increasing brand exposure. (10 words)

Online Store

Puro Coffee's online store has mailing services, (Fig. 11) making the purchase of Puro Coffee's products more accessible and convenient as customers need not visit their physical store. (24 words)

Puro Coffee's physical store provides an alternative purchasing method for non-tech-savvy consumers. (11 words)

Advertising on Social Media

Puro Coffee has social media accounts on Facebook and Instagram which cater to different preferences of students and millennials respectively (Fig. 12). (19 words)

A localised account (i.e @purocoffeesg) (Fig. 13) allows them to cater to locals. (9 words)

Fairtrade Trademark

Puro Coffee's products are endorsed with Fairtrade logo to improve the recognisability for Fairtrade coffee enthusiasts during purchase. (Fig. 14). (17 words)

Section 1.4: Unaddressed Gaps

Pure Coffee's current efforts have limitations in terms of raising awareness and marketing of Fairtrade coffee. (15 words)

Section 1.4.1: Unaddressed Gaps in Raising Awareness of Fairtrade coffee

Resources are not Reader-friendly

Information on Fairtrade coffee is poorly organised, with information on coffee recycling placed under a separate category, ‘And More' (Fig. 15), increasing the difficulty for users to locate it. (26 words)

Inadequate Publicity

Few people expressed interest in Puro Coffee's publicity events on social media platforms, rendering their online publicity methods ineffective. (Fig. 16) (18 words)

Section 1.4.2: Unaddressed Gaps in Marketing of Fairtrade coffee

Inadequate Accessibility of Puro Coffee Products

Non-tech-savvy customers may choose to buy Puro Coffee's products from the wholesaler. However, there is only one wholesaler which limits the accessibility of Puro Coffee's products to them. (Fig. 17) (26 words)

Insufficient Diversity of Online Purchasing Methods

Puro Coffee has restricted its online purchasing method to only its website, hence restricting their customer base. (16 words)

Section 1.5: Desired Outcomes

Section 1.5.1: Raise Awareness about Benefits of Fairtrade coffee

By leveraging on opportunities presented by the third wave coffee culture, we aim to help Puro Coffee promote their cause by improving their publicity and making their resources more relevant and organised, hence augmenting support for Fairtrade coffee. (37 words)

Section 1.5.2: Encourage the Consumption of Fairtrade coffee

By establishing a stronger brand presence for Puro Coffee, we can provide consumers with more opportunities and incentives to consume their product, thereby increasing accessibility. (24 words)

Section 2: Health Promotion Board (HPB)

Section 2.1: Rationale of the Chosen Model

HPB (Fig. 18) is a government organisation committed to promoting healthy living in Singapore. (12 words)

With a clear mission and vision, HPB current measure has a high response rate with an approximate 78% of respondents able to recall the key messages of the ‘Let's Beat Diabetes' campaign. Hence it has been effective in Singapore's community. (37 words)

HPB and Puro Coffee both have clear goals. HPB seeks to educate the Singapore public on how to take care of their health and encourage them to lead a healthy lifestyle. Likewise, Puro Coffee aims to educate youths about Fairtrade coffee and encourage the purchase of Fairtrade coffee. (46 words)

Section 2.2: Educational Package

HPB designed their educational package for students of different educational levels (Fig. 19), ensuring information disseminated is relevant to them. Similarly, Puro Coffee can create an organised and reader-friendly resource to provide youths with ways to support Fairtrade coffee. (36 words)

HPB presents their information in the form of collapsible sections (Fig. 20), making information more comprehensive. Likewise, Puro Coffee can create an educational package with effective categorisation to educate consumers on the notion of Fairtrade. (32 words)

Section 2.3: Healthier Choice Symbol (HCS)

The HCS (Fig. 21) was introduced by HPB to empower consumers to make healthier and more informed food choices. Its omnipresence helped to publicise the numerous healthier options available for consumers. Similarly, consumers can easily identify Puro Coffee's logo as Puro Coffee increases the pervasiveness of its logo through its educational package, allowing Puro Coffee to improve its publicity. This will encourage consumers to support Fairtrade coffee. (62 words)

