We need to use our water prudently – no one will argue with this statement.Agriculture is the largest human use of water. Clearly, agricultural practices need to be targeted to reduce wastage of water. The vast majority of water on the Earth's surface, over 96 percent, is saline water in the oceans.While nearly 70 percent of the world is covered by water, only 2.5 percent of it is fresh. The rest is saline and ocean-based. Even then, just 1 percent of our freshwater is easily accessible, with much of it trapped in glaciers and snowfields.the measures of wastage of water is mainly depending on 3R's. Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle.
according to Coelho, J. (2016, august) aiming to provide a convergent validity to the second study was adopted the concept proposed by Schultz et al.Environment Attitudes (EA) are “the collection of beliefs, affect, and behavioral intentions a person holds regarding environmentally related activities or issues”, and have been traditionally viewed as unidimensional
According to Cruz, A. d. (2017, january 20), 10000 million people across the world does not have portable water and 2500 millions of people don't have the acces to sewage system an waste water discharge 4000 miilion people recieve no treatment.this scenerio shows that water supply has not been resolved many because it has caused many negative impacts on marginal people and natural impleted resources.
according to Howarth, D. (2004, june 01), that the campaign had no significant effect on water demand both at the individual property level and the total flow into the area. Responses to direct questions about the campaign indicated that at most 5% had noticed it despite the fact that 25% claimed to read the local newspaper
according to JiynKanga. (2017, june),the role of Hispanic consumers' beliefs on water, drought and relevant resources in shaping their perceptions, self-reported behavior, and behavioral intention toward sustainable water consumption that embraces not only habitual activities of water conservation.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:-
the main purpose of the study is about the water consumption and measures to decrease the water scarcity.change the drinking water composition from1% to 98% and to the decrease the water causes diseases like carcinogenic and endemic disease like fluorosis caused due to the drinking ground water.
the conclusion of the study is to be dedication of following the 3R's (reduce,reuse,recycle) and also sea water into portable water there will be decrease in water scarcity.for example by ion exchange method the water can be recycled.
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Retrieved from sciencedirect: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rlp.2015.09.006
2. Cruz, A. d. (2017, january 20). Determinants of domestic water consumption in Hermosillo, .
Retrieved from sciencedirect: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.11.094
3. Howarth, D. (2004, june 01). Communicating water conservation: how can the public be
Retrieved from IWA publishing: https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2004.0041
4. JiyunKanga. (2017, june). Sustainable water consumption: The perspective of Hispanic
consumers. Retrieved from sciencedirect: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2017.02.005
5. Lemay (2009, june 01). Water intake and wastage at nipple drinkers by growing-finishing
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6. LiangxinFan. (2010, november 10). Urban water consumption and its influencing factors in
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7. LuisVelazquezab, N. (2013, may). Optimizing water use in the University of Sonora, Mexico.
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9. NamTrung1, D. (2005, january). Resource use and waste management in Vietnam hotel
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10. SaraDolnicar. (2012, august 30). Water conservation behavior in Australia. Retrieved from
the thesis is all based on the consumption of water and measures to decrease the water scarcity across the world.
EFFECTIVENESS OF MARKETING CAMPAIGNS IN WATER EFFICIENCY SAVINGS
In 2001 the Environment Agency and Thames Water completed a collaborative research project “The Effectiveness of Marketing Campaigns in Achieving Water Efficiency Savings”. The project attempted to assess the effectiveness of a water efficiency campaign in a residential area of 8000 properties. then the result is to be declared to be there is no such significant on water demand both at the individual property level and the total flow into the area. Responses to direct questions about the campaign indicated that at most 5% had noticed it despite the fact that 25% claimed to read the local newspaper and listen to the local radio station used for the campaign, and the fact that a leaflet was sent to all households. The market research provided some clues as to why the customer response to this campaign was so disappointing, principally because the public regard water as low priority compared to other environmental issues. . The paper reviews “success stories” from Phoenix, Arizona and Singapore and identifies the main learning points from these programs. Article 14 of the Water Framework Directive calls for active involvement in water policy. An assessment is made of what this might mean for public participation in water conservation programs.
MORAL EMOTIONS TOWARDS WATER CONSUMPTION
Emotions related to moral issues are one way to understand the associations between emotions and environmental engagement. Particularly, three moral emotions can be considere: outrage at the failure to control pollution
and lack of pro-environment policy, annoyance dueto excessive control of pollution and its effects for the competing goals and individual interests (negative predictive effect), and sense of guilt with respect to insufficient personal sustainable behaviors. These emotionsimply the acceptance or rejection of ecological norms and responsibilities, and suggest the importance of emotional indicators of responsibility and justice to explain why
some people show sustainable behavior while others do not. In fact, moral emotions have been shown to account for close to 50% of variance in sustainable behavior, such as decisions to reduce air pollution.
as the graph of the emotions towards water consumption is as follows:
WATER CONSUMPTION AND ABOUT THE PRESENT STUDY
Perception of externalities is an inhibitor of the motivation for acting in a
pro-environmental manner. An example of externalities is the environmental
social dilemma, which refers to situations where the individual and collective
interest are at odds. For example, resource depletion can occur when each
individual acts in his or her own interests by taking a little more from the
common pool of resources than their shares, negatively resulting for
the society through the resource destruction. The author found that highly
perceived externalities lead to increase of water consumption as response to
the perception of the social dilemma that other people would consume more
water. In other words, the perception of externalities regarding water
consumption inhibits motivation for conserving water: an individual
perceives that others are wasting water, less he will be willing to cons
erve this resource.
MEASURES TO DECREASE WATER SCARCITY
the important measures to decrease water scarcity is of 3R's. It is used for the increase in ratio of recyclable materials and reusing of the raw materials and manufacturing wastes, and overall reduction in resources and energy used.help to cut down on the amount of waste we throw away. They conserve natural resources, landfill space and energy and also they save land and money communities must use to dispose of waste in landfills. 3R'si.e;
reduce:-By reducing the amount of water we consume, we will lessen the amount of water that needs to be pumped out of the ground or moved from one location to another. You can reduce your water usage by:Retrofitting any inefficient fixtures in your home with efficient versions, such as showerheads, toilets, faucet aerators, dishwashing machines, and clothes washers.Programming your irrigation timer to water only when needed. You can manually change your irrigation schedule or buy a weather-based irrigation controller which automatically adjusts your water budget to suit the current climatic conditions.Fix all leaks-indoor and outdoor.
reuse:-We can reuse the water that we consume by implementing “grey water” systems in our homes. Grey water systems capture water from devices such as faucets and shower drains. These systems do not connect to toilets because of sanitary issues. The grey water systems filter the water so that it can be re-used to wash hands, fill toilets, or even water your garden. However because of health issues, it is not recommended to shower or drink grey water.
recycle:-Although recycling water may seem very similar to reusing it, recycling is the act of converting used materials into forms that can be re-used as a new product. For example, waste water can be recycled and used as “fresh” water. Many treatment plants do not filter water to consumption-standards, so it cannot be reused as potable water. Recycled water is often being used to irrigate landscaping because it is cheaper than potable water. The technology exists to treat waste water to drinking water standards, but it is not often used because of the social stigma that you are consuming “sewage water.” aste your essay
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