November 14, 2018
Leadership Research Paper
You may not know, like me, that there are different forms of leadership. One of them being Transformational Leadership. Transformational Leadership is a leadership approach that causes change in individuals and social systems. In a perfect setting and citation it turns followers into leaders. It can increase motivation, morale, and performance of followers through multiple ways. Understand the strength and weaknesses of followers so leaders can give followers tasks that optimize their performance.
In 1978 James MacGregor Burns first introduced the concept of transforming leadership on political leaders. According to Burns leadership is a process in which "leaders and followers help each other to advance to a higher level of morale and motivation”. This is when he established two different concepts: Transforming Leadership and Transactional Leadership. The transforming approach creates significant change in the life of people and the organizations. Its based on the leaders personality rather than the “give and take” relationship.
Another researcher by the name of Bernard M. Bass extended the work of Burns in 1985. He went into more depth and detail about the psychological mechanisms that underlie transforming and transactional leadership. Bass also started using the term Transformational instead of Transforming. Now about 30 years later after years of research and a number of analyses have shown that you can tell why some businesses work better than others by using these two terms and determining which one your business falls under. There is a questionnaire called the “ Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire”, (MLQ Form 5X). This measures each of the components of full range leadership.
Transactional Leadership follows more oder and structure than connecting with employees and followers. It tends to focus more on the results than the process. Some examples might include the military or large corporations. It depends on self-motivated people who work in a well structured and directed environment. Transactional leaders work best with employees who know their job and know the rewed-penalty system. Transactional leadership is more of a “telling” type leadership.
Transactional leadership was used widely in the United Sates after World War II. This was a time period when the government concentrated on rebuilding and required a high level of structure to maintain nationally stable. In the 1980's and 1990's researchers including Bernard Bass, Jane Howell and Bruce Avolio defined the dimensions of transactional leaders ship. Here are three things they defined it by with examples. Contingent reward,the process of setting expectations and rewarding workers for meeting the expectations. Passive management by exception, where a manager does not interfere with workflow unless an issue arises. Lastly, Active management by exception, in which managers anticipate problems, monitor progress and issue corrective measures.
Vince Lombardi is a good example of a transactional leader. Born in 1913, he is best known for being the coach of the Green Bay Packers. With him being the coach, the team never had a losing season, overall record being 98-30-4 and winning 5 championships. Now the Super Bowl trophy is named after him, the Vince Lombardi Trophy. In practice, he would make the team run the same plays over and over again. All the other teams knew the plays but they were so good at the it didn't matter.
Bernard M. Bass
Bernard Bass was born in 1927 in the Bronx, New York. In 1949, he earned a Phd in Industrial Psychology from the Ohio State University. A series of academic appointments took him from LSU to Binghampton University. In the late 1970's, he read and reviewed Leadership by James MacGregor Burns, in that Burns introduced the concept of transformational leadership. Bass put some of those ideas together with his experience of meeting someone who had worked for a leader that motivated him. In 1985 Bass published ‘Leadership and Performance Expectations' and a string of many other books on leadership followed. The fourth edition, finished shortly before he died in 2007, ‘The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Applications' is widely used and regarded as the most authoritative resource on leadership.
Bass was interested in how a leader influences their followers. Followers look to a leader because of their charisma and because they trust the leader.
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