Section 2.4: Partnerships

HPB established partnerships with over 1,160 dining outlets and retailers (Fig. 22) such as supermarkets to adopt HCS. (17 words)

In such partnerships, respective Food and Beverage (F&B) outlets sell food endorsed by the HCS (Fig. 23), increasing accessibility of healthier food products. (22 words)

Moreover, the collaboration with a variety of F&B outlets ranging from high-end restaurants to fast food chains (Fig. 22) allows HPB to diversify methods of purchase of healthier food. (28 words)

Likewise, Puro Coffee can benefit from partnerships with other food applications to make available their products to a larger audience and expand the methods of purchase. (25 words)

Applying our research and evaluation of our model, HPB, we crafted a two-pronged proposal to raise awareness and increase consumption of Fairtrade coffee. Our proposal is summarised in the chart below (Fig. 24). (31 words)

Section 3: Raising Awareness for Puro Coffee

Our proposed measures include using an application and a lesson module for youths to raise awareness of the benefits of Fairtrade coffee. (22 words)

Section 3.1: Raising Awareness using an Application

Learning from HPB's successful educational package, we propose to do likewise through an application (Fig. 25) to raise awareness for Puro Coffee's cause. This is feasible as it caters to tech-savvy youths. (29 words)

Addressing the problem of poor organisation of resources on Puro Coffee's website, resources are organised into collapsible sections in the application (Fig. 26), making them more reader-friendly. The application delivers information to youths in more appealing ways, through a blog, game and map. (40 words)

Section 3.1.1: Informative Introduction to Puro's Coffee Application

Upon clicking ‘About Puro Coffee', a paragraph informing users about Puro Coffee's cause is shown (Fig. 27). (12 words)

Section 3.1.2: Engaging Educational Game

Environmental and ethical benefits of Fairtrade coffee can be conveyed to youths through a game, Pocket Coffee (Fig. 28). (16 words)

This gamified learning experience allows youths to better retain their acquired knowledge. (12 words)

In Pocket Coffee, players start with an office (Fig. 29). (7 words)

Players personate the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the coffee chain, Moonbucks, and manage its business. Players can tap on the ‘Manage' button to perform various actions. (24 words)

Referring to Fig. 30

Action 1: Plant coffee in an environmentally friendly but expensive way using $100. (11 words)

Action 2: Plant coffee in a non-environmentally friendly way using $10 but sacrifice 10 trees ‘'. (12 words)

Actions 1 and 2 allow players to earn 100 coffee beans ‘'  each upon completion. (12 words)

Action 3: Expand business using $2000 and 400 coffee beans ‘'. (6 words)

Action 4: Pay coffee farmers $450. (4 words)

Various actions will affect the business which can be monitored in the ‘Stats' section (Fig. 31). (14 words)

Players “Plant Coffee” to earn coffee beans ‘' to expand their business and increase “Total Revenue”. Players have to consider environmental implications of each method of “Planting Coffee” (Action 1 and 2) to prevent “Environment” from decreasing. Finally, players have to pay coffee farmers regularly to prevent “Employee's Happiness” from decreasing. The aim is to balance all three aspects, “Environment”, “Total Revenue” and “Employee's Happiness” while expanding Moonbucks' business. (57 words)

Players' participation as coffee producers lets them consider the ethical and environmental implications of the coffee produced and sold. (19 words)

Quests are used to entice players to continue playing Pocket Coffee as upon completion, Puro Coffee product vouchers can be earned (Fig. 32). (19 words)

After analyzing feedback from primary research on Pocket Coffee, short fun facts can be shown when quests are completed (Fig. 33). This can feed players with more knowledge of Fairtrade coffee. (28 words)

Pocket Coffee appeals to 89.4% of youths due to its high engagement level through a gamified experience (Fig. 34). (17 words)

