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  • Subject area(s): Marketing
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  • Published on: 14th September 2019
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I. Introduction: Women in Business

A. US gender equality policies

1. The Civil Rights Act of 1964

a. Ensures constitutional rights for black but also provided more protection for women

b. Provision to prohibit discrimination against women added by Howard Smith, a conservative Virginia Democrat

2. Equal Pay Act

a. Signed by John F. Kennedy in June 19632

b. wage discrimination prohibited for men and women in the same establishment who perform jobs that require substantially equal skill, effort, and responsibility under similar working conditions

B. Corporate Pipeline

1. US corporate pipeline

2. Automotive corporate pipeline

3. Snacks/beverage corporate pipeline

C. Comparing two case studies

1. Mary Barra

a. CEO of General Motors

b. The first female CEO in automotive industry

2. Indra Nooyi

a. CEO and president of Pepsico

II. Mary Barra

A. Family Background

1. Father a dye maker, or engineer, at GM

2. Almost every breadwinner in her hometown worked for GM

B. Career Path

1. Attended General Motors Institute (1980)

a. Wanted field experience and academic knowledge

b. Chose because she could study, get work experience, and pay for her tuition with the wages she earned

c. Wanted to learn how cars were made as a line worker

d. More of a student-employee

i. Pay them for the time they worked at a car plant

ii. Gave two 12-week breaks per year to study at the university

e. Provided her with deep understanding of what went on at the most basic levels of the company

2. Hired as a controls engineer in a plant after graduation

a. Responsible for plant facilities and maintenance

b. Oversaw a team of millwrights, plumbers, sanitation workers, and electricians

i. Most of them were guys

c. Plant where Japanese automakers' management methods were applied

i. Andon board: employees were allowed to pull a cord to stop the line when they spotted a quality problem or when a machine broke down

d. Fiero plant

i. One of the highest quality rankings of any GM plant

ii. Car chosen as one of the 10 best cars of the year

3. MBA Stanford University's Graduate School of Business (1988)

a. However, because of the car's design, which made it easier for the engine to catch fire, the production of Fiero was ceased.

b. Barra wasn't in danger of losing her job though because she was a manager with a GMI pedigree

c. However, she wanted to do something more than cleaning up plants and repairing the assembly line breakdowns.

d. So she decided to apply for a General Motors Fellowship to get an MBA, and she got into Stanford University's Graduate School of business.

4. Returned to become a manager of manufacturing planning

5. Became executive assistant to CEO Jack Smith and vice chairman Harry Pearce (1996)

6. Became executive assistant to CEO Jack Smith and vice chairman Harry Pearce (1996)

7. Appointed as head of human resources (2009)

8. Became senior vice president of global product development (2011)

9. Became the head of global purchasing (2013)

10. Became the Chief Executive Officer (2014)

a. Chevy Cobalt Recall

i. Ignition defect: could shut off the engine while driving

ii. Caused more than 45 deaths

iii. 30 million cars were recalled

iv. Barra commissioned a former attorney Anton Valukas to investigate the problem

v. Fired 15 employees including Vice President and directors

vi. Announced compensation plans for the victims and hired Kenneth Feinberg to negotiate

C. Support for Women

III. Nooyi

A. Family Background

1. Tamil Brahmin

2. Traditional Indian family

a. Marriage an important part of woman's life

i. Indra considered an “unmarriageable commodity”

B. Career Path: many professional switches

1. Graduation from IIMC

2. Tootal

a. “a British textile company founded in Manchester in 1799, with extensive holdings in India” (Annapoorna, 50)

3. Brand manager at Bombay offices of Johnson & Johnson

a. Personal care products maker

b. Given the Stayfree account “major challenge for even an experienced marketing executive”

c. Check indra nooyi's interview with the ‘Financial Times'!!!

4. Mettur Beardsell Ltd.

a. Textile firm

b. Moved to when she was 23

5. Master's in Public and Private Management programme at Yale

a. “she knew she needed to grow both professionally and personally”

b. “she knew it had to be done outside the protected environment of her hometown”

c. Saw a magazine ad for the Yale School of Management and applied

d. Admitted in 1978

6. Boston Consulting Group (BCG)

a. Business consulting firm with offices in over thirty countries and its headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts

b. Joined BCG in 1980

c. “She knew it would be hard work, harder than for others, for two reasons—one, she was a woman, and two, she wasn't an American but an ‘outsider'”

d. Spent six years directing international corporate strategy projects at BCG

e. Clients ranging from textile and consumer goods companies to retailers and specialty chemical producers

7. Motorola

a. Telecommunications company

b. joined Motorola as Senior Vice President and Director of Corporate Strategy and Planning in 1986

c. automotive and industrial electronic group

8. ASEA Brown Boveri (ABB)

a. $6 billion Swiss-Swedish automation and power company

b. Joined as Vice President of Corporate Strategy and Planning in 1990

c. Part of the top management team responsible for the company's US business as well as its worldwide industrial business

9. Pepsico

a. Jack Welch, the Chairman and CEO of General Electric, and Wayne Calloway, the CEO of PepsiCo, offered her a job in 1994

b. Joined PepsiCo as Senior Vice President of Strategic Planning at the age of 39 (1994-1996)

c. Became the Senior Vice President of Corporate Strategy and Development (1996-2000)

d. Spun off restaurant business/fast food chain (i.e. KFC, Taco Bell, Pizza Hut) in 1997

e. Purchased Tropicana orange juice brand in 1998 (acquisition)

i. Needed a brand that is relevant from 5 am to 10am

ii. PepsiCo's beverage sector became relevant only after 10 am

f. Purchased Quaker Oats in 2001 (merger)

i. Needed a brand that fits “Good for you”

ii. Frito Lay does not fit that category

iii. Pepsi was not doing well in isotonic business

iv. Gatorade had 80% share of the isotonic business

g. Promoted to Chief Financial Officer in February 2000

h. Named President of the company by CEO Roger Enrico in 2001

i. Steven S. Reinemund said he “would only take the job if Indra came on board as his second in command” when he was being promoted to chairman/board chair and CEO (he acceded in May 2001)

i. Took over as President and CEO in May 2001

i. Doritos for women

j. Stepped down from CEO in October, 2018

C. Support for Women

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