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  • Subject area(s): Marketing
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  • Published on: 14th September 2019
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INTRODUCTION

Advertisements have been used for many years to influence the buying behaviors of the consumers. Advertisements are helpful in creating the awareness and perception among the customers of beauty products which both of these variables are lethal combination to influence the buying behaviors of the consumers. This particular research was conducted on female students who use different brands of beauty products to check the influence of advertisement on their buying behavior while creating the awareness and building the perceptions. What's more, those advertisements affected how consumers thought about themselves. Advertisement for beauty products enhancing products seem to make consumers feel that their current attractiveness levels are different from what they would ideally be.

Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade an audience to purchase or take some action upon products, ideals, or services. It includes the name of a product or service and how that product or service could benefit the consumer, to persuade a target market to purchase or to consume that particular brand. These brands are usually paid for or identified through sponsors and viewed via various media.

Advertising can also serve to communicate an idea to a mass amount of people in an attempt to convince them to take a certain action. Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.  Mass  media  can  be  defined  as  any  media meant  to reach  a  mass  amount  of people. Several types of mass media are television, internet, radio, news programs, and published pictures and articles.

Advertisements  have  become  one  of  the  crucial  factors  that  determines  the  style  and  functioning  of one's  life  in  different  contexts.  For some  years  some  subtle  changes  in  the  practice  of  advertising  have  been reshaping  the  society  people  live  in.  The  force  of  advertising  reaches  out  and  touches  everyone  living  and working in the modern world today. Advertising is claimed by its practitioners to be largely responsible for the good things in life and is criticized by its opponents as the cause of unpleasant things (Lee & Johnson, 1999).

The  impact  of  advertising  on  the  society  is  a  fiercely  debated  topic,  and  has  been  ever  since  the conception  of  advertising  in  its  most  basic  form.  There are negative and positive social impacts upon society from advertising in its various forms.

Advertising has positive as well as negative, social and economic impacts on our society. Considering advertising as a public welfare is a positive social impact whereas exposing women as a sex tool comes at the negative side.  As  far  as  economic  factors  are  concerned,  funding  for  the  media  and  stimulating  an  active  and competitive economy, are the major examples.

1.1 RESEARCH BACKGROUND

This research studies the effect of advertising on female students in Management and Science University (MSU) on beauty products purchasing behaviour. Some  researchers  have  hypothesised  that  consumer's  personality  profiles  affect  decision  making  in their assessments of credibility in advertising content. As a result, consumers are more responsive to advertising claims tailored to a specific personality profile in product ads than to advertising claims not tailored to a specific personality profile. Therefore, the research explores consumers' response tendencies to advertising claims when the  source  of  such  claims  is  identified  as  tailored  to  a  specific  personality  profile  or  not  tailored  to  a  specific personality  profile.

Research also  examines  the  relative  impact  of  tailoring  the  advertisement  to  a  specific personality profile on consumers' assessments of credibility in advertising content. This can be accomplished by examining   whether   consumers'   beliefs',   competency,   or   perceived   goodwill   are   affected   by   credibility information when advertisements are tailored to a specific personality profile versus advertisements not tailored to  a  specific  personality  profile.  

Accordingly, advertising  claims  whose  credibility  has  been  challenged  by governmental  or  by  consumer  groups  are  more  likely  to  affect  consumers'  action  than  are  unchallenged advertising claims. The findings have implications for understanding the role of personality profiles in shaping visual imagery and message content of advertising claims.

However there is  an  absence  of  consensus  in  both theories  and  frameworks  that  address  much  of  the  often  conflicting  reasons  of  advertising's  interaction  in consumer   decision - making.   Accordingly,   there   have   been   weak   empirical   relationships   found between prediction of product use or choice with personality behaviour. (Lastovicka, JL., Erich A., & Joachimsthaler, 1988)

Some  researchers  have,  however,  demonstrated  and  analysed  brand  personality  to  the  extent  that effective designs can aid in their influence (Aaker, 1997; Greengrove, 2002; Neal and Wurst, 2001). Attempts at segmenting  markets  on  the  basis  of  personality  similarities  and  differences  have  not  achieved  researchers' desired  results.  The  main  reason  for disappointing  results  is  that  research  efforts  have  primarily  focused  on profiling exercises rather than putting their endeavours into theories based on consumer personalities (Plummer, 2000).

Accordingly, there has been ample research on source effects that concentrated on the impact of the competence, believability, and trustworthiness of the spokesperson in the fields of psychology, advertising, and communication literature (Bush, Moncrief, and

Ziethaml 1987). There is, however, little research on relative impact of personality profiles on consumers' assessments of credibility in advertising content.

There have been numerous studies, however, on the individual effect of advertising on the persistence of profits (e.g., Mueller 1990), implying that excess returns erode more slowly for firms that advertise heavily.

For example, Chauvin and Hirschey (1993) provide evidence that advertising expense has a positive influence on the market value of the firm. They suggest that spending on advertising can be viewed as a form of investment in intangible assets with positive effects on future cash flows. When Erickson and Jacobson (1992) control for the indigeneity between discretionary expenditures and profitability, however, they find that advertising generates substantially lower accounting and stock market returns than indicated in previous research. In a recent study, Chu and Keh (2006) investigate the effects of advertising, promotion, and R&D expenses on brand value creation. They find that these lagged expenses yield diminishing returns to brand value.

