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  • Published on: 14th September 2019
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History of Agriculture

The history of agriculture is the story of man's development and cultivation of procedures for producing food, feed, fiber, fuel, and other goods by the organized raising of flora and fauna. Former to the development of plant cultivation, humans were predators and collectors. From 10,000 years ago, the knowledge and skill of learning to take care for the soil and plants growth were already appeared in human society, allowing clans and tribes to stay in one location generation to the future generation and this was prove by the archeologist.

Due to agriculture, the relations between different regions and groups of people developed in the cites, further allowing the improvement of human societies and cultures. Agriculture has been an important feature of economics all over the centuries prior to and after the Industrial Revolution. Sustainable development of world food supplies effects the long-term existence of the species, so care must be taken to guarantee that agricultural methods remain in harmony with the environment.

In Southwest Asia area, agriculture have been developed at varies times in several areas which develops in earliest around the world. There is much prior evidence for use of desolate cereals: anthropological and archaeological evidence from sites across Southwest Asia and North Africa indicate use of wild grain (such as from the ca. 20,000 B.C.E. site of Ohalo II in Israel, many Natufian sites in the Levant and from sites along the Nile in the 10th millennium B.C.E.). There is even early prove for planned cultivation and trait selection: grains of rye with domestic traits have been recovered from Epi-Palaeolithic (10,000+ B.C.E.) frameworks at Abu Hureyra in Syria. The eight founder crops of agriculture appear which is first emmer and einkorn wheat, then hulled barley, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas, and flax.

By 7000 B.C.E., spreading and harvesting reached Mesopotamia with a very fertile soil just north of the Persian Gulf, Sumerian inventiveness structured it and scaled it up. By 6000 B.C.E. farming was fixed on the banks of the Nile River. In 20-centuary, agriculture was in China, with rice besides than wheat as the primary crop. Americas around 3000-2700 B.C.E. maize was the first domesticated from teosinte, though archaeological evidence of a much older expansion. The potato, the tomato, the pepper, squash, several assortments of bean, and some other plants were also established in the New World, as was quite extensive terracing of steep hillsides in much of Andean South America. Agriculture was also independently technologically advanced on the island of New Guinea.

Types of Agritourism Activities

The preview of agritourism differs significantly contingent on the available land as the extent of in agriculture field is focused on the market. The following is a list agritourism activities.

Firstly, direct sales of fresh or value-added products. One of the most popular product of this form is a roadside product stand. Farmers sell a wide range of goods such as organic products and canned items directly to customers either at fairs and markets or on the farm itself. The sales are generally made along with other offerings of agritourism. This can appear as shirts, aprons, mugs, etc. Although farmers sell the same products that can be found in any local grocery stores, but their products have the extra nutrition which directly sent from their own farm. These proves that the product is unconditionally fresh than other grocery stall. For the purpose to attract more consumers as known as customers, farmer also sell handcrafted products. They also will sell some food products. For appealing to certain customers, the goods might even be marketed as all-natural and organic products.

Secondly, the overnight accommodations which also a type of agritourism. This type of agritourism can attract students to slowly gain interest in agriculture. Farmer provide cabins in their farm as a place to sleep for visitors. Bed and breakfast provide for visitors at camping site. This also called as farm stay or farm vacation. Full-service of farm vacation with activities and meals held to gain more interest to visitors. The activities are glamping in furnish yurts, fixed tents, etc. Sleeping in the straw in a clean bam with fresh straw to cushion sleeping bags.

There also have for-fee type of recreation which is Night Safari in Malacca Malaysia. As some of wildlife can only be seen at night, Night Safari offers visitors to watch those animals such as Asian lion. This is only a clear example for fee recreation. There are much more activities that can be held such as archery, bicycle trails and rentals, bird watching, boating, canoeing, kayaking, rafting. The most popular activities among teenagers is fishing and for older folks is hunting. Other than that, hiking, horse stables horseback trail riding, mountain biking, rock climbing and other extreme activities also popular among every age.

Thirdly, experience and education agritourism are also agritourism types. This form includes groves of apples that can be handpicked, bed and breakfast facilities, farm tours and packages meant for providing city dwellers hands-on experience about life on a working farm. Whether the

tourists pay for picking their own, enjoying the stay in a farmhouse accommodation or attending wine tastings. Once the visitors become acquainted with the working farm closely, they also feel inclined to purchase its organic products. Visitors can also experience animal birthing, candle making with local beeswax, caring for animals, crafting etc.

