IntroductionThe importance of the working environment, understood as a physical space, has become increasingly essential in the organization of companies and companies: in the course of time a new awareness was born towards the innovative office as a strategic tool for Productivity,collaboration and growth.Of course for every company there are different characteristics to take into account, but the right office can really make a difference forthe workers, placing them in a more motivating context to face great challenges and new projects.In the design of workplaces, three important factors must be taken into account:\u201CIntelligent\u201D afterthought of the ways in which work activities are carried out, removing inappropriate constraints and models linked to fixed position, open space and single office concepts that arepoorly suited to the principles of customization, flexibility andVirtuality\u00BB.The increase of collaboration within co-working spaces that today act at a new level, no longer being a simple place of sharing of physical space and resources, but also an instrument of interaction between workers who encourage new Approaches to solving complex problems posed every day by different business projects2.3.1. The prevention of health problems through ergonomic positions, medical examinations and a new approach to the physical and psychological wellbeing of employees can have a positive impact on the community in which the company operates. Even the workplace can turn into a place to take care of people.These factors are better described below.
1. Health = Greater productivityIn an increasingly competitive market, one of the main objectives of the companies is to increase productivity, focusing on the most important factors that influence it so as to increase the performanceof Employees. Companies must do nothing but work on welfare, identifying first of allthe possible factors that can undermine it. First of all, stress. Stress in the workplace can negatively affect our health, both mental and physical, lead to burnout and, above all, has a negative impact on performance. The factors that can cause it are varied.In order to mitigate the stress and the physical wellbeing of the workers, when designing a workplace it is essential to ensure the following environmental conditions:Noise control-acoustic comfortThe noise is almost always the first aspect indicated by those workingin the office as the element that most generates a negative impact ontheir work, it causes stress and physical disturbances like for example the headache, and thus reduces productivity and performance up to 40%.At the acoustic level there are various measures that can mitigate their perception such as: absorbing noise in open spaces and without walls using sound-absorbing materials such as carpets, panels, or furnishings; Block the noise using walls, doors and acoustic boxes for those environments where a greater concentration is needed and create a variety of spaces according to the activity to be carried out, also introducing the policy of use of spaces; Mask noise through the emission of sounds (white noise) that cover noises that can create disturbance.It is important to note, however, that at the cognitive level the demographic and physical variables affect the perception of noise as an element of disturbance and also, for the completion of some routine activities, being \u2018 interrupted \u2018 can even be of stimulus and Help.\u2022 Acoustic Comfort\u2022 Ergonomic Comfort\u2022 Thermal Comfort\u2022 Bright ComfortErgonomics and movementOne of the main enemies of wellbeing is the sedentariness and the incorrect posture, so that, according to a study of the European Union, seven working days are lost every year for problems with the musculoskeletal system.The first trick is to equip the station with the necessary comfort, withadjustable seats equipped with lumbar support and backrest on the net; Even an elevable desk in height can be a great help to give you the opportunity to work even on your feet.In addition to this, an office with variety of spaces and variety offurnishings encourages movement within environments. To stimulate the creativity and the efficiency of some meetings it can be helpful toorganize meetings in standing or walking meeting.Microclimate and thermal well-beingThe thermal comfort is given by the right combination of temperature, air recirculation and humidity. The balance between these elements is essential for the physical wellbeing in the working environment. Especially in open space it is difficult to find a compromise betweenthe needs of all.The most technologically advanced buildings, however, have a centralized temperature control and a mechanical air recirculation and do not allow users to open the windows or directly control the temperature. However, there are sensors that measure the comfort of the workstation in terms of temperature, humidity and air cleaning and communicate directly with the Building Management system (BMS) to allow automatisms for the regulation and The activation of the implants.Light colours and sensory varietyIn recent years, lighting technology, the science that deals with the study of natural and artificial lighting, has become a crucial pivot inthe design of environments, whether it be professional, domestic or public spaces. In the place where you work, adequate lighting can really make a difference, because it allows the proper performance of visual