It would be successful as 71.8% of youth respondents are likely to download Pocket Coffee (Fig. 35). (15 words)

To encourage players to continue playing Pocket Coffee and sustain their attention, it can be frequently updated by adding new challenges and facilities. (22 words)

Section 3.1.3: Informative Map

Tapping on ‘Finding Coffee', a map showing locations where users can purchase their products is displayed (Fig. 36). (15 words)

Information on where Puro Coffee can be purchased is disseminated comprehensively, Information would be etched in users' minds, hence having a sustainable impact. (22 words)

74.1% of youth respondents expressed interest to try out the map, proving its effectiveness (Fig. 37). (15 words)

Section 3.1.4: Educating through Real-Life Examples (Blog)

The blog provides an avenue for coffee farmers to share their stories, further engaging youths. (15 words)

Real-life accounts (Fig. 38) allow youths to empathise with coffee farmers on a personal level, increasing their awareness of humanitarian and environmental impacts of coffee. (23 words)

81.2% of youths are likely to view the blog, proving its effectiveness (Fig. 39). (13 words)

Overall, Puro Coffee's application targets tech-savvy youths to garner support for Fairtrade. By consolidating all information about Fairtrade into an application, youths can access everything at once, improving convenience. Interactive content also brings across Puro Coffee's message effectively. (36 words)

However, outreach through Puro Coffee's application is limited to only those who download it. Hence, we have an alternative measure to solve this limitation by targeting students through a lesson module on Fairtrade coffee. (33 words)

Section 3.2: Lesson Module

To address poor educational efforts, we propose Puro Coffee to collaborate with schools to roll out a lesson module on the benefits of Fairtrade coffee. (24 words)

Section 3.2.1: Synopsis

Our lesson module, Learning About The Bitter Bean, aims to share the infringement of human rights and environmental degradation of coffee plantations, thereby encouraging the switch to Fairtrade coffee as its production minimizes these implications. (31 words)

Learning about The Bitter Bean will be incorporated into Civic and Moral Education (CME) lessons. Students will be introduced to the benefits of Fairtrade coffee, Puro Coffee's mascot, comic strip and logo. Puro Coffee's application can be introduced during the lesson. It provides a long-term avenue for Fairtrade coffee education, especially the gamified learning experience in the application which appeals to youths, enabling enthusiastic learning (Fig. 40)  (55 words)

Schools want their students to acquire civic literacy and global awareness, thus they would be willing to collaborate with Puro Coffee to spread Puro Coffee's causes to youths. (26 words)

Teachers can adopt a programme guideline provided by Puro Coffee (Fig. 41) to educate their students about Fairtrade coffee. (16 words)

Section 3.2.2: Mascot

To improve Puro Coffee's education methods to address the issue of inadequate publicity (Section 1.4.1), we have proposed a design of mascots (Fig. 42) to help youths understand Fairtrade. (24 words)

The mascots are designed with teddy bears which symbolises a source of peace and comfort for all ages. They are named Bearistas, combining bear and baristas, forming a portmanteau. (29 words)

Since “brand mascots reflect a deeply rooted human tendency to understand the world through anthropomorphic objects”, our mascots are assigned human characteristics to emotionally engage with youths, therefore leaving a stronger impression. (17 words)

Section 3.2.3: Comic Strip

The mascots can also be featured in a comic strip (Fig. 43), which will be distributed to students during CME lessons. This visual form of storytelling will be effective in engaging youths as the human brain processes images 60 times faster than words. (41 words)

Comic Strip Synopsis

The comic strip features one Bearista bringing another to a coffee plantation to learn more about the detrimental effects of the production of coffee and learn how by simply making a switch to Fairtrade coffee, these harmful effects can be minimized. (42 words)

Section 3.2.4: Logo

Puro Coffee's logo (Fig. 44) follows the “5 Principles of Effective Logo Design”. It is simple, memorable and effectively communicates the intended message. (14 words)