Lastly is event and recreation agritourism types. This form is still regarded as agritourism, its offerings generally involve the farm land for other variety of marketable purposes. Events like corn mazes, harvest festivals, country weddings and spooky hayrides are held on the land. Different recreational activities such as archery, camping and horse riding are also made available for tempting guests into buying organic items produced on the farm. Once a strong connection has been established between the farm and the consumer, it can easily forge long-term relationship.

As a conclusion, the varies types of agritourism may attract a lot of people to join and to gain knowledges throughout the activities. The more the public knows about agritourism, the higher the impacts for the society. Agritourism as a greenery projects for a city is highly recommend more publicans to join.

 

Advantages of agritourism

Agritourism promotes the economic growth in Malaysia. Malaysia is one of several countries that have transformed their economies by developing tourism potential. Agritourism has higher chance to generate large-scale employment and additional income sources to the professional and normal workforce in that fields.

The first advantages of agritourism is increased and more branch out income. In this field, extra opportunity to produce more income. This will not take place of the crops of current agricultural, the new profits can be added to the current operation. Agritourism can be a small, part-time focus to provide supplement farm operations. It can also expand the season for income generation out there from the normal farm. The farm products value could be added through processing and direct marketing. Besides that, it is also providing more opportunity to be a producer of price (price-taker) versus a consumer of price (price-taker), the producer can make higher profits from direct to customer of their products. Data of spending on entertainment and recreation by consumer can be record in each year. The future customer of the product also can be predict as their return home thy will make an order from you again. The agritourism market will be expand beyond tourists and local peoples.

The second advantages of agritourism is more value from current assets. This fields offers a way to increase profits without increasing estate. The opportunity to raise a new business is provided with the sources that already exists. It takes benefits from the old building, land etc. Other than that, additional physical infrastructure can be builds to increase its value.

The third advantages of agritourism is strengthened opportunities for families. For the future generations, they can helps their own family to take care the farm or ranch in the land. Also, new working opportunities for a spouse, children and family member that have vary talents had been create. This also can maintain family interest in and concentration to the farm.

Lastly, sharing of your way of life and offer of the value of agriculture also an advantages of agritourism. You gain the chance to educate people about nature, rural lifestyle and agriculture industry, the local policy could be improved by your action. The way for protecting and taking care the land and natural resources also can raise during a showcases. Provides a chances to teach people about both historic and modern methods of farming, and the ricks that will faces during everyday agriculture. It’s also can improve the knowledge of human for understanding the local food systems.

The Ways to Promote and Sustain Agritourism in Malaysia

The lack of promotion activities to promote the agritourism make this concept not widely spread in Malaysia. There are some peoples who are still doesn’t know what is agritourism especially people who live in rural area. For the people who are already know about it, they not have enough information about the agritourism places in Malaysia. The information given may not be interesting or fascinating enough to attract people to visit the agritourism spot. Therefore, there are various ways that can be done with the cooperation of all parties to improve agritourism industry in Malaysia.

   

The first way to promote agritourism was through mass media. The development of today’s technology leads to a variety of information that can be changed quickly, easily and effectively. Every Malaysians used various of gadgets such as smartphones, tablet, laptop, computer and television in their daily life. The internet access also helps to spread the information widely with lower cost. The promotional activities that can be carried out through mass media are advertising, documentary, agritourism program and more. For examples, a documentary program such as ‘Agrojurnal’ and ‘Agrotek’ that broadcast on the RTM channel. This documentary program is about farming and agriculture activities that carried out by Malaysian peoples. Through this program also can help farmers and livestock entrepreneurs to promote their place to the public people.

    

Documentary program

    

In addition, the campaign, exhibition and dissemination of brochures also play an important role in promoting agritourism in Malaysia. Through this method, farmers and livestock entrepreneurs can promote their product face-to-face with the public people. They can provide the information and explain about their product clearly to their customers. For example, we can see through Malaysia Agriculture, Horticulture and Agritourism Show (MAHA). MAHA known as placed that have various type of agricultural and livestock products from all over Malaysia and gives entrepreneurs an opportunity to introduce their new products. MAHA also is a platform for government and private company to introduce agricultural technology to emphasize the production of quality products at lower prices. MAHA has also attracted many foreign countries to participate in that exhibition.

