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  • Subject area(s): Marketing
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  • Published on: 14th September 2019
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Annotated Bibliography

1. Daley, John. “He Started Vaping As A Teen And Now Says Habit Is 'Impossible To Let

Go'.” NPR, NPR, 7 June 2018,

The addiction to vaping seems to begin for reasons other than pursuing

nicotine. These other factors that draw minors in are the fruity flavors, and

impressive smoke tricks; however, once they're hooked, they're hooked for life. Although vaping seems to be safer than tobacco products, it hasn't been around long enough to see the long-term risks. As well as that, vaping seems to be a gateway to tobacco use, which has numerous risks of its own.  

Although nicotine products cannot be legally purchased by minors, the article states it is unlikely to be carded, or those over 18 can purchase the products for the minors. Some blame should not only be on the companies for creating flavors so appealing to kids, but also some should be placed on the parents and guardians.  

I used this article in my brief to show a student's perspective of the vaping epidemic. The article is based around a student named Julien Lavandier who started vaping as a highschool sophomore then took up cigarettes and is now unable to quit, or even go three days without nicotine.  This article shows just how easy it is for minors to get addicted.  

2. “Dear CDC, If Marijuana Isn't a Gateway Drug, Neither Are E-Cigarettes.” Dear CDC, If Marijuana Isn't a Gateway Drug, Neither Are E-Cigarettes | American Council on Science and Health,

This article takes the stance that E-Cigarettes, like marijuana, are not a gateway drug. The argument distinguishes between correlation and causation stating that just starting with e-cigarettes doesn't cause smoking of cigarettes in the future. Furthermore, the article argues that based on the general correlation, things like soda could also be considered gateway drugs because people who smoke have likely had soda earlier in their life.  

The article also stresses that the CDC is promoting information that may not necessarily be the whole story. For example, the CDC states that cigarette smoking has declined in the same report as calling it an “introductory tobacco product”, and while the author says the decline isn't necessarily due to e-cigarettes, it is a likely possibility. Even more, the use of the word tobacco is faulty in itself as e-cigarettes are a tobacco-less product.

I used this article mainly to show the stance that e-cigarettes although maybe not completely harmless, there is a small win in lowering the overall cigarette smoking population. Also, this article led me to find other sources that support this position.  

3. “E-Cigarettes a Gateway to Smoking? Not Likely.” ScienceDaily, ScienceDaily, 13 Mar. 2017,

This paper emphasizes that national trends do not show that vaping is a gateway drug towards smoking cigarettes. Overall the rates of smoking have decreased, and there is little evidence to link e-cigarette use to cigarette usage in the future. The article also states that at this point in the research, e-cigarettes are way less dangerous than cigarettes.  

However, this article does mention that there could be a “small gateway effect”, but overall the general trend towards less smoking outweighs this. Furthermore, the article explains that people who vape are a certain type of person, and that type of person is likely the same type of person who experiments with cigarettes and other drugs, compared to those who do not touch drugs or addictive substances at all.   

This article emphasizes the point that vaping is not a gateway to smoking cigarettes which helps me to argue for the advantages of promoting vaping. The article shows several shortcomings of studies that set out to prove that vaping is bad or a gateway drug.  

4. “Is Vaping a Gateway Drug?” Keck Medicine of USC,

This article by Keck Medicine of USC ponders whether e-cigarettes are helping the world quit smoking, or whether it is starting a problem of its own. When smoking cigarettes and e-cigarettes were considered separately, the rate of high schoolers who had smoked cigarettes had dropped 10% in 10 years; however, including e-cigarettes showed a 60% increase in the past 10 years. The article goes further to state that a study found adolescents who said they would never smoked cigarettes are now reaching for e-cigarettes.  

Furthermore, there has been a plateau of cigarette smoking rates since 2014 according to this study. This is used as evidence to show that e-cigarettes are not the total reason for the decline. The article argues that regardless of declines in cigarette usage, the increase in e-cigarette usage could be withholding the progress while damaging the brains of adolescents.  

I believe this article is a good example of the disadvantages of e-cigarettes. This shows that although there has been a decline in cigarette usage, it is now leveling off while e-cigarette usage is increasing significantly.  

5. “JUUL Labs Was Founded with the Goal of Improving the Lives of the World's One Billion

Adult Smokers.” Our Responsibility | A Smoking Alternative for Adults | JUUL,

This was taken directly from the website of Juul, which is the most widely available and used e-cigarette and has been since it's premiere in 2015. This website shares a goal of helping the world's billion smokers by providing a good alternative to cigarettes. The dangers of nicotine are stated throughout the website, as it warns users against using nicotine if they haven't been using it in the past.

Furthermore, the website talks about how they want to be part of the solution and not creating new users, as other studies and articles have claimed. They even go a step further by listing the steps that they follow which they believe are fending off adolescent users.

I used this article because it shows the perspective of the e-cigarette company. There are several articles claiming that Juul was intentionally advertising to adolescents, so I felt it was right to include an article to gain information from the other perspective.   

6. National Institute on Drug Abuse. “Electronic Cigarettes (E-Cigarettes).” NIDA,

In this article, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) does a great job explaining e-cigarettes, their usage in teens, their effects, and their use as a quit aid. First, the article goes in depth describing exactly how the devices work and the components of the device itself. This article suggests that although more research is needed, there is early evidence that may suggest that e-cigarettes are a form of gateway drug.

The article then goes in depth speaking of the effects of e-cigarettes and nicotine, specifically in the brain. These effects are what causes the addiction to nicotine, as the nicotine causes a release of dopamine which rewards the user and encourages people to use nicotine more. Furthermore, in teens, nicotine may cause mood disorders, and problems with impulse. Lastly, the NIDA points out that e-cigarettes although created to help people quit smoking, are not an approved quit aid by the FDA  

7. Nichols, Hannah. “Five Ways to Quit Smoking.” Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 18 Sept. 2017,

8. Richtel, Matt, and Sheila Kaplan. “Did Juul Lure Teenagers and Get 'Customers for Life'?” The New York Times, The New York Times, 27 Aug. 2018,

9. “Smoking & Tobacco Use.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 15 May 2017,

10. Zhuang, Yue-Lin, et al. “Long-Term e-Cigarette Use and Smoking Cessation: a Longitudinal Study with US Population.” Tobacco Control, BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 1 Oct. 2016,

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