tasks, thus reducing eye strain, stimulating concentration and productivity \u2013 as well as having an impact Positive about mood.But it is good to remember that design and lighting are two sides of the same coin: the distribution of light on the surfaces varies according to the layout of the spaces, so it is important to organize both the spaces and the lighting of a workplace since ASAP. In short, a good lighting comes together with the design of space and should never be an addition to architectural or constructive structures. It is a fundamental attribute of the inhabited space. A good level of \u201Cillumination\u201D \u2013 that is, the power of light sent into the environment \u2013 helps the concentration and allows a prolonged productivity over time. Moreover, not everyone knows that it is important to take into account also the relations between the illuminated areas \u2013 in particular of the reflectionfactor: the direct glare and the reflected light are to all effects visualdisturbances, because they attract in automatic way and Unaware of our attention and consequently distract our minds.2. The Smartworking: a new dimension of workSmart working is defined as \u201Ca new model of work organization basedon the restitution to people of flexibility and autonomy in the choice ofspaces, timetables and instruments to be used in the face of greater accountability on Results. \u201C The emphasis is therefore on overcoming the rigidity of rigid constraints in the time and place of work, in favour of a more mature work-based relationship for results. The explicit goal is to find a better balance between corporate goals and individualneeds.To make possible the Smart working are the digital technologies that allow to choose where and when to work, both inside and outside the organization. Technologies that support remote work are already widespread.But despite the technology being important, introduce evolved tools of Unified Communication & Collaboration in workspaces old, cramped,may not have the effectiveness that would have in spaces that evolve along with technologies and with the change of mentality Required to people. Today we serve social and working spaces functional to the different activities of the day. The concept of openspace has long been exceeded, today we talk about the mix of different areas (social, private, agile, formal), modulable within the same environment. For example, the office space that accommodates cross-functionalworking groups that are formed and dissolved according to the innovative and/or strategic project that they are called to develop, will need moments of sharing with an equipped working table, It also has systems for charging the batteries of the telephones and a sensor for the regulation of air and lights, but also of individual areas for moments of autonomous elaboration.We need different spaces for size, furnishings and technology according to the different professional needs. Design environments with different settings depending on whether you work in a group or individually, and depending on the type of team work. Project areas with a common desk equipped with monitors visible to all and equipped with technological equipment to foster collaboration and sharing. Reserved areas to call and to make meetings, facilitated by furnishings designed for the acoustic protection, then also within wider multifunctional spaces. Social areas, relaxation areas and green areas where to promote the meeting and exchange between people in destructured form, precisely to help cultural contamination and collaboration between colleagues. The same company restaurant \u2013 evolving with the logic to the islands of the old canteen for about ten years \u2013 today makes a further evolution as a social area accessible all day, with bar service and comfortable sofas where to make meetings and meetings between colleagues, Customers and suppliers.
3. The necessity of stimulate the collaborationToday we have a greater mobility of people given by technologies, and therefore more and more organizations need to draw spaces based on the number of people, but based on functions and activities.Thirty years ago 90 per cent of the space was destined for the workstations, closed or more open, this little matter, and 10 percent was dedicated to support areas, i.e. meeting rooms. Now these percentages have changed in an important way, so in some cases we also talk about 50 percent of workstations and 50 percent of support spaces, although it has become inappropriate to call them support areas, because it\u2019s not just meeting rooms , the support areas are spaces where you work differently, and then project areas, informal areas, social hubs like those of Microsoft, cabins where people can make conference calls. This component is growing more and more because in the office you go to develop team activities. This is why we need to focus on spaces that foster interchange and relations between workers.The value of companies is the rate at which people can interact and communicate, exchange information. The concept of contamination is also widespread. A traditional organization, had the plan of finance,the area of marketing, etc... So the whole organization was deployed in a very structured way. Today the office space is lived in a more fluidway, the areas are shared according to modalities dictated more by the functionality of the activities to be carried out and this generates contaminations.
