Judgments are evaluations or estimates regarding the likelihood that products and services possess certain features or will perform in a certain manner. To make a judgment simply means to form opinions or assumptions. Judg¬ments can be as general as assuming comparisons between objects or preferences, but they do not constitute as choices. Choices require the selection of a decision in substitute, even if the choice is deciding, “not to decide.” (Hoyer, Macinnis, Peters, 2018). The difference between judgment and choice becomes evident when a person considers the variety of marketing research techniques, which uses judgments to foresee choices. It is important for marketers to realize that as judgments are col¬lected as inputs for analytical methods, consumer judgments are simply one set of feedbacks to choice progressions (Johnson & Puto, 1987).
Consumer and marketing researchers provided useful understandings into consumers' cognitive evidences. The techniques that were tested were multi¬ dimensional scaling, hierarchical clustering, discriminant analysis and factor analysis (Hauser and Urban 1977). There techniques were used to help marketers understand how consumers cognitively described or describe products. Marketers gained a better psychological understanding of how consumers cognitively represent products and services. According to Whan Park (1978), he described the process in a way that consumers considered scopes into more features like representations, or value ranges, depending on the products, which were acceptable or unacceptable (Johnson & Puto, 1987).
A study by Johnson and Fomell (1987) showed how consumers' cognitive representations of products changed within different choice tasks. Johnson and Fomell argued that more non-comparable or conceptual products are de¬scribed by with more abstract attributes they are known to have more naturally dimen¬sional. Abstract attributes capture more information than more concrete attributes. With the given research, con¬sumers may have used complex dimensions to represent products when fewer, more abstract attributes were involved (Johnson & Puto, 1987).
Decision researchers used two types of methods to study the use of different choice strategies by decision makers; verbal pro¬tocols and information monitoring. Verbal protocols are obtained by having an individual speak out-loud while making a decision. The statements in the protocol are analyzed to de¬termine the nature of the information search and the compensatory versus non-compensatory nature of the evaluations. Compensatory strategies advance overt tradeoffs of attribute information. Non-compensatory strategies are characterized by the elimination of choice alternatives that do not meet beforehand cutoffs on evaluative attributes (Johnson & Puto, 1987).
International marketing is more complex than domestic marketing. It requires commitment, resources, a different kind of market research, and above all, a different set of strategies (Hyatt, 2017). From an international marketing standpoint, the approach will have to be slightly different as the culture and branding strategies are likely to be different from the United States. If international businesses want to avoid intercultural errors overseas, their marketing teams may have to work with translators to understand the culture. Whether the goal is to develop or foresee consumer decisions, it is important for marketers to under¬stand human judgment and choice processes. Consumer's judgment and the choices researchers face are unique intangible, appropriate, and operational problems that will require special attention (Heskett, 2013).
As the consumer needs change, the marketers should take the time to understand the reasons for the change. Brand loyalty results in low-effort decision-making because the consumer does not need to process information when making a decision and simply buys the same brand each time. However, because of their strong commitment to the brand or service, brand-loyal consumers have a better chance of involvement with the brand. Brand loyalty also affects choice of retail outlet. Many companies promote brand loyalty through sales promotions such as discount coupons and giveaways to active consumers (Hoyer, Macinnis, Peters, 2018).
It is useful for a marketer to understand how consumers categorize information. Consumers store a variety of information, feelings, and past experiences in their memory when making a decision. Because consumers have limited capacity or ability to process information, consumers are likely to recall only a small subset of stored information when they engage in internal search. Consumers approach their behavior with external search of outside sources, such as trusted friends, relatives, published sources, advertisements, the Internet, or the product package. Consumers use external search to collect additional information about which brands are available as well as about the attributes and benefits associated with brands in the consideration set (Hoyer, Macinnis, Peters, 2018). Most consumers approach their decision making from an external search with the expectation of the information being accurate. Marketers would need to focus their consumer approach through generalization to affect the internal and external search. It will always be important to know what consumers want and need to determine the marketing approach. This will be an ongoing marketing tactic continuously changing, as it will be an ongoing search for the consumers. In the end, both parties will be satisfied. Since it is very easy for consumers to search online, marketers have to make sure their product and marketing tactics are everywhere.
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