MAHA 2018

Support from the government also is very important for development of agritourism in Malaysia. The partnership between the Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry and the Ministry of Tourism and Culture (MOTAC) is vigorous in supporting and assisting businesspersons who are interested in developing agritourism industry. The efforts take on was included the process of classifying and providing advisory services to businesspersons who are attentive to expanding their agritourism business. Besides that, the private sector in Malaysia is fortified to become partners with the public sector in reaching the nation’s development objectives. For example, the Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute (MARDI) has established joint projects in livestock, seed, biotechnology and food security through the exchange of MOUs with three private companies which are Nizo Food Research, Sime Darby Research Sdn. Bhd dan Falcon Livestock.

 

Agritourism around the world

1. Taiwan

The government in Taiwan improve their agritourism promotion such as more festivals, joined with private sector to offer agrotours, rural cuisine and agricultural specialty gifts to improve their agritourism sector. There are some places in Taiwan that caught visitor’s eyes. For example, in Northern Taiwan there is a city called Taipei that become the first port for the visitors. Visitors can go to Yangmingshan National Park or the Beitou hot spring as one of their must visit place. Other than Taipei, visitors can move to Guanyinshan National Scenic Area that located along the north coast. Guanyinshan is the smaller part of the Scenic Area that is centered on 616-meter-high mountain. Guanyinshan National Park provides visitors with a bleak, deserted strip of shore, the sun beating down on a sandy beach and history, culture and good food for the visitors.

2. Tuscany

Tuscany is the region of central Italy with Florence as the capital. Tuscany is one of the most visited places due to the place that provide variation of beautiful places, food to taste and things that other places don’t have the agriturismo. Agriturismo is a place that originally a farm converted into some of the rooms to be as guest rooms. Visitors can experience farm-like environment went they stay there. This agriturismos are most often located in Tuscany, Umbria and Sicily. Usually, farmers will provide their guests with local produce from their farm such as olive oil, fruit and vegetables. Some farmers provide the visitors with cooking classes, train them to plant a tree and using machines. Some of the best agriturismo farm stay in Tuscany are Agriturismo Casale Dello Sparviero, Agriturismo Cerreto and Agriturismo Macinatico.

3. Brazil

Brazil is located huge along the eastern coast of South America. Brazil is known with it unique river, Amazon that become the second longest river in the world. With the universe size of the country, Brazil has a lot of mountains, rivers and forests that can be use as part of agritourism. Coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus and beef are the main income for Brazil. This clearly can be seen that agriculture is the main source of income for Brazil. There are several places that be use as agritourism other that just agriculture. One of them is Santa Mariana that offers a tour on their farm, the visitors can see crops such as corn, soya beans and eucalyptus and how it is planted. Visitors who loves about wildlife also can put Santa Mariana in their wish list because they can see a live ecosystem of these rare species. Other than that, in Nobres, Mato Grosso that have a crystal clear blue lake, waterfalls and a natural aquarium that attract visitors to come there. Nobres is located about 140 km from Cuiabaon the south slopes of the Serra Azul. Visitors can do activities such as snorkeling, freshwater diving where they can see aquatic life more closer and lastly trekking because there are a lot of jungle that still untouchable with a less develop infrastructure. Brazil become the country that have been increase in agritourism for the past few years due to their technology such as machine that are more modern than other country.

4. Philippines

Philippines is one of the country in Asia. In 1990s Agrotourism exist but not clearly show because these farms are privately owned or managed. There are now 12 identified sites in Calabarzon (Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Rizal and Quezon) that become a tourism places to boosting farmer’s income and increase their economy activity. Some farms will be integrated into group destinations which are Kaharian Farm, Forest Wood Garden, Ato Belen’s Farm, Costales Nature Farms, Flor’s Garden and Nature Haven, Teofely Nature Farms, Domingo Permafarms, Chad’s Nature Farm, Nurture Farmacy, Terra Verde Ecofarm, Moca Family Farm and Graco Farms. These farms offer tourists activities other than it actual function such as organic farm tour and daily life as a farmer where tourist can experience it by themselves.

 

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