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT

There is a general perception that cosmetics are generally purchased by female students who are studying in various colleges, believing that these products may improve their appearance and personality which are essential for their career. It is also perceived that these set of female students have the capacity to spend sufficient amount for cosmetics, as their affordability is more than that of the unemployed female students. But these perceptions are found to be false in the modern era, as cosmetics have nowadays become an essential object and are used by majority of female students, irrespective of their occupation, education and age.

The reason behind this new trend is that there is an uplift found in the economic conditions of the people. But earlier, majority of the population were below the poverty line, and the female students who used cosmetic products then were not respected by the society.

Culturally, female students in MSU are enjoying a higher status than those in some other states. They are enjoying freedom in education, occupation and career selection. In particular, MSU students enjoy all these facilities to the full as their literacy rate is higher than the other districts. This makes them more conscious of their health and body care. Since their financial position is also far better than the other districts, they are found to be spending sufficient amount for recreation, education and on luxury items.

This study investigate the effect of advertising on female students beauty products purchasing behavior. First, cosmetics advertising can be classified into conventional advertising, advertorials, and beauty news based on press releases, and beauty articles written by editors. In addition, consumer purchasing behavior has been examined in terms of use of information, purchasing intention, and purchasing experience. Beauty products shopping orientations were classified into six factors (the pursuit of impulsive purchasing and trends, well-known brands, convenience, low prices, efficacy and brand loyalty).

1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE

1. To examine the awareness of the female student in MSU about advertised products.

2. To study  the significant  difference  if  any  in  the  purchasing  motive,  preferences  and  loyalty  with reference to locality.

3. To find out the buying behavior and consumption patterns of cosmetic products among female students in MSU.

4. To analyze the level of satisfaction of the female students in MSU towards cosmetic products.

5. To identify the adverse effects of cosmetics and the problems faced by the female students in MSU.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION

1. What are the factors that affect the buying decisions of female students in MSU?

2. What kind of attitudes do female students in MSU have towards beauty products that are made of natural ingredients?

3. How natural ingredients in beauty products affect female students in MSU buying decisions?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

This  study  will  be  a  significant  venture  in  promoting  advertising  awareness  among  the  future citizens  through  teachers  of  tomorrow.  This  study  will  be  beneficial  to  the  consumers  and  business  industries particularly  in  product/service  promotion.  By  understanding  the  needs  of  the  consumers  and  the  benefits  of effective  advertisement,  these  business  industries  will  be  assured  of  a  competitive  advantage.  Moreover, this study may equip students to be aware of the ill effects of advertisements and act as responsible citizens.

So,  the  impact  of  advertising  on  our  society  is  in  a  jumble  form,  depending  on  the  functions  and implementations  of  numerous  campaigns.  Our  society  and  the  marketing  of  products  depend  very  badly  upon advertising.  The  companies  have  become  much  dependent  of  advertising  that  even  its  negative  impacts  can never outweigh the many positive social and economic effects. The most important element of advertising is not information but suggestion more or less making use of  associations,  emotions  (appeal  to  emotion)  and  drives  dormant  in  the  subconscious  of  people,  such as happiness, health, fitness, appearance, self-esteem, reputation, belonging, social  status,  identity,  adventure,  distraction,  reward of fears,  such  as  illness,  weaknesses, loneliness,  need,  uncertainty,  security  or  of  prejudices,  learned  opinions  and  comforts.  

Assorted techniques are enforced for persuading consumers that they want the product which is being advertised. These techniques usually give attention to the benefits that would be brought to the consumers rather than focusing on the actual products.  There  are  various  blames  that advertising  is  causing  a  negative  social  impact  on  the  lives.  

The purpose is to figure out the attributes that affect the female students' consumption for beauty products. Through this study, it was identified that the five factors, quality product, product price, brand name, product packaging and advertising have greater impact on customer buying decision.

Consumers go through the processing making their buying decisions, since there are alternative products which compete in the areas close proximity, relatively cheaper price, quality, etc. Brand, Quality and price are one among the strong competing factors in the decision making process. When it comes to beauty products, it is even more intense that all the five factors play a major role in consumer buying decision.

The  study  implies  the  need  for  exposure  and  education to  students so  as  to  make  them  socially awakened and personally responsible citizens who are independent decision makers also. This research is beneficial, firstly, for the advertising agencies, as it will become easier for them to formulate the exact integrated marketing strategies for their customers so as to target the respective audience of the organization. It will also help the organizations to optimally distribute their marketing expenditure over different mediums of advertising, catering to their target group.

1.6 LIMITATION OF STUDY

The definition of limitation of study is to reveals that the effect of advertisement is comparatively better than expected among the female students. Many of them are active listeners for gathering information regarding  the new  products, trend  in  the market and make a  comparison  with  the products  of  other  firms. The consumer  culture  is  more  prevalent  in  rural  students  than  in  urban  students.

Majority  of  female  students  are interested  in  beauty products while the  male  students  are  more  concerned  with  automobiles  and electronic equipment. While advertisements often include information that cross cut all personality profiles, some consumers ignore some of this information and rely primarily on advertising claims and on personal experience in forming judgments about advertised products.  On the other hand, some consumers defer decisions until the advertising claims have some credibility behind them before making product purchase decisions.

There  are  distinct  processing  differences  between  dominant,  influencing,  steadiness  and conscientiousness   individuals.   These   differences   should   affect   how   consumers   perceive   and   evaluate information provided by advertising message and imagery.  The  basic  hypothesis  is  that  advertisements containing ad  content  that  is  consistent  with  subjects'  perceiving or type  behavior  preferences  will  be  viewed  as believable  compared  to  advertisements  that  contain  ad  content  that  is  inconsistent  with  their  perceiving-type preferences.

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