The Italian context In italy many large companies have contributed to a real revolution in the development of the Workplaces project.And just starting from the points mentioned above, the following three projects are to be considered exemplary, not only in technological optics, but for an overall revision of the company culture:Case 1: MicrosoftIt opens in Milan, the new headquarters of the company, in the pyramid designed by Herzog & De Meuron for the Feltrinelli Foundation. A workplace where spaces are evenly distributed among employees \u2018 offices, designed in the optics of smartworking without assigneddesks and with virtual reception, and places open to the public, which recalls the value of open innovation for a company Like Microsoft. People are the protagonists of this new project, and in a building designed to be in constant osmotic exchange with the surrounding world but also among the employees, flexibility is a key element.The interior design, follows the path that Microsoft Italia has undertaken for 10 years under the banner of \u201CNew World of Work\u201D, an approach to professional dynamics that provides first and foremost a greaterflexibility of its employees with a view to fostering the Reconciliation ofpersonal and professional needs and the use of functional spaces and innovative technologies to maximize at the same time productivity, collaboration and achievement of objectives.The 7,500 square meters of Microsoft House are designed according to a free and fluid organization. The Open Space workspaces do notprovide for dedicated workstations: Each person moves according to the needs, finding support spaces suitable for the different needs of eachworking day. To guide the organization are the logic of smartworking, Picture 1
on the basis of which seven different types of workstations have been identified, differentiated according to different needs: from desks inopen space, equipped with panels to ensure the sound insulation and in some cases also of fixed monitors, where it is envisaged a use ofthe extended computer or a type of activity requiring a greater visual and acoustic comfort, one passes to the ateliers, transparent spaces designed for an individual work of Short-term. Creative Garden is instead the spaces designed for collaboration and brainstorming activities, realized inside to read natural and functional wood structures, furnished with plants and elements of color. For activities requiring greater concentration, the smart platforms have been devised, in acoustically isolated metal structures with sliding boards and smart Flowers, which are more suitable for an individual type of work. The fifth is the Garden Tables, structured circular elementsto foster both individual and team work, thanks to an innovative and creative mechanism whereby the decorative plants in the center of the table can be raised to Ensure privacy or lower to create a unique and collaborative work plan. Finally, the Touch down Area, structured in high tables and conceived for short moments of work, for example in the passage between one meeting and another.
Case 2: UnicreditWith the new UniCredit project, the spaces have been redesigned looking mainly at the real needs of colleagues, who can choose the most suitable environment to work with, always supported by cutting-edge technology.So since 2008 the company has launched a plan to rationalise the directional buildings with the aim of consolidating all the major European headquarters. Consequently all the working environments have been rethought. The group has moved from a classic approach with single offices to a new facility able to respond to the actual needsof colleagues and management. The guiding criterion for the design of office space in UniCredit is now based on the Smart Working. InItaly the initiative was realized in Milan (via Livio Cambi and pilot in UniCredit Tower), Torino and Bologna following a gradual approach: open space and \u201Cspecialised\u201D spaces have been introduced, such as, for example, large meeting rooms and Small, phone booth for phone calls or video conferences or the so-called focus area closed and equipped with shielded positions to promote silence and concentration, with a consequent reduction of the single offices that today represent2% of Overall positions.Case 3: LinkedinThe concept for the new Italian headquarters of LinkedIn comes from the idea of designing a place of transformation.A space that supports a new way of working that strengthens the talents and the diversity, the natural rhythm of the work and its balance with the private life. A concept that promotes the sharing of corporate values and the creation of a group spirit, but also respects the individual moments of concentration.The project reflects the values of the brand: excellence, passion,collaboration and transformation.The strategic approach starts from the desire to create a unique concept for the brand that has a global value. This has allowed the brand to strengthen its image as a global social network that creates value at the local level thanks to the connections generated.
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