Patently, a logo leaves a deeper impression on youths by instilling awareness and resonance, empowering youths to make informed choices. (20 words)

The logo can be further used to design Puro Coffee's coasters and cups, which can be sold in schools to promote Fairtrade coffee. (Fig. 45) (22 words)

Our application and lesson module can effectively impart knowledge about Fairtrade coffee to youths. We can then enact the next step in our proposal, to encourage consumption of Fairtrade coffee. (30 words)

Section 4: Encouraging Consumption of Fairtrade coffee

After raising awareness of the benefits of Fairtrade coffee, we can now encourage the purchase of Puro Coffee's products. The measures we will be proposing include product diversification and differentiation, partnerships, pop-up stores, usage of QR codes and consumer loyalty. (39 words)

Section 4.1: Product Diversification and Differentiation

Supermarkets can constantly innovate to appeal to consumers tastes and preferences so as to maximise profits. With instant coffee products being the largest segment in Singapore's coffee market, expanding Puro Coffee's instant coffee products into supermarkets can enlarge their outreach significantly. (40 words)

Since logos are effective in influencing consumers' choice of purchase, the logo crafted in Chapter 3 can be infused into Puro Coffee's coffee products to distinguish them from others, appealing to consumers visually. (31 words)

Puro Coffee can be featured at the end of an aisle for further differentiation, also known as ‘endcap displays' (Fig. 46) After being paid by Puro Coffee, supermarkets will display their products on the ends of the aisles to advertise their products. (38 words)

With this marketing strategy being common in supermarkets to test the popular new products in supermarkets, this measure is feasible as supermarkets will be willing to allow Puro Coffee's products to be featured at endcap displays as a new brand. (39 words)

Product differentiation makes Puro Coffee's products more noticeable to new customers as such visual distinguishment allows them to stand out from the rest and attracts new customers. (26 words)

Thus, product diversification and differentiation improve the convenience of locating Puro Coffee's instant coffee in the supermarket. (16 words)

Section 4.2: Partnerships

Puro Coffee can establish partnerships with online food and restaurant, and grocery review websites to maximize their outreach. (17 words)

Section 4.2.1: Partnership with Online Food and Restaurant Review Websites

57% of millennials are willing to use e-commerce options, while 30% are already doing so. Hence, providing consumers with more e-commerce options to Puro Coffee products will encourage consumption. (28 words)

With an average of 5 million page views monthly, Puro Coffee's partnership with HungryGoWhere can effectively increase Puro Coffee's customer base. (19 words)

HungryGoWhere can improve the convenience and accessibility of Puro Coffee products by providing information, such as Puro Coffee's contact details, to allow easier access to Puro Coffee's services and also learn more about the company.  (Fig. 47). (33 words)

To leverage the increased awareness brought by Puro Coffee's educational package, HungryGoWhere can promote Puro Coffee's products on its websites (Fig. 48). (19 words)HungryGoWhere is very open to advertising, Puro Coffee can easily request them to be listed on HungryGoWhere's website, enabling feasibility of this measure (Fig. 49). (22 words)

Section 4.2.2: Partnership with Online Grocery Services

Puro Coffee can also partner with Redmart, one of the largest online grocery and food delivery service in Singapore. (18 words)

Redmart could feature Puro Coffee on its platform allowing convenient purchase of Puro Coffee's products, enabling better brand establishment in the market. (Fig. 50) Partnerships with such well-established services can potentially help Puro Coffee to expand its customer base, hence increasing consumption of Puro Coffee. (39 words).

RedMart is also open to featuring new products on their websites, with Puro Coffee being able to contact them easily by filling an online form to sell their products on RedMart. (Fig. 51) (30 words)

Section 4.3: Pop-up Stores

With reference to the unaddressed gap of “Inadequate Accessibility of Puro Coffee Products” (Section 1.4.2), pop-up stores (Fig. 52) could be implemented to improve Puro Coffee's accessibility and outreach to youths. (25 words)

The pop-up stores can be set up at regularly visited areas, such as The Shoppes at Marina Bay Sands or ION Orchard (Fig. 53). (16 words)

Despite being transient, pop-up stores' influence is long-lasting. The rising numbers of pop-up stores prove its feasibility in bridging gaps between youths and Puro Coffee. (24 words)

Puro Coffee's pop-up stores will provide opportunities for them to engage with youths offline, educate and bring the merchandise to them. This increases the accessibility for youths to purchase Puro Coffee's products. (30 words)

Pop-up stores also tap on “Get It While It Lasts” urgencies, hence motivating youths to act fast and purchase Puro Coffee products. (17 words)

Most importantly, pop-up stores aid Puro Coffee in building brand awareness, increasing sales revenues while simultaneously conveying the benefits of Fairtrade coffee. (21 words)

Section 4.4: Usage of QR Codes

With the aforementioned measures being carried out, people's curiosity about Puro Coffee can be piqued. QR codes (Fig. 54) that lead to Puro Coffee's application installation page can be displayed on Puro Coffee's products and on RedMart's Puro Coffee section for people to be easily scanned with their mobile devices. (44 words)

Incorporation of QR codes saves time and provides convenience for youths to access more information about Puro Coffee, such as educational packages of Puro Coffee. In fact, among 94% of mobile users who accessed information via QR codes, 66% visit the business afterwards. (41 words)

Furthermore, with 4.41 million smartphone users in Singapore, most people are able to scan the code and access the educational package. Hence, usage of QR code increases accessibility and also extends the educational measures in Section 3 in the long run. (42 words)

Section 4.5: Consumer Loyalty

Puro Coffee can continuously entice customers back through exclusive membership benefits, as consumers desire to be awarded for their loyalty. A point-reward system can be established, where points are accumulated to redeem rewards such as further discounts for subsequent purchases or coupons for Puro Coffee's products. (Fig. 55) (44 words)

Puro Coffee may progressively improve the rewards available for their long-term customers, such as permanent 10% discounts for all products, to further incentivise the purchase of Puro Coffee products. (27 words)

After registration, the members have access to a barcode in the Puro Coffee application, allowing them to pay through their phones (Fig. 56), simultaneously accumulating reward points. With the rising usage of phones among youths, it increases the convenience of youths to purchase Puro Coffee. (41 words)

This helps to build long-term brand loyalty to ensure more businesses for Puro Coffee. (13 words)

In conclusion, our proposed marketing methods encourage the purchase of Puro Coffee products by improving the convenience and accessibility to consume them. (21 words)

Section 5: Evaluation

Our group aims to increase the awareness of Fairtrade coffee by creating an educational package and consumption of Fairtrade coffee by improving marketing methods. (24 words)

Section 5.1: Strengths of our Proposal

Our proposed ideas (educational package, product diversification and differentiation, partnerships, usage of pop-up stores and QR code and consumer loyalty)  were based on learning points derived from our case study. Furthermore, these ideas are backed by expert opinions and have proven to be effective. Hence, if Puro Coffee were to put our proposal into action, the consumption of Fairtrade coffee will increase amongst youths. (46 words)

Additionally, the overall positive feedback that we received from our survey showed that our proposed ideas successfully catered to the tastes and preferences of the youths (refer to Appendix). (26 words)

Section 5.2: Future Extensions

We acknowledge that our proposed measures will not completely solve the problem due to the limitedness of Puro Coffee's sole efforts in bringing about a paradigm shift for ethical consideration in the coffee industry.  (33 words)

However, our proposal is adaptable to reap long-term benefits as other Fairtrade coffee businesses can create a similar educational package or utilise our proposed marketing methods. (26 words)

Moreover, if youths' preferences for commodity change to tea, we will still be able to reuse our proposal to promote support of Fairtrade tea and advocate for Fairtrade. (28 words)

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